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dreaded (vers. 1, 2). Now the first that comes, in punishment, still that catastrophe is in itself not whose way they stand, treads them under foot. ihe extreme. For the question arises: how long Others of them fall in war, and the slain fall on will the exile last? To Judah restoration is prothem and cover them with their bodies. Though mised after 70 years (Jer. xxv. 11). In the case in some sense the exile is the greatest theocratic of Israel there is no certain mention of the sort.
C.-ASSYRIA'S DESTRUCTION THE SALVATION OF ISRAEL.
CHAP. X. 5—XII. 1. This address is related to the two that precede | 28 that Isaiah recognized in Hezekiah in a ceras bright day to dark night. After Israel is com- tain sense “the root” () or “ branch” (73)pelled to hear that the same Assyria to which Judah's king had appealed for help shall be the in- through which the kingdom of David was to strument of his severe chastisement, now
Assyria spring up with new life. The passage xiv. 28-32 must hear that the Lord will destroy His instru: The young king Hezekiah is described there as
was written in the year of Ahaz's death (728). ment, because it fulfilled its mission, not in the mind of God, but in the sense of its own bru- “the basilisk” (V9%) that shall proceed from “the tal lusts, and with proud boasting about its own root of the serpent” (una wym). It is known might. Ont of the toils of the world-power, that Messianic hopes were connected with Hezewhose totality Assyria represents here, shall re- kiah (comp. DELITZSCH on vii. 14 sq. and ix. 6); deemed Israel return home. Out of the almost how far Isaiah shared them we know not. At all dried up root of the race of David shall a sprout events chap. xi. was written after the death of grow up that shall set up a kingdom which shall Ahaz, and just as the hopeful Hezekiah ascended pervade and rule all nations with the spirit of the throne (728 B. C.). "Chap. xii. is a doxology peace.
that certainly belongs to that period in which the As regards the time of the composition of this whole prophetic cycle, chaps. vii. xii. were put prophecy, it must be noticed, first of all, that x. together. 5-34 did not originate at the same time with
In accordance with this combination, the dischapters xi. and xii. Con rning x. 5-34, every course plainly subdivides into three principal thing depends on whether the passage x. 9–11 is parts, and each principal part again into three understood in the sense of an ideal or an actual subdivisions, so that three forms the underlying
VITRINGA, CASPARI, DRECHSLER, number. In the first part is Assyria, in the seDelitzsch take the view that the destruction of cond Israel, in the third the Messiah, the chief Samaria, that took place in the sixth year of He subject. The chief traits of the discourse may be zekiah, appears as a past event in our passage represented in the following scheme:only in the contemplation of the Prophet. I can. not join in this view. The reasoning of the Pro· phet must have been without meaning and effect ASSYRIA'S DESTRUCTION THE SALVATION to his hearers if the conquest of the cities Carche
ISRAEL (chap. x. 5-xii. 6). mish, Calno, Arpad, Hamath, Damascus and Sa- I. Woe against Assyria (x. 5–19). maria were not at that time an accomplished fact 1. Woe to the instrument that does not exeand well known to all contemporaries. In addi
cute the will of God according to the mind tion, the messengers of Sennacherib, according to of God (x. 5–11). xxxvi. 18 sq.; xxxvii. 11 sq., really boasted thus. 2. Woe to the instrument that knew not that Nowhere in chap. x. is Ephraim spoken of as one it was an instrument (x. 12-15). that is to be conquered. Only the conquest of Je
3. The execution of the woe (x. 16–19). rusalem is lacking in order to let the destroying work of Jehovah on the people of His choice ap- II. Israel's redemption in general (x. 20-34). pear complete (x. 12). Of course one may say 1. The believing remnant of Israel returns out that our passage then belongs in the neighborhood of the shattered world-power (x. 20-23). of chapters xxxvi. and xxxvii. But those chap 2. The condemned world-power is also not to ters, as they stand, are a historical report com be feared in the present (x. 24-27). plete in themselves; whereas an essential piece, 3. The impetuous onset of the condemned forming a consolatory conclusion, is lacking to world-power in the light of its final ruin the cycle of prophecies affecting Assyria, which
(x. 28–34). begins chap. vii., if x. 5 sq. does not belong to it. As long as we have no proof that the passage x. III. Israel's redemption in relation to the Mes9-11 is not to be understood of things historically siah (xi, 1-xii. 6). past, I can only assume that the Prophet com 1. From the apparently dried-up root of the bined the later address with the earlier, in order house of David shall go forth a sprout that to give to that earlier the suitable conclusion. shall found a kingdom of most glorious Concerning chap. xi. we have a datum for deter
peace (xi. 1-9). mining the period of its composition in the short 2. The return of Israel takes place only when prophecy against Philistia, xiv. 28-32. This the Messiah has appeared and the heathen short passage lives in the sphere of ideas of chap. have gathered to Him (xi. 10-16). xi. In fact, without chap. xi. it is not at all in 3. Israel's song of praise for the wrath and the telligible. On the contrary, we learn from xiv.
grace of his God (xii. 1-6).
I. WOE AGAINST ASSYRIA.
CHAPTER X. 5-19.
1. WOE TO THE INSTRUMENT THAT DOES NOT EXECUTE THE WILL OF GOD ACCORDING TO THE MIND OF GOD.
CHAPTER X. 5-11. 5 'O’Assyrian, the rod of mine anger,
sa And the staff in their hand is mine indignation. 6 I will send him against an 'hypocritical nation,
And against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge,
And 'to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7 Howbeit he meaneth not so,
Neither doth his heart think so;
And cut off nations not a few. 8 For he saith,
Are not my princes altogether kings? 9 Is not Calno as Carchemish ?
Is not Hamath as Arpad ?
Is not Samaria as Damascus ? 10 As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols,
And whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria ; 11 Shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols,
So do to Jerusalem and her idols ? 1 Or, Woe to the Assyrian.
% Heb. Asshur. 3 Or, though.
4 Heb. to lay them a treading. * And in whose hand my fury is a staf.
b unclean. • To plunder plunder, and to prey prey.
& And yet their graven images excelled them, etc. • carved images.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 5. As remarked at ver. 1, this in occasioned Comp. e.g. W9:17 417 070 Deut. xii. 23. — Oys besido the existing arrangement of the chapter. What we here, is found ver. 25; xiii. 5; xxvi. 20; xxx. 27. have said concerning the origin of ix. 7-X. 4, and x. 5xii., shows that this coincidence of the '107 is acci On ver. 6. 700 comp. on ix. 16.—773 like Jer. xiv. dental. The expression 10x vad is clear. It is found 14; xxiii. 32, with 5x xxvii. 4. only here. Analogous is ingy od Prov. xxii. 8; On ver. 7. Piel np 7 is found also xiv. 24; al. 18, 25 ; Lam. iii. 1; comp. Prov. xxii. 15; Job ix. 34 ; xxi. 9. xlvi. 25; but is used in the last three texts in the sense The second clause is difficult. The translation: “The
of " to make like, compare," in which sense Hithp. (" to staff which in their hand, is the staff of my anger” (GE
make one's-self like") is used xiv. 14. ESITS) is grammatically incorrect. For then 908 must not be wanting before X17. Quite as grammatically
On ver. 10. 839 with " like ver. 14 ; Ps. xxi. 9; comp. impossible is that of HENDEWERK and Knobel, who
1 Sam. xxiii. 17. are “carved images ;" comp. point non and connect it, across 073 2177 as a pa- xxi. 9; xxx. 22; xii. 8. Before dibuit is to be suprenthesis, with 'DYT: “ and the staff of my arger, it is plied Sogn comp. V. 29 ; xiii. 4. in their hand." To treat DT. X177 as a gloss, like HIT On ver. 11. The D' 31' (in Isaiah again only xlvi. 1) zia, Ewald, I. Edit. and Diestel do, is violence. Only are not essentially different from Diyos. For as the that rendering is grammatically possible that takes
underlying meaning of bog is caedere, caedendo fingere poyi as subject, and what precedes as predicate. Then (Exod. xxxiv. 1, 4; Deut. X. 1, 2; 1 Kings v. 32), so, too, 1977 only serves to mark nor as predicate. For, were
, (, ) , it not there, it would not be known which of the two secare, “ to cut out, to shape by hewing ” (Job x. 8; Jer. words on and Dyr is subject, and which predicate. xliv. 19).
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The LORD denounces woe against Assyria the spirit in which he was commissioned, but in that is to be the instrument of His judgments the spirit of his brutal and insatiable greed of (ver, 5). For He sent him against Israel (ver. conquest (ver. 7). This his sentiment appears 6), but Assyria did not execute the mission in in the grounds hé assigns for his confidence that
he will make conquest of Jerusalem : 1) his , German miles north of Haleb on the spot where princes are all of them kings, which gives a mea- is found at present the ruins of Tel Erfad. In sure of the extent of his might; 2) a row of con- every passage where Arpad is mentioned, Hamath quests of great cities proves his invincibility: is found too. But, beside thai, Hamath is often Having conquered kingdoms whose idols excel mentioned in the Old Testament. According to those of Samaria and Jerusalem, he will be able Num. xxxiv. 8 the northern border of the land to to treat Jerusalem as Samaria (8-11).
be possessed by the Israelites, was to extend to 2. Woe unto Assyria not a few.
Hamath, which, according to 2 Kings xiv. 25, Vers. 5-7. The pivot on which the whole of 28; comp. 2 Chr. viii. 4, was actually the case at the following announcement turns, is that the times. Conip., beside Arnos, vi. 2, 14. The city LORD denounces woe against the instrument of lay on the Orontes and was called later EpiHis wrath. In ver. 5 (see Text. and Gram.), the phania. Arpad and Hamath were thus Syrian Prophet expresses the thought that not only is cities lying nearer the Holy Land. Assyria the rod of God's anger, but that the anger of God is also the staff , as it were, the After naming
three pairs of names of conquered
Damascus and Samaria lay still nearer Judah. magician's staff (comp. vers. 24, 26, where allusion is evidently to the rod of Moses) in the hand of cities as proof of the irresistibleness of Assyria, Assyria. This turn of the image need give no
the Prophet could simply proceed; so will Jeru
But three surprise in our artistic Prophet. How far Assy- salem, too, be unable to resist. ria is used as a rod is explained, ver. 6. He is thoughts
suggest themselves, which he would exto be commissioned against the impure people, press before that conclusion. First, that the idols that on account of this impurity are objects of of the conquered heathen cities surpassed the divine wrath, as it were on an official mission, to supposed) idols of Jerusalem and Samaria. rob and trample down Israel, that they may be. Second, the point that Samaria is already concome as the mire of the streets (vii. 25), comp: Jerusalem, may just as well be set in a pair as
quered; and third, the thought that Samaria and Jer, li. 20 sqq. Assyria will indeed trample Carchemish and Calno, Arpad and Hamath, down Israel, and as many other nations as possible, but not in order to execute the purpose of Damascus and Samaria. Now the Prophet might, Jehovah on them, but only to gratify his own heathen kingdoms, whose idols surpass those of
of course, have said: as I have conquered the lust for world-conquest. 3. For he said --her idols.-Vers. 8-11. Samaria itself, shall I not be able just so to sub
Samaria and Jerusalem, and as I have subdued Assyria confides only in his own strength. He due Jerusalem? But then Samaria would belong has no suspicion that he is Jehovah's instrument, to the premise, and Jerusalem would alone form the rod of His anger. Hence he enumerates the the apodosis, and there would be lacking confacts that justify his hope of easily subduing formity to the pairs before named. Hence he Israel. First, his princes are kings (comp: 2 Kings combines Samaria and Jerusalem together in the xxv. 28). When such have only second rank in the army of the great king of Assyria (xxxvi. apodosis, beginning with shop “shall I not,” ver. 4) how wide must be his dominion. His second 11, but forms again within this apodosis, another ground of confidence is past great successes. Three pairs of conquered cities are named. The protasis and apodosis, whereby, of course, the conquest of one is premised as an event that made construction becomes abnormal; but still the sure that the next one named must in turn suc
thought is expressed that Samaria and Jerusalem cumb. “ Is not Calno like Carchemish pus Car- should join as a fourth comparison, to the fore chemish was a city on an island in the Euphrates going three. It is to be noticed that our passage at the mouth of the Chaboras, called by the rians (722 B. c.). According to 2 Kings xvi. 9,
assumes the conquest of Samaria, by the AssyRomans Circesium, Circessum, Circusium, Jer. xlvi. 2-12; 2 Chr. xxxv. 20, and appears from Tiglath-Pileser subdued Damascus. Samaria feli the text to have been subdued earlier than Calno. by Shalnaneser, according to 2 Kings xvii. 5
sq., but according to the Assyrian monuments by The latter is called Tuna Gen. x. 10; and 329 Sargon, in the third year of the siege. It was Amos. vi. 2: perhaps the 1732 of Ezek. xxvii. long after, that Rabshakeh actually used the lan23 is the same city. It lay North-east twenty 10 sqq.), that Isaiah here prophetically puts into
guage against Judah (xxxvi. 18 sqq.; xxxvii. hours from Babylon on the East bank of the Tigris the mouth of the Assyrian. Perhaps Isaiah had opposite Seleucia, and belonged to Babylon. here in mind, what Amos (vi. 1 sqq.), at an Rebuilt at a later day by the Persian king Pa- earlier period held up to the people, though it corus (90 B. C.), it received the name Ctesiphon. must remain in doubt, whether Isaiah means the Thus Carchemish and Calno were two cities of Mesopotamia. Did Calno become as Carchemish, same conquest of Hamath and Arpad, that Amos it appears that the conquest of the latter was not the conquest of the cities Carchemish, Calno,
refers to. Moreover, nothing more is known of merely a happy chance, but the proof of the ex
But istence of a real power, which in every like case
Hamath and Arpad, by the Assyrians. will conquer in like manner. Arpad is men
comp.on xxxvi, 19. That the Assyrian speaks of tioned xxxvi
. 19; xxxvii. 13; Jer. xlix. 23 ; 25687 nidhor (958 as collective in the singuKings xviii. 34 ; xix. 13. The classics do not lar) " the kingdoms of the idols" is a Judaism. mention the city. According to the Arabian geo- The Prophet presents the Assyrian as making a grapher MarASSID, (comp. KNOBEL in loc.), an distinction between idolatrous kingdoms and ARPHAD lay in the Pashalik Haleb (Aleppo) Israel, the monotheistic: whereas, the Assyrian North-west from the latter place. According to knows nothing of monotheism, and afterwards KIEPERT (D. M. G. XXV. p. 655) Arpad lay 3 speaks of the idols and images of Samaria and Je
rusalem. Moreover the Prophet describes them | restrial powers; only he maintained a distinction as “nothings” (comp. ii. 8, 18, 20; xix. 3; xxxi. among them in respect to power. Thus we see 7) whereas the Assyrian by no means regarded how Isaiah suffered here some mixing of his them so; for he held them all to be superter- point of view with that of the Assyrian.
2. WOE TO THE INSTRUMENT THAT KNEW NOT THAT IT WAS AN INSTRU
MENT. CHAPTER X. 12–15. 12 WHEREFORE it shall come to pass,
That when the LORD hath performed his whole work
And the glory of his high looks. 13 For he saith,
By the strength of my hand I have done it,
And I have put down the inhabitants ʼlike a valiant man: 14 And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people:
And as one gathereth eggs that are left,
And there is none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped. 15 Shall the ax boast itself against him that heweth therewith ?
Or shall the saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it?
4 Or, that which is not wood. • Have felled those enthroned as a bull.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 12. yy is scindere, abscindere ; hence “top is 7983, K'ri must be pronounced 939. 938 is make an end, complete." It is found once more in Isa. secondary form of 70% “the strong one (i. 24; xlix. Xxxviii. 12, and in the sense abscindere. There is ground | 26; 1x. 16); 733 also means validus, potens, xvi. 14; for rendering yy' as fut, exactum: for 7p9x, etc. will xvii. 12; xxviii. 2. There exists here no reason for detake place only when Assyria shall have executed his parting from K'thibh. To construe2x) as adjunct of
There is no doubt but that the Hebrew imperfect the subject is flat, and I then seems strange. To tako can have the meaning of the fut. exact.; comp. e. g. Gen. | it as adverbial definition of DDV! (bull-like sitting on xiv. 10, 23; 1 Kings viii. 35. But it makes a difference thrones, stiergleich Thronende, DELITZSCH) gives an extrawhether the fut. exact. is expressed by the perfect or ordinary and displeasing figure. If, with Drechsler, imperfect. In the latter case the original imperfect we render D'Our simply “inhabitants,” then 7718 meaning will still cling to it. The transaction spoken seems strangely used. It seems to me best, therefore, of will not be represented as real and accomplished, but to take 738) as adjunct to the object : “I cast down only as possibly and ideally present. So, too, here. the enthroned as the strong one” (i. e., the bull, comp. There lies therefore in the imperfect a certain element xxxiv. 7; Ps. xxii. 13; 1. 13). Because they are to be of comfort, as well becomes this comforting passage. cast down they must be sitting high. But they shall D), comp. ii. 11, 17.
be cast down like the bull, i. e., like one lays low a bull On ver. 13. The imperfects YOX), 79xy belong to by a blow on the forehead. [J. A. Alexander retains the those isolated cases where the simple Vav.copul. is used K'thibh, and connects 7383 with the subject meaning
"mighty man" - "like a mighty man or hero that I with the verbal ending unabbreviated (according to cir-am," and adds: “there is no necessity for departing comstances) as a weakening (of course not normally) of
from the less poetical but more familiar sense, inhabithe Pav. consce. with the abbreviated verbal ending. tants, and bringing down, i. e., subduing "'). These cases occur especially in poetry, in the 1st pers. On ver. 14. Xon comp. ver. 10. -1.3
tor sing., and in periods comprising several clauses. Comp. familiar usage. 98939 see viii. 19. xliii. 28; xliv. 19; xlviii. 3; li. 2; lvii. 17; Ixiii. 3-6; Ps.
On ver. 15. boann Hithp. only here in Isa.Iwn eiv. 32; EWALD, 233 a. - K'thibh tiny paratum, opes paratae, only here; K'ri Tiny Deut. xxxii. 36; Job iii.
is är. dey. The plural in 1'in is explained
by the collective construction of DIO.a ;
xi. 15; xiii. 2; xix. 16; xxx. 23, and x. 32. — as regards meaning - ndio xvii. 14; xlii. 22.-7x
(comp. xxxi. 8; Deut. xxxii. 21) is a bold antiphraso,
;לה) is the sole example of Poel of a verb שׁוֹשׂתי-8
.comp הֵנִיףלא עין
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Wherefore it shall--high looks.- | than the children of light (Luke xvi. 8). The Ver. 12. In the foregoing strophe the Prophet's borders of the nations he abolished by incorporatview-point was before the execution of judgment ing all in his kingdom; he robbed their treaon Jerusalem. In this he takes his view-point sures. Ver. 14 portrays the facility with which
As before Assyria boasted what he Assyria does his work. The unskilful and inexwould do, here he boasts what he has done. For perienced find a bird's nest at best by chance. what he boastfully promised to do (vers. 8–11) The knowing and experienced, however, find he actually accomplished. But when he has them as easily as surely. But the Assyrian comdone, then comes his hour. For then will the pares his conquests not to the easy work of seekLord bring about that fall that is wont to attend ing nests, but to the much easier one of gathering a haughty spirit. It is to be noted that what As- eggs from forsaken nests. He has so gathered syria is to execute on Zion is called the work of everything that came under his hand as he went Jehovah. But as only that work of which Assy through the land (Hab. ii. 5). In a pest not forria is the instrument is meant, “all his work”. saken, the little owner makes a defence; he cannot be intended in an absolute sense, as com- strikes with his wings, he opens his beak and prehending the work of salvation.-" The fruit of hisses at his assailant. But his enemies had not haughtiness of heart” is not so much the boasting dared even to make a bird's defence. and blasphemy, but the works that haughtiness 3. Shall the axe-no wood.-Ver. 15. has done. Comp. Dan. iv. 27 (30), “ Is not this To this senseless boasting the Lord replies in great Babylon that I have built for the house of words that set the matter in a just light. The the kingdom ?" etc. The destruction of city and answer presents two pairs of parallels that reprekingdom is the destruction of the fruit of the sent a gradation. Without men axe and saw can haughtiness of the ruler.
do nothing. Yet they are indispensable to men, The massing of the nouns admirably paints the and that may give their self-praise some apparent spouting, puffed-up nature of haughtiness (comp: justification. But that rod or staff should lift xxviii. 1; xxi. 17). “ The loftiness of the eyes," those that have hold of them presents the extreme i. e., self-complacency, reflected in the eyes, lends a of absurd presumption. Yet this is the extent of certain refulgence (XD) to the manner of a man. Assyria’s blind presumption, that he not only But even this illusive gleam will the Lord strip off. conceives that he executed judgment on the na
2. For he saith -peeped.-Vers. 13, 14. tions without the Lord, but that divinity was The Prophet cannot reproduce to his hearers and constrained to serve him. There lies thus in the readers the actual fruits and that proud gleam of second pair of comparisons a climax, and ? before haug!tiness. But he can let that hanghtiness 777 does not compare this second pair with the express itself in words by which it may be estimated. These words state that Assyria now main: first, but with the higher degree of stupid blindtains that, as he purposed, so he had also actually thing, neither wood nor not-wood. Of not-wood
ness intimated in ver. 14. The staff can lift noaccomplished all by his own might. He boasts his strength and his prudence
. The power of it cannot even lift what is not man, e. g. a stone. this world is wise. According to Dan. vii. 8, 20; If Isaiah, as the context shows, by not-wood viii. 25 the horn of the fourth beast has eyes like
means men, it is on the supposition that the readthe eyes of a man, the symbol of prudence (Comp.
er of himself will recognize the true contrast AUBERLEN, Der Prophet Daniel, 2 Aufl. p. 50): (not-wood but much greater) and the (even pho The children of this world are wiser in their way netic) allusion to X-x5.
3. THE EXECUTION OF THE WOE.
CHAPTER X. 16-19.
Among his fat ones leanness;
Like the burning of a fire.
And his Holy One for a flame :
And his briers in one day ;
Both soul and body:
And they shall be as when a standard-bearer fainteth. 19 And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few,
write them. 1 Heb. from the soul, and even to the flesh.
? Heb. number. • a weakly person pincs away.