« PoprzedniaDalej »
Ezek. xl. 42; lapides caesurae, i. e., caesi, only here in Isa. the Israelites purpose in ver. 9.—It is incomprehen—That 727 means not simply exstruere
, construere, sible how Ewald can prefer 'ally, the reading of some "build up,"
," "construct," but also simply struere “to pile," " pile up," appears from passages like 1 Kingswing as genitive of the subject, seeing that the same
MSS. to my of the text; or how Cheyne can construe xviii. 32; Exod. xx. 25. :. x.
power that slew Rezin and conquered his land, not 33; xiv. 12; xxii. 25; xlv. 2 (from these examples it
twenty years later actually made an end to the kingdom pears that it is wont to be joined with 503); but the context shows that not cutting down trees is meant, as
of Ephraim.70 is found only here and xix. 2. DEECHSLER supposes, but breaking down wooden build
The verb :72, with all its derivatives (77pp, nudd, 720p ings. gsn (see on viii. 8) is “ to exchange.” Hiph. is 70) has the sense of “covering.” Now there is a wora - let come in as exchange, reparation;" comp. xl. 31 ; 10, spina (Num. xxxiii. 65) and 700 telum acutum (Job
xl. 31). As regards the exchange of d for in compare On ver. 10. *) and also 1938", ver. 11, aro praeter. 129 Exod. xxxiii. 22. Seeing the meaning “ to cover propheticum. The 1 involves at the same time adver
in the sense usual with the Hebrews, i. e., " to protect," bial meaning. DRECHSLER remarks that di Pi. has
does not at all suit here (comp. ver. 11), and “to cover," always the meaning “to make high, unattainable, place
= "to cover with arms, to arm," cannot be supported, higher, defendere, munire." But then it is construed with
I prefer, with Targ., SYR., Saad., GESENIUS (Thes.), DE1p (Ps. lix. 2; cvii. 41). That Yoby stands here proves LITzsch, (J. A. ALEXANDEN), to take pad in the sense of that the word is taken in an offensive sense, which it " to set on,” stimulare, concitare. may very well have. Moreover it is to be noticed that
On ver. 11. The formula 200 nxi-ha beside here 220 stands in contrast with the high structures which
and vers. 16, 20 ; 2, 4, is found only ver. 25.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The Lord sent cedars.—Vers. 8- first in Hos. xii. 13 (of the Patriarch): then in 10 (7-9). It seems to me that the words, "A Micah, and relatively the oftenest in him : Mic. word has the LORD sent," etc., " is fallen,” etc., i. 5; ii. 12; iii. 1, 8, 9. In Nahum ii. 3. In must be judged of according to passages like Job Jeremiah ii. 4; xxx. 10; xxxi. 7; xlvi. 27. iv. 12; xxxv. 4; Ps. lxii. 12. As in those, a Ezek. xxxix. 25. From this it appears that the single little word, tossed to them, as it were, from form of expression is pre-eminently characteristic the mouth of the Lord as from a judging and de- of Isaiah. If it is asked: what kind of word the stroying power, is opposed to human pride and LORD sent? I would refer for answer neither to haughtiness, so the Prophet here opposes a single, v. 25 nor to vii. 14 sqq. For both are remote. brief word of the LORD to the Ephraimites Those are right that take ver. 8, or say ver. which, as it were, falls by the way, but which 10 sq., as the word referred to in ver. 7. Nothing suffices to humble that foolish pride. “The is more natural; any word more remote must be word” (727) therefore, stands first with em more exactly designated. The word “they shall phasis, as if the Prophet would say: only a word, know it,” ver. 8, favors this. For what should nothing more has the LORD sent. And this word word of which ver. 7 speaks. At the same time
Certainly, the very has, as it were, fallen in Israel by accident. I the context makes it clear, that they should learn prefer to compare Ruth iii. 18, for the meaning how ill the plan of Jehovah (according to ver. of hoz" to fall,” rather than Dan. iv. 28, be- 10) will suit their proud plans. Therefore, the cause there, too, is the underlying idea of (at word,” ver. 7, is identical with the object of least seeming) accident. This mode of
“they shall know,” ver. 8, and we are justified
expression, by which the Prophet represents the follow- in translating “and shall know it.” ing language as something accidental and by the
“Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria " way, has its reason, likely, in this, that Isaiah is are contrasted here just as "the men of Judah a Prophet primarily for Judah, and not for and the inhabitants of Jerusalem,” v. 3, comp. Israel." He therefore steps beyond the sphere of i, 1; ii. 1. The Ephraimites and Samaritans, then, his own proper activity with these words, which shall come to a certain knowledge, as persons that fall like a morsel from the table prepared for the are in a state of pride and height of courage, for children.
which just that knowledge commends itself as
the best remedy. Wherein the pride consists is Jacob stands only poetically for Israel. It can said ver. 9. mean the whole nation, and the people of the The haughty language consists of two simple, Ten Tribes just as well as the name Israel (comp. easily understood contrasts. Wood and stone ii. 3, 5, 6; viii. 17). Only the context decides are the chief materials for building. Bricks are in what sense the name is to be taken where it poorer than hewn stones, and sycamores than ceoccurs. In the introduction to this section, we dars. “Sycamore trees are common in Palestine," have showed that both Jacob and Israel mean as THEODORET in loc, says. Flourishing in low the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. This antithesis places, (signum camporum sunt sycamori,)says the of Jacob and Israel in parallelism occurs here JERUS. GEMARA, comp. 1 Chron. xxvii. 28); they for the first time. It is found again as designa- are prized as wood for building, but not compared tion of the entire Israel, x. 20; xiv. 1; xxvii. with the cedar. (Comp. under Text. and Gram.) 6; xxix. 23; xl. 27; xli. 8, 14; xlii. 24 ; xliii. The sense of the figurative language is plain. They 1, 22, 28; xliv. 1, (2), 5, 21, 23; xlv. 4; xlvi. 3; acknowledge that Ephraim has suffered, but they xlviii. 1, 12; xlix. 5, 6. This antithesis is found I hope abundantly to repair all these damages.
2. Therefore the Lord--stretched out if this were so, ver. 12 (11) would need to be still.–Vers. 11, 12 (10, 11). Jehovah's doing more distinctly disconnected from ver. 11 (10). ver. 10 sq. brings to nought the proud hopes hind" must be taken as dependent on 7000'
For, as they stand, the words “the Syrians-beof ver. 9, and is announced here as the con
“will set on," and the nations named here ag tents of the word " of ver. 7. They would rise specifications of the enemies" ver. 11 (10). high, but the Lord raises above even their high But then those attacked by Syria and the Philishouse, the oppressors of Rezin. These oppres- tines are identical with Ephraim to whom “him” sors are the Assyrians. They had proved themselves such even at that time. They are called and “his” (the suffixes in "I'x and why (ver. oppressors of Rezin, because Israel's strength at 10) refer. But ver. 12 a (11) is not to be taken that time, lay in the alliance with Rezin. The in a literal sense. Syria and the Philistines resame power that killed Rezin, and conquered his present East and West. Isa. ii. 6; xi. 14 puts kingdom, actually made an end of Ephraim not the Philistines as representatives of the West as
Moreover we must twenty years later. Syria itself, compelled by opposed to (0.???) the East. Assyria, is represented as marching against not take “ eating with a full mouth as meaning Ephraim. Because of the words, "the Philis- a complete destruction. On the contrary, we see tines behind,” DELITZSCH supposes that the Pro- from ver. 12 b (11), that recurs afterwards three phet, from ver. 11 on, extends his view and has times, that the Prophet would say: ye hold the in mind all Israel, since the northern kingdom damage that ye hope easily to repair, to be the never had to suffer from the Philistines, whereas end of your calamity. But I say to you: you (acc. to 2 Chr. xxviii. 16-19) an invasion by the are destined to have your oppressors come on you Philistines in Judah is expressly mentioned as from every side in superior power, and yet even · belonging to the judgments of Ahaz's time. But this will be but the beginning of the end.
2. THE DECEIVERS THE BANE OF THE DECEIVED.
CHAP. IX. 13–17 (12-16). 13 (12) For the people turneth not unto him that smiteth them,
Neither do they seek the LORD of hosts. 14 (13) Therefore the LORD will cut off from Israel head and tail,
Branch and rush, in one day. 15 (14) The ancient and honourable, he is the head;
And the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail. 16 (15) For the leaders of this people cause them to err:
And they that are 'led of them are destroyed.
Neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows:
Or, called blessed of them. 8 Heb. swallowed up.
4 Or, villainy. · Palm top.
b unclean and abominable. TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 12. By ! before by the thought of this verse is to be explained by the pronominal force of the article is paratactically co-ordinated with the foregoing, where according to which it refers back to ver. 11 6. as it ought properly to be subordinated in the form of On ver. 13. 12') and 1'07'), ver. 15, must be taken as assigning a reason. For had the people been converted praet. propheticum, with which accord the fut. imperf. by the chastisement, then had the wrath of Jehovah been turned away. Wo have here therefore one of those now and Ont' ver. 16.—793 found only here, xil frequent instances where the } demands definition, 16 and Job xv. 32.—21908 found again only xix. 15; which however the reader must supply.-30-8e's sounds lviii.5, what grows in Dux, “the swamp.”—D'ID NJUI like an echo of the same words in the foregoing verse. comp. on iii 3.—7ping in Isaiah again only xxx. 20. -7y, especially after 340, not seldom stands for 58:
On ver. 15. 'TURS comp. on ill. 12. Notice the paroDeut. iv. 30; xxx, 2; Joel ii. 12; Amos iv. 6-11; Isa, xix. nomasia of the last two words. 22, etc. It appears that all these prophetic passages just On ver. 16. 71ņ properly, “ unclean, spotted," pollu. cited rest on the original passage in Deuteronomy also tus, immundus : x. 6; xxiv.5; xxxiii. 14.-pausal cited. The expression 1077 recalls Deut. iv. 29.-The
form of yo, unless it is εκ του πονηρού as_KNOBχι article before inan is against the rule. The exception
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. For the people —he is the tail.-Vers. / semblance to a hand (72, Latin palma) means of 12 (13)-14 (15). The four expressions, head and course the elevated ones, the rush the lowly. tail, palm-branch and rush, are to be found in Thus three of the figures represent the leaders, the same order xix. 15. Many expositors (since and only one, those that are led, the humble ones. KOPPE's Anmm. zum Lowthschen Iesaias, 1799, “One day” (comp. x. 17 ; xlvii. 9) expresses 899. the most of them) have misunderstood the that the destruction comes with such might as to tigures. They have taken head and tail, as well take off its victim with one blow. as palm-branch and rush, as a figurative express 2. For the leaders- destroyed.–Ver. ion for "honorable and insignificant,” and, be- 16 (15). As Isaiah intimates here the final descause ver. 14 does not suit this construction, they tiny of leaders and led, the verse corresponds to have declared it to be not genuine. But just that “will cut off,” ver. 14 (13) being, as it were, the ver. 14 ought to have convinced the expositors specification of the notion. The leaders are misthat head and tail did not mean superior and in- leaders of the people, and are themselves given ferior, but two sorts of leaders, the genuine and over to error and its peril; but those led astray the bad, i. e. those who as the elders and as men are swallowed up (iii. 12), a figure that recalls the of high standing had a natural right to be leaders, position of the rush in the water. For, if it is and those that by lying prophecies presumed to long submerged, it perishes. leadership. KNOBEL says: “making the tail to 3. Therefore - stretched out still.mean a prophet that teaches lies is false, because Ver. 17 (16). It might be objected to the Prothe false prophets, too, were leaders of the peo- phet that among the led were many that were irple, and therefore belonged to the head.” But responsible; thus without their fault they were that is what the prophet means. Only the irony led astray. Does the Lord make no exception has not been understood, with which Isaiah de- in their favor ? The Prophet denies this, saying clares the false prophets to be such as have their that inasmuch as all those led astray are swallowed place where the tail is. Thus he mocks them. up, it is to be understood that none are spared, He intimates thereby that the lying prophets are not even the young men, children and widows. only seeming heads, but in fact representatives of But are not the children required to follow their the region of the tail, and that if men take them elders? Are they not innocent then if led into for heads and follow in the direction of their error's ways by them? Ought they not, spite of would be heads, then Israel will go directly back- this, to remain the ornament, the bloom of the ward instead of forward. Such is essentially the nation, and consequently the delight of the Lord ? exposition of DRECHSLER and UMBREIT. ["The But it shall not be thus. The wish expressed Ps. false Prophets are called the tail, because they cxliv. 12 shall not be fulfilled. If the Lord, were morally the basest of the people, and be therefore, takes no more pleasure in the young, cause they were the servile adherents and sup- He leaves them indifferently to their fate. What porters of wicked rulers. With respect both it is may be imagined. Widows and orphans, to the head which they followed and the body of without the guidance of husband and father seem, which they were the vilest part, they might just-too, to be innocent and thus deserving of compasly be called the tail. The Prophet does not sion. But no. They are all contaminated and make a like explanation of the palm-leaf and the thoroughly penetrated with evil. They are corrush, because they are not equally suited to ex- rupt, atrociously bad, and what they say is insane press his contempt for the false Prophets."-J. wickedness. Therefore there can be no sparing. A. ALEXANDER). The palm-branch growing In fact the last degree of their judgment is far high up on the trunk, so named because of its re- from being attained.
3. ISRAEL DEVOURING ITSELF BY THE FLAMES OF DISCORD.
CHAPTER IX. 18-21 (17–20). 18 (17) For wickedness burneth as the fire :
It shall devour the briers and thorns,
And they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke.
And the people shall be as the 'fuel of the fire:
his brother. 20 (19) And he shall 'snatch on the right hand, and be hungry;
And he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied :
They shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm: 21 (20) Manasseh, Ephraim ; and Ephraim, Manasseh ;
And they together shall be against Judah.
Feb. aut • charred.
.10 .Ps . Ixxxix נֶאוּת הַים recalls גאות עשן
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 17. nyor, in the older writings found onlyup in height of the smoke.” The construction is analoin Deut. ix. 4, 5; xxv. 2; in Isaiah only here ; beside gous to not app app, v. 6; xxxiv. 13; Prov. xxiv. this only in post Isaiah writings; so that the expres 31.-nix) must be regarded as accusative, and of that sion seems to be a reminiscence of Deuteronomy.
species that follows verbs of fulness. The expression wx 1772 perhaps a reminiscence of Num. xi. 3. —
. . The form ny occurs only once more in Isa. xxxiii. 12, and there it is undoubtedly passive. Consider in addi On ver. 18. Dnys är dey. “ burnt up, charred.” son tion that here the preposition ? occasions surprise if often with Y; Exod. ii. 6; 1 Sam. xv. 3, 9, 15; xxiii. 21, thereby the object of the kindling is expressed (Gesen. etc. Here Sy stands for 48 as Jer. 1. 14; li. 3. would take this 3 in a partitive sense, Thes., p. 172, sub.
On ver. 19. n means secuit, and is used of cutting A. 2), whereas 3 UR 1'377 occurs often (Amos i. 14; through the middle a living body (1 Kings iii. 25 sq.) or Jer. xvii. 27; xxi. 14; xliii. 13, etc.) thus it seems to me a dead one (2 Kings vi. 4), comp. 7771?" a cutting immore probable that nem is to be taken as passive of plement,” 2 Sam. xii. 31. It is better then to translate W* 7'377. As to the form, see Ewald, 2 197, a. it, "to hew," than to bite." , dey.
On ver. 20. The accusatives Dingx-, 7019-nx whereby the meaning is approximated “ to turn one's depend on 1538", whereas 7771970-depends on the self, to roll, whirl” (comp. Judg. vii. 13): “they whirled notion of the hostile onslaught that lies in ver. 19 a.
הפך seems related to אבן is dr
. Asy . The root התאבן
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. This strophe plainly divides into two parts. tacks do no good : for those attacking get no In the first (vers. 17-18 a.), the dissension is de- blessing thereby; they remain hungry after as scribed figuratively. In the following, the Pro- well as before. They do harm in fact
. For it phet himself explains the figure.
appears that those men of violence have raged 2. For wickedness fuel of the fire. against themselves, and (comp. Jer. xix. 9) have, -Vers. 18 (17)–19 (18). The '? “for” appears sense he means this, the Prophet explains yer.
so to speak, devoured their own flesh. In what to introduce the proof not only for ver. (16 b), 21 (20) a: The tribes of the northern kingdom but also for (16 a). For the impregnation with were divided among themselves, but united for badness, that is declared of the whole people, ver. hostility against Judah. It is to be noticed that (16), displays itself as real, if its condition may be he does not say; Israel and Judah were mutually compared to an all-devouring conflagration. hostile; but names only Ephraim and Manasseh The badness burns like fire; not as a fire that as embroiled in mutual strife. Judah, however, devours only thorns and thistles (comp., on ver.
appears outside of their communion and the ob6) the lowlier products of the open field, but alsoject of their common hatred, while, moreover, the thickets (the standing timber, x. 34), of the there is no reference to a hostility of Judah forests, consequently seizes on the entire vegeta- against Israel. Thus it appears that the Prophet tion of the land, high and low. The fire of ver, represents the flames of discord as raging only 17 is the fire of sin, consequently a fire hateful in the bounds of the Ten Tribes. This is another to God, and which therefore bears no blessing in proof that the entire passage, ix. 7-x. 4 is diit, but a curse. The Prophet therefore can say rected only against the northern kingdom. Mathat the effect of this fire is at the same time an nasseh and Ephraim are mentioned because these effect of divine wrath. This effect is that the two tribes were descendants of uterine brothers, land looks burnt up, charred, while the people the sons of Joseph. From of old there was dwelling in it are become food of the fire. So
jealousy between these tribes (comp. 1 Sam. X. far the figure.
27; 2 Sam. xx. 1; 1 Kings xii. 16; xv. 27 sqq.; 4. No man sball spare -stretched out xvi. 21 sqq. ; 2 Kings ix. 14, etc.). From the still. – Ver. 19 b (18) - 21 (20). With these first the Ten Tribes were little inclined to David's words the Prophet explains the figure. It dynasty (2 Sam. ii. 8 sqq.); but their own hisis plain that he means the fire of dissension. tory is a continued alternation of conspiracy and This he first characterizes negatively by saying, murder. It may be said that the Israelites did that one behaves himself pitilessly, unsparingly themselves more harm than all foreign foes could against the other; then positively by describing ever have done. Thus dissension was the de how the rou selfish men direct their attacks struction of Israel. And still even this is not now on the right, now on the left. But these at- | the last stage of the divine judgment.
4. INJUSTICE AND VIOLENCE FILL UP THE MEASURE AND PRECIPITATE
ISRAEL INTO THE HORRORS OF EXILE.
CHAPTER X. 1-4. 1 WOE unto them that decree unrighteous decrees,
•And Ithat write grievousness which they have prescribed ; 2 To turn aside the needy from judgment,
And to take away the right from the poor of my people,
That widows may be their
And in the desolation which shall come from far?
And where will ye leave your glory?
And they shall fall 'under the slain.
1 Or, to the writers that write grievousness.
(Nothing) except to bow among.
again עניי עם
.only here in Isaiah גָזֶל
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 1. '977 comp. on i. 4. Because of this '977, , xviii. 5, or simply pomy Amos v. 12; comp. Isa which seems to correspond to that in ver. 5, this last xxix. 21.
.— section has been incorporated in the chap. X.
xiv. 32. is “to hoe, hoe into, hew into, dig into" (xxx. 8; xlix. On ver. 3. The I before 177 has evidently an adver16), then (mediately, through the notion of digging or
sative sense: ye are shrewd and busy in violence and graving in decrees into the tables of the laws) "to establish, decree" (xxxii. 22). The participle pp.7
robbery (comp. Piel AS above) but what will ye do,
etc.-- before Dl has more than a temporal sense. curs again xxii. 16 and Judg. V. 9.—Oppm (again only
The inquiry is evidently what sort of action will they Judg. v. 15) means the same as so'pn. As to the form,
develop to ward off the day of visitation and impending see Ewald, & 186 sq.-— !*' frequent in Isa. i. 13 ; xxix. ruin. 177po found again xv. 7; lx. 17. — -7810 is pro 20; xxxi. 2; lviii. 9; lix. 6, 7, etc.—The second clause cella, tempestas, and is found again xlvii. 11. The word of ver. 1 can be variously construed: Either, “And
is usually joined with Xia, Prov. i. 26; iii. 25; Ezek. writing harm they write," or: "And (woe to) the writers
xxxviii. 1.—p-by for 'p-58, a usage very frequent that write harm.” I prefer the former (which ABEN Ezra and J. A. ALEXANDER adopt because the accents re
in Jeremiah (comp. x. 1) and not unusual in Isa. (comp. .
ver. 25; xi. 8; xxii. 15; xxiv. 22; xxix, 11, 12; xxxvi, 12). the quick return to the temp. finitum is a peculiarity
On ver. 4. ba (found again xiv. 6; xlviii. 9) after a of Hebrew (comp. the second clause of ver. 2b); 2) be foregoing negation, which must be supplied here as a cause, otherwise, one might expect D'IMIPO!. More- negative reply to win a ver. 3, is equivalent to over, according to this explanation, '17 relates equally xxii. 19, etc., Ewald, & 356. —
praeter, nisi, “except” (Gen. xxi. 26; xlvii. 18 Exod. to the second clause of the verse: only it is to be sub
29 impersonal, “one ordinated to the first. 2AJ Piel, which is found only bows himself” (comp. vi. 10).—The phrase nan bog
1907 cannot mean either: “lie among the fallen," nor, here, is evidently intensive, meaning an occupation of
“fall under one slain," for the latter is hardly conceivwriting significant for quality as well as quantity. We able. It must mean" fall among the slain.” One knocked Inight conjecture that we have here a trace of mis
dead may precipitate himself on one still living, and, ehierous, bureaucratic clerical administration.
when this happens wholesale, the situation of those On ver. 2. 1973 11077 only here; it is commoner alive under the slain is frightful. In this trait, too, to say ogon niun Exod. xxiii. 6; Deut. xvi. 19, etc., there seems to me presented a contrast with the former 'o niny Pon Prov. xvii. 23 (37 p'as 'un Prov. Shoryover
. 3) and power (vers. 1 and 2) of those ad
TE . ] 1 ) Because-מכתבים to be governed by עמל quire
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Woe unto them -the fatherless.- | vi. 11 sq.; Jer. v. 15, etc.). “To whom will ye Vers. 1, 2. We might suppose that we have here flee,” is an allusion to the disposition so often rea trace of mischievous, bureaucratic clerical ad- proved by the Prophet to seek aid from foreign ministration. See above in Tect. and Gramm.- nations. 713), according to the context, can only Ver. 2. names the object that bureaucratic admi- mean what those addressed, i. e., the powerful nistration pursues.
It is a negative and a posi- among the people, regard as their "glory," i. e., tive. First they aim at excluding the lowly from the ornament and adornment of their life, viz., justice as much as possible, or to rob them of the their treasures, valuables, etc. The description is benefits of justice that are their rights. This ne- drastic: the hostile storm bursts, the panic-stricken gative proceeding has the further aim of making flee, their valuables they seek to leave behind in themselves possessors of the property of widows a secure place. The reply to the question "what and orphans. For substance comp. i. 21 sq.; iii. will ye do?" etc. is given ironically in ver. 4. Ye
can do nothing, says the Prophet, except, etc. 2. And what will ye do-stretched out The lot of those addressed here will be worse than still.–Vers. 3, 4. The storm is described as that of the other captives and slain. Whether in coming from a distance, because the Prophet, as prison or in the train of those led away, the other ver. 4 shows, means by this figure the exile, whose captives will tread them under font. Once they agent will be a people that comes from far (v. 26; were honorable and powerful. Then they were