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7 (6) •Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end,
Upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom ;
8 Or, When the whole battle of the warrior was, etc.
1 Or, to him.
2 Or, When thou breakest. And it was, etc.
5 Heb. meat. • For every boot of him that steps with noisy tramp, etc. . For increase,- for peace without end, etc.
b That will be burned, a food for fire.
to be" צלם root) צלמות thorities as modiied from
סאונא מְסן מסנא סְאון the Syriac
is evidently a distinet הַגוֹי .נוים would have written
TEXTUAL AND GPAMMATICAL. On ver. 1. nohy is regarded by almost all later au the word was unknown to all. JOSEPH KIMCHI first cited (“
calceus, octen dark")
. But I rather side with BOETTCHER (De inferis, caliga, as also to the like meaning Chaldaic Xy'd and 190 sq., 285, and Neue ereg. Krit. Aehrenl. II., p. 124), who: Xor (comp. Aetheop.pXDX). To this explanation agreferring to nudiy (name of a person, 2 Sum. xxiii. 31;
sent, among modern authorities, ROSENMUELLER, GESE1 Chron. xxvii, 25, and of a place, Neh. vii. 28; xli. 29 ;
NIUS, HENGSTENBERG, EWALD, DRECHSLER, BOETTCHER, DEEzra ii. 24; comp. Song of Sol. viii. 6) explains it as a superlative expression. The word often stands parallel the meaning - boot,” and 18,
Litzsch, Diestel. I side with these, and give to pro
as particip. of the verbi with fun and other kindred expressions (Job iii. 5 ; 1. 21; xxviii. 3; Ps. cvii. 10, 14, etc.). It is a poetic term
denom. iND “to boot, to stride in boots." —üy) is and intensive of yun, being related to it as the night understood by many of the noise of battle, according to of death to common night. The word does not again oc
Jer. x. 22 (GESENIUS, DELITZSCH (J. A. ALEXANDER) etc.). cur in Isaiah.—2 Kal. only here in Isaiah; Hiph. But the expression is not too strong for the heavy tramp
of the booted foot, as DELITZSch says it is, since, Pa. lxxii. xiii. 10.
16, it is even used of the rustling of the standing grain. On ver. 2. Had the Prophet meant the heathen, he Besides, the Prophet would depict here the wild noise
. a of the impetuous advance, as afterwards the shocking and single people.-In what follows, the most important look of the blood-stained garments. Hoheisel has inquiry is whether K’thibh or K'ri presents the correct shown from Plix. Hist. Nat. IX. 18, that soldiers' boots reading. Of the old versions Targ., Jox. and Syrus de
were stuck with nails (clavi caligares). He also cites cidedly read i5; the Lxx., too, so expresses itself
Josep. De bello jud. VI. 1, 8, where it is told of a centuthat this reading is detected. But JEROME and SYMMA
rion who had τα υποδήματα πεπαρμένα πυκνούς και οξέσιν
jaous, and JUVEN. Sat. III. 247 sq., where one cast down chus read x's. But many as have been the attempts, no
in the tumult says: “ Planta mox undique magna calcor et one has yet been able to obtain a satisfactory sense from the latter. I therefore take is for the correct reading
in digito clavus mihi militis haerit." os han part. Pual, from 192.
which Isaiah uses again only in the Niph. (as do KNOBEL, DRECHSLER, DELITZSCH (J. A. ALEXANDER) among the later authorities). It stands in front as in (xxxiv. 4).–The Vav before 7ning is that paratactic Jer. vii. 7, 8, 9, 14, 33 ; Prov. xxiv.8, because an emphasis which we must render by a relative pronoun “that,
this.”—The phrase 70 705 777 is found only here On ver. 3. ibap 5j, “the yoke of his burden.” Of and lxiv. 10. oborn only here and ver. 18. the noun had only this form occurs, and that, in this On ver. 5. 75means both the new-born child (Exod. verse, x. 27 ; xiv. 25. How the primary form is to be
1. 17; ii. 3, 6), and also the grown boy (Gen. xlii. 22, etc.). pointed is thus undecided. But we are justified in as Isaiah uses the word pretty often : ii. 6; viii. 18; xi. 7; suming 520 (- 920 1 Kings xi. 28) after analogy of xxix. 23 ; lvii. 4, 6. The following a defines the sex. isza (Ps. cl. 2) from Szi (ix. 8; 1. 12, etc.) as with YJE?
In 1 Chron. xxii. 9, where the birth of Solomon is pro(Jer. iv. 7), ix?? (Lev. ii. 2; v. 12; vi. 8). Aqua Ezeki mised to David, it is said: 74 7510 12 7137. It is not xxii. 24. Comp. Ewald, 8 255 6.-The goad of the neck impossible that the source whence the chronicler drew is explained by "the goad of the driver " non and suggested the Prophet's words here
-7Ai is praeter. occur not seldom together in Isa. x. 5, 15, 34 ; xiv. propheticum. For the Prophet sees the entire life of the 6; xxviii. 27; xxx. 31 sq.--13 winy is evidently an
Messiah child as actually before him.-- The noun
77@n, principatus, principatum, is found only here and allusion to Exod. v. 6, where Pharaoh's task-masters are
ver. 6. The root 7770, kindred to 778, whence n. called biz D'03j. Only in these two passages does
7700 is not used in Hebrew in the sense of dominari, occur with 3 (after analogy of verbs that mean a
principatum tenere.—1990 by, “The shculders are physical holding to, holding fast, penetrating into: mentioned here as ver. 3, x. 27, in as much as they bear
and carry (Gen. xlix. 15; Ps. Ixxxi. 7), the office bearer , , , . . 6.
having the office, as it were, on his shoulders,” HENGST. On ver. 4. The ') at the beginning seems to me to be
Xap must be taken impersonally, as often: Gen. xi. 9; not co-ordinate with, but subordinated to the '3 that
xvi. 14; Num. xi. 34; Jos. vii. 26; Jud. xv. 19 The begins ver 3.—The words 'J KO TIXD are very dif- Targum JONATHAN, translates the assumption ficult. The ancient versions all vary, and it is evident that only Oiko-900 is the name of the child, and that
rests on it.
.(6 .xi נהֵג בָּם .etc
. ; comp לָרַק נָגַע הֵחֵזִיק אָחַז
CHAP. IX. 1-6.
etc. , it may be doubtful ,אביחיל אבישלום ,אבישוע the Masorets would have only these predicates just
.form pairs , eymmetry nity אל גבור אבי-עד ,שׂר-שלום
all that precedes is the name of him that bestows the pounded of 's are fi name, for it renders thus: "et appellabitur nomen ab ad
meus (thus is properly mirabili consilii, Deo forti, qui manet in aeternum, Messias, 5x?IX, 7°38: for pater Dei, Jehovae is a dogmatic, anu cujus diebus pax super nobis multiplicabitur. The most Rabbis follow this view, referring the predicates, “ever- pater illius (for $17'3X) is a grammatical impossibility. lasting Father, Prince of peace,” to Hezekiah. Even In the names where X is st. constructus, e.g., "IN,
, , , named regarded as the name of the child, as may be whether it is genitivus auctoris or attributivus. But in seen from the Sakeph over 1191. But every one looks
7 'IX the genitive of the author is inconceivable: for the name of the one to be named after 190, and not eternity has no author We must take it then as genifor that of the one giving the name. As the expressions tive of the attribute Father whose predicate is eter
-, -, . requires that you sho be regarded as a pair. If we
On ver. 6. 77.37] (formed like 78??, non, nay.p.), construe it as two words, we have five names, which means multiplicatio, “ increase,” and occurs again only does not harmonize with the duality underlying the passage. Beside it has an analogy in D7% *70 (Gen. xxxiii. 23. Elias LEvita conjectures that originally the xvi. 12) which is predicated of Ishmael.' In this the text read 797 05 (eis multiplicatur imperium), which man is properly subject and the notion "wild ass” is is little probable. We might rather conjecture that it attribute. It might read x70 OTX: but the expression originally read 73 77, to which also the LXX. would would not be so strong. Ishmael is not said to be a man
agree, which ends ver, 5 with aútự and begins ver. 6 that might be called a wild ass ; but he is called directly with Meyádn ý åpx” avtoû ; from which it may be inferred a wild ass, that is at the same time a man accordingly, a human (two-legged) wild ass.So too is pyrsbo stronger they read 7 Opn 797 (IS ) 05. The unusual con';
struction would facilitate the change to 1727 05. (On
the D clausum see J. A. Alexander in loc.).—1P * of a wonderful thing, or, that is a wonder, whereas the former presents the subject as a personal wonder, i.e., vid. ii 7. HENGSTENBERG would have 101 7075 depend a wonderful one that gives counsel. Comp. the expres
VP 1'. Grammatically this is admissible. But ? , . than if the words were reversed we may be either
. st. constructus or absolutus, but the latter gives the more IP f'} and stands in the same relation to yon as intensive sense.- -7121 58 cannot be “strong hero ”
. (GESEN., De W., Maur.) because (as Knob. says) 5x does to the subject and not to the object of the increase and not occur as an adjective and because it does not read peace-making.—The infinitives grans and i7yos
, ) a
I hold to be gerundive infinitives : 'thus is avoided the substantive, but it is no abstract noun, and the boundary tautological relation to 101 773725, i. e., the repetition of nomina concreta substantiva and adjectiva is fluctuating of the aim.—183p is a two-edged word. It involves (comp. 75. 2 Sam. v. 14). So niaan stands as attri
both the notion of the negative zeal consuming all that
is opposed to it, and the notion of the positive zeal that bute of bg in the midst of adjectives, Deut. x, 17; Jer. provides and furthers all that serves the purpose. The xxxii. 18: and Isaiah x. 21 732 98 is undoubted predi- same words occur again xxxvii. 32. Beside that, i7x3 cate of the absolute Godhead. -7 'IX. Names com is found xi. 13; xxvi, 11; xlii. 13; lix. 17; Ixiii. 15.
would be superhuous , One would only למרבה which are stronger then יָמִים מִסְפָּר אַנָשִׁים מְעַט sions corresponds to מרבה Evidently .למשרה expect relate על ממלכתו and על כסא- שלום to אין קץ
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The progress at the close of chap. viii. to confined to them. How could such great salvathis first part of chap. ix. is like that from early tion be the portion of one member and not of the dawn to sunrise. “No dawn,” viii. 20, “No dark whole organism? The imagery is like l. 10; lx. ness," viii. 23 (ix.1), “Light is risen upon them,” | 1 sq. The distresses referred to viii. 21 must neix. 1, reprezent the stages in which the successive cessarily have had a hurtful effect on the populaunfolding of the light contained in the Law and tion numerically. Hence increase of the nation Testimony takes place. The light becomes not necessarily belongs to the new dawning day of only clearer and brighter, but wider extended happiness and prosperity. This benedictio vere vers. 1-4 (2-5). All this blessing proceeds from theocratica is elsewhere, too, promised as the phya child, a son that is born to the people. It is a sical basis of the period of Messianic prosperity. wonderful child; that is proved by his might | Comp. xlix. 18-21; liv. 1-3; Jer. iii. 16 (and my and his names, that point to an origin above the comment in loc.); xxiii. 3 sg. We assume that earth. The child is a son of David, and will "the people” means Israel, not the heathen (see raise up the kingdom of David on the foundation above, Text. and Gram.). of justice and righteousness. All this shall ap The nation, dwindled down to a remnant, is pear as accomplished by the zeal of Jehovah without joy; but, as no blessing comes singly, the ver. 6 (7).
nation, again become numerous, has great joy. 2. The people divide the spoil.-Vers. This joy is so great because it is a joy before the 1, 2. The people that walk in darkness is certainly Lord (Ps. xlii. 3; xcy. 2; c. 2). For substance the same as viii, 23. So Matt. iv. 16 understands comp. Jud. v. 30; Ps. iv. 8; lxviii. 13; cxxvi. 5 the passage. But if the great light first rises on sq.; Isa. xxxiii. 23. this part of the Israelitish nation, it will still not be 3. For thou hast broken-fuel of fire.
140 7 (6) •Of the increase oflention a twofold ne-/ be applied to a creature, and in what sense? Ps.
in deliverance from the lxxxii. 1, 6, comp. John X. 34 sq., are cited, where Upon the thron; 2, the cessation of war. princes are called 'n “gods.” When the The deliverance from oppression is mentioned Jews would have stoned Jesus “for blaspheny first. But in order to give assurance that its re- and because, being a man, he made himself God," currence is not to be apprehended, it is added Jesus replied by referring to the Psalı: "Is it that all arming for war, with its consequences, is not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods??? for ever done away. Israel does not free itself by Evidently He would say that it is not under all its own power from the yoke and goad of the circumstances blasphemy to predicate divinity of driver. The Lord has done it like once He de
a man, because otherwise the Psalm could not stroyed Midian by a little band that was not even possibly have spoken so of men. He therefore armed (Jud. vii., especially ver. 2). The overthrow does not deny that he had called Himself God, but of the Midianites is mentioned x. 26 in the same He challenged the right of the Jews to charge Him sense as here. The deliverance from bondage is on that account with blasphemy, because it was especially described as everlasting, in that, ver. 4, possible He may have called Himself God in that the absolute end of all warlike occupation is an sense that was allowable from their standpoint, nounced. For as long as there is war, there are the conquered and slaves. Only when there is It appears therefore that the notion Ducha no more war does slavery cease, to which no one tainly can be used in various senses, and in some submits except by compulsion. Comp. for sub- circunstances may be said of a creature, and withstance Ps. xlvi. 9, 10; Ezek. xxxix. 9, 10; Zech.
out blasphemy. But there is a difference between ix. 10. ROSENMUELLER recalls the fact that he and D'Abx. For the former is never used in there exist coins of Vespasian and Domitian on
the wide sense in which we see the latter used. which Peace is represented as kindling with a torch a heap of the implements of war.
58 always means the Godhend in a specific or 4. For unto us a child — will perform absolute sense, even in passages like Gen. xxxi. this.— Vers. 5, 6. A third ? “for” refers the 29; Deut. xxviii. 32; Mich. ii. 1; Prov. iii. 27. totality of all the blessings before named to a personal cause, to a child that is bestowed as a gift to In Ezek. xxxi. 11 SA=Sx, comp. HAEVERNICK Israel and all mankind. Herein lies the reason in loc, and Ezek. xxxii. 21. We must, of course, why the prophetic testament of Isaiah is inserted admit that for the Prophet himself there hovered at this place. For, from chap. vii. on, the Pro. a certain obscurity about this expression. For it phet has represented the Messianic salvation as is impossible for us to ascribe to liim the full, clear proceeding from the race of David in a genuine insight into the being of the person of Christ and human way by means of conception, pregnancy of His Homoousia with the Father. It was the and birth. Thus the statement fits this place very | New Testament fulfilment, and especially the Rewell, that one day there will be a birth, the fruit surrection of the Lord, that first brought full light of which will be a child, which, fashioned won in this respect. The term "mighty God” niust derfully and infinitely higher than all other hu- be contemplated from a double standpoint. From man children, will establish the kingdom of Da- that of the Old Testament the expression appears vid, his ancestor, not only on the firmest founda- to be a term of indefinite extent. It is possible tions, but shall raise it up to the point of eternal that it designates the absolute Godhead, but it is power and peace.
far from clear in what sense. But if we contemplate There is no need of a definite subject for xp the expression from the New Testament point of "and one shall call,” as the present has nothing light of the Resurrection and Ascension, then it is
view, and in the light of its fulfilment, i.e., in the to do with an actual name for use and calling. The name-giving is only ideal, not real, i. e., it is plain not only that it may be taken as the predi
cate of the absolute Godhead, but that it must be not the end, but means to the end, viz., the cha
so taken. For there is no son of David that can racteristic. The Prophet invents the names only in order by this means to characterize the child be regarded as the fulfiller of this prophecy exbriefly, thus to say what he is, not how he shall cept Jesus of Nazareth. But He is "declared to actually be called by name.
be the Son of God with power, according to the
It is in this respect Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the like 132.787717? “Jehovah our righteousness” dead,” Rom. i. 4. (Jer. xxiii. 6) and many other similar designa But in what sense is eternal fatherhood (79 38) tions (comp. i. 26; 1x. 14; Jer. xi. 16; Ezek. xlvii. 35, etc.). 'A wonder-counsellor’ is one ascribed to the child (The) in our passage? From xxviii. 29) “wonderful in coun- ther," we know at once that it does not mean the
the fact that the Son is called “Everlasting Fasel,” who forms wonderful, unfathomably deep Father that from eternity begot the Son. But we purposes, into which the angels desire to look"
must here, too, distinguish between the Old Tes(1 Pet. i. 12). “Mighty God” being added, in
tament and the New Testament points of view, timates that He has the power to accomplish His and must say that from the former the entire compurposes. In this expression “God” is the chief prehensiveness of the expression is not appreciaword, and "migh"v" is the attribute (see above, ble. When Isaiah Ixii. 16 and lxiv. 7 calls JeText, and Gram.. Therefore the child is ex- hovah the true Father of Israel, this passage may pressly called "x, "God," and that, too, God, who be taken as saying that the Son is the eternal Ne
diator of this love. But from 1 Corinth. xv. we is at the same time Hero.
learn that the Son will be the Second Adam, Me The question arises: can this name SX “God” | diator of incorruptibility and immortality (ver.
53) for His own. Finally the child is called included in the case before us, or rather the two "Prince of Peace," because, according to ver. 6, motives are identical ; that is to say, the one inHe stands at the head of a kingdom to which is cludes the other. The mention of God's jealousy assured eternal peace. This assurance is founded or zeal as the procuring cause of this result affords on the fact that this King will be David and So- a sure foundation for the hopes of all believers. lomon in one person: David in so far as He casts His zeal is not a passion, but a principle of powerdown every enemy; Solomon in so far as he reapsful and certain operation. The astonishing effects peace from this sowing of war (Ps. lxxii. 3, 7; produced by feeble means in the promotion, preJer. xxxiii. 6; Mic. v. 4, etc.).-Of the increase, servation, and extension of Christ's kingdom can etc. The Prophet sees the promised Son enthroned only be explained upon the principle that the with highly significant titles that He may be a zeal of the Lord of Hosts effected it.'' true semper Augustus, ever an augmenter of the “ Is not this the reign of Christ ? Does it not kingdom and institutor of eternal peace. To this answer all the requisite conditions? The Evanend the child is set on David's throne and over gelists take pains to prove by formal genealogies David's kingdom. The expected Son is Davidic. His lineal descent from David; and His reign, It is the Son that is promised to David 2 Sam. I unlike all others, still continues and is constantly vii., the real Solomon; for his kingdom of peace enlarging. HENDEWERK and other modern Gershall have no end. That quantitative and quali- man writers have objected that this prophecy is tative influence of the augmentatio and pacificatio not applied to Christ in the New Testament. But is only possible by founding the kingdom on judgment and justice (comp.on i. 21), and by car
we have seen already that the first verse of the rying out every single act of administration in this chapter and the one before it are interpreted by spirit. And upon his kingdom to order it Matthew as a prophecy of Christ's appearing as a is taken from 2 Sam. vii. 12, where it is said: “I public teacher first in Galilee, ard no one has will set up thy seed after thee, which shall pro denied that this is part of the same context. Nor ceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish His is this all. The expressions of the verse before kingdom” (imobin-na nji???!). Comp. vers. Gabriel
, when he said to Mary Luke i. 32-34),
us were applied to Christ, before His birth, by 13, 16; 1 Chron. xvii. 11; xxii, 10; xxviii. 7;
He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of Prov. IX. 28.
the Highest, and the Lord God shall give unto Him [J. A. ALEXANDER on ver. 6. “The word the throne of His father Darid, and He shall reign nxp, “zeal,” expresses the complex idea of
over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom strong affection comprehending or attended by a there shall be no end." The historical allusions in jealous preference of one above another. It is these words show clearly that the person spoken used to signify God's disposition to protect and of was expected, or, in other words, a subject of favor His people at the expense of others. Some prophecy; and though the terms are not precisetimes, moreover, it includes the idea of a jealous | ly those used by Isaiah, they agree with them care of His own honor, or a readiness to take more closely than with any other passage. Inoffence at anything opposed to it, and a determi- deed the variations may be perfectly accounted nation to avenge it when insulted. The express- for upon the supposition that the angel's message ions are derived from the dialect of human pas- was intended to describe the birth of Christ as a sion, but describe something absolutely right on fulfilment, not of this passage only, but of several God's part for the very reasons which demon- others also which are parallel with this, and that strate its absurdity and wickedness on man's. the language was so framed as to suggest them These two ideas of God's jealous partiality for His all, but none of them so prominently as the one own people and His jealous sensibility respect before us, and the earlier promise upon which it ing His own honour are promiscuously blended was founded. Comp. 2 Sam. vii. 11, 12; Dan. in the usage of the word, and are perhaps both vii. 14, 27; Mic. iv. 7, etc.”]
B.-THREATENING OF JUDGMENT TO BE ACCOMPLISHED BY MEANS OF ASSYRIA, ADDRESSED TO ISRAEL OF THE TEN TRIBES.
CHAP. IX. 8 (7).-X. 4. To the prophecies that denounce impending people,” and they in turn in the second clause of judgment against Judah, of which Assyria was to ver. 8 are specified, not as Judah and Israel, but be the agent, is joined a prophecy, that announces as Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria : 2) the same fate for the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. because ver. 20 we notice that the totality who are For, that the latter are the subject of this prophe- there reproached with ruinons dissensions are dicy appears, 1) because, in the whole passage, only vided into Ephraim and Manasseh. These are Israel or Jacob (ix. 7, 11, 13), the "Ephraimites opposed to one another; if they unite it is for the and inhabitants of Samaria" (ver. 8) appear as purpose of attacking Judah. If Judah were inthose addressed ; never Judah. For ver. 8 shows cluded in the totality addressed there, it must plainly that we must so understand Jacob and read : “Ephraim Judah, Judah Ephraim.” But Israel (ver. 7), because those receiving the word Ephraim and Manasseh are designated as the spoken of in ver. 7 are designated as the whole I mutually contending members ; Judah as one
outside of the community and the common object the prophetic view. This extreme visible hori. of their hatred. We will show below that ver. zon is the exile (x. 4). Beyond that the Israel 11 a does not conflict with this interpretation. of the Ten Tribes has disappeared to the present
As to the period to which this prophecy be- day. They experienced no restoration like Julongs, we may ascertain it from ix. 9. It appears dah did. But to the day of visitation and desothere that at this time pieces must have been rent lation” (x. 3) the punishments increase as the away from the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. We inward corruption grows. After that visitation to know of only one such diminution of their terri- which the audacious words ix. 9 refer, Israel, intory occurring in that period. It is that related stead of recovering and growing strong, is renew2 Kings xv. 29. According to that account Tig- edly hard pressed on the East and the West. But lath-Pileser, who had been invoked by Ahaz, de still more comes (ix. 11 b). Still the people are populated a great part of the eastern and northern not converted to Him that smites them. Thereregion of that kingdom. At that time the Eph-fore the punishment falls first of all on the leadraimites must have boasted that it would be easy ers of the people, who have proved themselves to repair the damage they had suffered. Isaiah betrayers, whose sins must be expiated by the befelt that he must meet this foolish notion, which trayed down to the young men, the widows and took the damage done by Tiglath-Pileser for the the orphans (vers. 13–16). But still more comes. conclusion of their visitation, with the announce- For the people are as a forest on fire: for the ment that that visitation was only the beginning, flames of discord spread on all sides with devouronly the first of many following degrees. If, then, ing and desolation (vers. 17–20). Injustice and the foregoing prophecies (vii.-ix. 6) fall in the violence, according to the constant Old Testament time before the introduction of the Assyrians, sentiment, the chief canse of the ruin of states, then our present passage belongs to the period bring the people to the verge of the abyss. Then immediately after. And if chapters vii.-ix. 6, no seeking for aid from foreign nations will avail. are attributed to the beginning of the three years, Nothing remains but to submit to the horrors of when both_Pekah and Ahaz were living, say exile. But still more comes. For even the carryabout 743 B. C., then the present prophecy be- ing away into exile is not yet the end of God's longs to the close of this period, say about 740 judgments on Israel (x. 1-4). -39 B. C. (Comp. on vii. 15–17.)
Thus we have four sections, of which the first The form of our passage is artistic, yet simple. two have each five verses, the last two four verses. Proceeding from the underlyiug thought that They may be set forth as follows: what the Ephraimites took for the end, was only 1. The supposed end is the beginning of the the first stage, the Prophet builds up his prophe- judgment (ix. 7-11). cy in three stages, each of which points to the 2. The deceivers the bane of tlie deceived (ix. succeeding one with the refrain: “for all this 12–16). His anger is not turned away, but His hand is 3. Israel devouring itself by the flames of disstretched out still.” Even the last concludes with cord (ix. 17-20). these words to show that the judgment on Israel 4. Injustice and violence fill up the measure and continues still beyond the immediate horizon of precipitate Israel into the horrors of exile (1.1-4).
1. THE SUPPOSED END IS THE BEGINNING OF THE JUDGMENT.
CHAPTER IX. 8–12. (7-11). 8 (7) THE LORD sent a word into Jacob,
And it hath lighted upon Israel.
Even Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria,
say in the pride and stoutness of heart,
The sycamores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars. 11 (10) Therefore the LORD shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him,
And join his enemies together;
And they shall devour Israel ’with 'open mouth.
9 Heb, with whole mouth, * sets on his enemies.
b a full mouth.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 8. 718) according to xiii. 3, 11; xvi. 6; xxv. relates as quotation marks, in as much as it introduces 11.-205 bod again only x. 12.- Os does not de the speech that manifests that haughtiness. ), )
ch it On ver. 9. Mild, properly not ??X, 1 Kings V. 31;
to גדל לבב and גאוה but on ,וידעו pend on