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7 (6) “Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, Upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom;
*To order it, and to establish it
With judgment and with justice, from henceforth even for ever.
On ver, 1. nnox is regarded by almost all later au... r :thorities as modified from naphy (root phy “to be dark"). But I rather side with Boettcher (De inferis, & 190 sq., 285, and Neue ereg. Krit. Aehrenl. II., p. 124), who, referring to n\pty (name of a person, 2 Sam. xxiii. 31; ... r.-1 Chron. xxvii. 25, and of a place, Neh. vii. 28; xii. 29; Ezra ii. 24; comp. Song of Sol. viii. 6) explains it as a superlative expression. The word often stands parallel with Tyn and other kindred expressions (Job iii. 5;
x. 21; xxviii. 3; Ps. cwii. 10, 14, etc.). It is a poetic term and intensive of Twn, being related to it as the night
bly occur not seldom together in Isa. x. 5, 15, 34; xiv. 5; xxviii. 27; xxx. 31 sq.--> ton is evidently an allusion to Exod. v. 6, where Pharaoh's task-masters are called by a Drtyji. Only in these two passages does t’ll occur with i (after analogy of verbs that mean a physical holding to, holding fast, penetrating into: ins, Pinn ro, P-5, etc.; comp by inj xi. 6). On ver. 4. The "E at the beginning seems to me to be not co-ordinate with, but subordinated to the "5 that begins ver 3.—The words on lso TND are very dif
ficult. The ancient versions all vary, and it is evident
* Or, When the whole battle of the warrior was, etc.
b That will be burned, a food for fire d Because he orders and establishes, etc.
GRAMMATICAL. the word was unknown to all. Joseph KIMCH1 first cited the Syriac sp. subp, pp. susp – calceus, ocre", : : : : caliga, as also to the like meaning Chaldaic NX"D and r -Nolon (comp. Aetheop. |sps). To this explanation asr r : T -: sent, among modern authorities, RoseNMUELLER, GESENIUS, HENGstENBERG, EwALD, DREchsler, Boettch ER, DELitzsch, D1EstEL. I side with these, and give to |so the meaning “boot,” and lso, as particip. of the verbi denom. |so “to boot, to stride in boots.”—vyn is – r understood by many of the noise of battle, according to Jer. x. 22 (GESENIUs, DElitzsch [J. A. Alexandeh) etc.). But the expression is not too strong for the heavy tramp of the booted foot, as Delitzsch says it is, since, Ps. lxxii. 16, it is even used of the rustling of the standing grain. Besides, the Prophet would depict here the wild noise of the impetuous advance, as afterwards the shocking look of the blood-stained garments. HoH Eisel has shown from Plin. Hist. Nat. IX. 18, that soldiers' boots were stuck with nails (clavi caligares). He also cites Josep. De bello jud. VI. 1, 8, where it is told of a centurion who had rà imośńuara memapuéva rvkvois kai čeaw #Aots, and Juven. Sat. III. 247 sq., where one cast down in the tumult says: “Planta mor undique magna calcor et in digito clavus mini militis haert" nobip part. Pual, from bol, which Isaiah uses again only in the Niph. - r (xxxiv. 4).-The Vav before Tin"n is that paratactic which we must render by a relative pronoun “that, this."—The phrase nonv', non is found only here and lxiv. 10—nown only here and ver, 18. On wer. 5. +H: means both the new-born child (Exod. i. 17: ii. 3, 6), and also the grown boy (Gen. xiii.22, etc.). Isaiah uses the word pretty often : ii. 6; viii. 18; xi. 7; xxix. 23; lvi. 4, 5. The following !: defines the sex. In 1 Chron. xxii. 9, where the birth of Solomon is promised to David, it is said: # oup non. It is not r r 1. . . . . impossible that the source whence the chronicler drew suggested the Prophet's words here —onn) is practer. propheticum. For the Prophet sees the entire life of the Messiah child as actually before him.— The noun myop, principatus, principatum, is found only here and ver. 6. The root nonby, kindred to "hoto, whence "ty. r r - r now is not used in Hebrew in the sense of dominari, or r principatum tenere.—inst; by, “The sheulders are mentioned here as ver. 3, x. 27, in as much as they bear and carry (Gen. xlix. 15; Ps. lxxxi. 7), the office bearer having the office, as it were, on his shoulders.” HENGst. N"D" must be taken impersonally, as often: Gen. xi. 9; xvi. 14: Num. xi. 34; Jos. vii. 26; Jud. xv. 19 The TARGUM JonATHAN, translates on the assumption that only Dibo-nty is the name of the child, and that
all that precedes is the name of him that bestows the name, for it renders thus: “et appellabitur momen ab admirabili consilii, Deo forti, qui manet in aeternum, Messias, cujus diebus par super nobis multiplicabitur. The most Rabbis follow this view, referring the predicates, “everlasting Father, Prince of peace,” to Hezekiah. Even the Masorets would have only these predicates just named regarded as the name of the child, as may be seen from the Sakeph over n\al. But every one looks for the name of the one to be named after Ypts, and not for that of the one giving the name. As the expressions pov-ng, "y-ox, noni or form pairs, symmetry requires that Tyr stop be regarded as a pair. If we construe it as two words, we have five names, which does not harmonize with the duality underlying the passage. Beside it has an analogy in DTN NYE (Gen. rr "... ." xvi. 12, which is predicated of Ishmael. In this the man is properly subject and the notion “wild ass” is attribute. It might read N'YE DTN : but the expression would not be so strong. Ishmael is not said to be a man that might be called a wild ass; but he is called directly a wild ass, that is at the same time a man accordingly, a human (two-legged) wild ass. So too is ryū Rhe stronger than x*E Tyr; for the latter would be the counsellor of a wonderful thing, or, that is a wonder, whereas the former presents the subject as a persenal wonder, i.e., a wonderful one that gives counsel. Comp. the expressions byn Dorot, "Bop D"p", which are stronger - : r-: r: • • r than if the words were reversed. so may be either st constructus or absolutus, but the latter gives the more intensive sense.—onlin) ox cannot be “ strong hero” (GEsex., DE. W., MAUR.) because (as KNob. says) o: does not occur as an adjective and because it does not read o: "YEl. Like most words of this formation, onlin) is a substantive, but it is no abstract noun, and the boundary of nomina concreta substantiva and adjectiva is fluctuating (comp. To 2 Sam. v. 14). So nian stands as attribute of ox in the midst of adjectives, Deut. x. 17; Jer. xxxii.18: and Isaiah x. 21 on" on ox is undoubted predicate of the absolute Godhead—ny "inst. Names com
tautological relation to ol) nonpo, i. e., the repetition of the aim.—NTN-JD is a two-edged word. It involves both the notion of the negative zeal consuming all that is opposed to it, and the notion of the positive zeal that provides and furthers all that serves the purpose. The
same words occur again xxxvii. 32. Beside that, nsp is found xi. 13; xxvi. 11; xlii. 13; lix. 17; lxiii. 15.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.
1. The progress at the close of chap. viii. to this first part of chap. ix. is like that from early dawn to sunrise. “No dawn,” viii.20, “No darkness,” viii.23 (ix.1), “Light is risen upon them,” ix. 1, represent the stages in which the successive unfolding of the light contained in the Law and Testimony takes place. The light becomes not only clearer and brighter, but wider extended vers. 1–4 (2–5). All this blessing proceeds from a child, a son that is born to the people. It is a wonderful child; that is proved by his might and his names, that point to an origin above the earth. The child is a son of David, and will raise up the kingdom of David on the foundation of justice and righteousness. All this shall appear as accomplished by the zeal of Jehovah ver. 6 (7).
2. The people—divide the spoil.—Vers. 1,2. The people that walk in darkness is certainly the same as viii. 23. So Matt. iv. 16 understands the passage. But if the great light first rises on this part of the Israelitish nation, it will still not be
confined to them. How could such great salva-
- rention a twofold ne7 (6) “Of the *9teliverance from the -- Upon the thro 2, the cessation of war. The deliverance from oppression is mentioned first. But in order to give assurance that its recurrence is not to be apprehended, it is added that all arming for war, with its consequences, is for ever done away. Israel does not free itself by its own power from the yoke and goad of the driver. The Lord has done it like once He destroyed Midian by a little band that was not even armed (Jud. vii., especially ver. 2). The overthrow of the Midianites is mentioned x. 26 in the same sense as here. The deliverance from bondage is especially described as everlasting, in that, ver. 4, the absolute end of all warlike occupation is announced. For as long as there is war, there are the conquered and slaves. Only when there is no more war does slavery cease, to which no one submits except by compulsion. Comp. for substance Ps. xlvi. 9, 10; Ezek. xxxix. 9, 10; Zech. ix. 10. RoseNMUELLER recalls the fact that there exist coins of Vespasian and Domitian on which Peace is represented as kindling with a torch a heap of the implements of war. 4. For unto us a child—will perform this.-Vers. 5, 6. A third "3 “for” refers the
totality of all the blessings before named to a personal cause, to a child that is bestowed as a gift to Israel and all mankind. Herein lies the reason why the prophetic testament of Isaiah is inserted at this place. For, from chap. vii. on, the Prophet has represented the Messianic salvation as F.". from the race of David in a genuine uman way by means of conception, pregnancy and birth. Thus the statement fits this place very well, that one day there will be a birth, the fruit of which will be a child, which, fashioned wonderfully and infinitely higher than all other human children, will establish the kingdom of David, his ancestor, not only on the firmest foundations, but shall raise it up to the point of eternal power and peace. There is no need of a definite subject for sop') “and one shall call,” as the present has nothing to do with an actual name for use and calling. The name-giving is only ideal, not real, i.e., it is not the end, but means to the end, viz., the characteristic. The Prophet invents the names only in order by this means to characterize the child briefly, thus to say what he is, not how he shall actually be called by name. It is in this respect like upy nin. “Jehovah our righteousness” (Jer. xxiii. 6), and many other similar designations (comp. i. 26; 1x. 14; Jer. xi. 16; Ezek. xlviii. 35, etc.). A wonder-counsellor is one
be applied to a creature, and in what sense? Ps. lxxxii. 1, 6, comp. John x. 34 sq., are cited, where princes are called D"nox “gods.” When the Jews would have stoned Jesus “for blasphemy and because, being a man, he made himself God,” Jesus replied by referring to the Psalm: “Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?” Evidently He would say that it is not under all circumstances blasphemy to predicate divinity of a man, because otherwise the Psalm could not possibly have spoken so of men. He therefore does not deny that he had called Himself God, but He challenged the right of the Jews to charge Him on that account with blasphemy, because it was possible He may have called Himself God in that sense that was allowable from their standpoint.
It appears therefore that the notion D'n'-x cer. tainly can be used in various senses, and in some circumstances may be said of a creature, and without blasphemy. But there is a difference between
* and Dinos. For the former is never used in the wide sense in which we see the latter used.
o always means the Godhead in a specific or absolute sense, even in passages like Gen. xxxi. 29; Deut. xxviii. 32; Mich. ii. 1; Prov. iii. 27. In Ezek. xxxi. 11 os-os, comp. HAEVERNICK
in loc. and Ezek. xxxii. 21. We must, of course admit that for the Prophet himself there hove a certain obscurity about this expression. For it is impossible for us to ascribe to him the full, clear insight into the being of the person of Christ and of His Homoousia with the Father. It was the New Testament fulfilment, and especially the Resurrection of the Lord, that first brought full light in this respect. The term “mighty God” niust be contemplated from a double standpoint. From that of the Old Testament the expression appears to be a term of indefinite extent. It is possible that it designates the absolute Godhead, but it is far from clear in what sense. But if we contemplate the expression from the New Testament point of view, and in the light of its fulfilment, i.e., in the light of the Resurrection and Ascension, then it is plain not only that it may be taken as the predicate of the absolute Godhead, but that it must be so taken. For there is no son of David that can be regarded as the fulfiller of this prophecy except Jesus of Nazareth. But He is “declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead,” Rom. i. 4.
But in what sense is eternal fatherhood (Ty "ins)
ascribed to the child (**) in our passage? From
the fact that the Son is called “Everlasting Father,” we know at once that it does not mean the Father that from eternity begot the Son. But we must here, too, distinguish between the Old Testament and the New Testament points of view, and must say that from the former the entire comprehensiveness of the expression is not appreciable. When Isaiah lxiii. 16 and lxiv. 7 calls Jehovah the true Father of Israel, this passage may be taken as saying that the Son is the eternal Mediator of this love. But from 1 Corinth. xv. we learn that the Son will be the Second Adam, Mediator of incorruptibility and immortality (ver. 53) for His own. Finally the child is called “Prince of Peace,” because, according to ver, 6, He stands at the head of a kingdom to which is assured eternal peace. This assurance is founded on the fact that this King will be David and Solomon in one person: David in so far as He casts down every enemy; Solomon in so far as he reaps peace from this sowing of war (Ps. lxxii. 3, 7; Jer. xxxiii. 6; Mic. v.4, etc.).-Of the increase, etc., The Prophet sees the promised Son enthroned with highly significant titles that He may be a true semper Augustus, ever an augmenter of the kingdom and institutor of eternal peace. To this end the child is set on David's throne and over David's kingdom. The expected Son is Davidic. It is the Son that is promised to David 2 Sam. vii.; the real Solomon; for his kingdom of peace shall have no end. That quantitative and qualitative influence of the augmentatio and pacificatio is only possible by founding the kingdom on judgment and justice (comp. on i. 21), and by carrying out every single act of administration in this spirit. And upon his kingdom to order it is taken from 2 Sam. vii. 12, where it is said: “I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall pro. ceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish His kingdom” (roop-no oniom). Comp. vers. 13, 16; 1 Chron. xvii. 11; xxii. 10; xxviii. 7; Prov. xx. 28.
[J. A. ALEXANDER on ver, 6. Top, “zeal,” expresses the complex idea of
strong affection comprehending or attended by a jealous preference of one above another. It is used to signify God's disposition to protect and favor His people at the expense of others. Sometimes, moreover, it includes the idea of a jealous care of His own honor, or a readiness to take offence at anything opposed to it, and a determination to avenge it when insulted. The expressions are derived from the dialect of human passion, but describe something absolutely right on God’s part for the very reasons which demonstrate its absurdity and wickedness on man's. These two ideas of God's jealous partiality for His own people and His jealous sensibility respect
ing His own honour are promiscuously blended in the usage of the word, and are perhaps both
included in the case before us, or rather the two motives are identical; that is to say, the one includes the other. The mention of God's jealousy or zeal as the procuring cause of this result affords a sure foundation for the hopes of all believers. His zeal is not a passion, but a principle of powerful and certain operation. The astonishing effects produced by feeble means in the promotion, preservation, and extension of Christ's kingdom can only be explained upon the principle that the zeal of the Lord of Hosts effected it.” “Is not this the reign of Christ? Does it not answer all the requisite conditions? The Evan#". take pains to prove by formal genealogies is lineal descent from David; and His reign, unlike all others, still continues and is constantly enlarging. HENDEw ERR and other modern German writers have objected that this prophecy is
not applied to Christ in the New Testament. But we have seen already that the first verse of the
chapter and the one before it are interpreted by Matthew as a prophecy of Christ's appearing as a public teacher first in Galilee, and no one has denied that this is part of the same context. Nor is this all. The expressions of the verse before us were applied to Christ, before His birth, by Gabriel, when he said to Mary (Luke i. 32–34), “He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest, and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David, and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end.” The historical allusions in these words show clearly that the person spoken of was expected, or, in other words, a subject of prophecy; and though the terms are not precisely those used by Isaiah, they agree with them more closely than with any other passage. Indeed the variations may be perfectly accounted for upon the supposition that the angel's message was intended to describe the birth of Christ as a fulfilment, not of this passage only, but of several others also which are parallel with this, and that the language was so framed as to suggest them all, but none of them so prominently as the one before us, and the earlier promise upon which it was founded. Comp. 2 Sam. vii. 11, 12; Dan. vii. 14, 27; Mic. iv. 7, etc.”]
B.—THREATENING OF JUDGEMENT TO BE ACCOMPLISHED BY MEANS OF ASSYRIA, ADDRESSED TO ISRAEL OF THE TEN TRIBES.
To the prophecies that denounce impending judgment against Judah, of which Assyria was to ; the agent, is joined a prophecy, that announces the same fate for the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. For, that the latter are the subject of this prophecy appears, 1) because, in the whole passage, only Israel or Jacob (ix. 7, 11, 13), the “Ephraimites and inhabitants of Samaria” (ver. 8) appear as those addressed; never Judah. For ver, 8 shows
lainly that we must so understand Jacob and }. (ver. 7), because those receiving the word spoken of in ver. 7 are designated as “the whole
people,” and they in turn in the second clause of ver, 8 are specified, not as Judah and Israel, but as Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria: 2) because ver. 20 we notice that the totality who are there reproached with ruinous dissensions are divided into Ephraim and Manasseh. These are opposed to one another; if they unite it is for the purpose of attacking Judah. If Judah were in.i. in the totality addressed there, it must read: “Ephraim Judah, Judah Ephraim.” But Ephraim and Manasseh are o as the mutually contending members; Judah as one
outside of the community and the common object of their hatred. We will show below that wer. 11 a does not conflict with this interpretation. As to the period to which this prophecy belongs, we may ascertain it from ix. 9. It appears there that at this time pieces must have been rent away from the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. We know of only one such diminution of their territory occurring in that period. It is that related 2 Kings xv. 29. According to that account Tiglath-Pileser, who had been invoked by Ahaz, depopulated a great part of the eastern and northern ion of that kingdom. At that time the Ephraimites must have boasted that it would be easy to repair, the damage they had suffered. Isaiah felt that he must meet this foolish notion, which took the damage done by Tiglath-Pileser for the conclusion of their visitation, with the announcement that that visitation was only the beginning, only the first of many following degrees. i. then, the foregoing prophecies (vii.-ix. 6) fall in the time before the introduction of the Assyrians, then our present passage belongs to the period immediately after. And if chapters vii.-ix. 6, are attributed to the beginning of the three years, when both Pekah and Ahaz were living, say about 743 B.C., then the present prophecy belongs to the close of this period, say about 740 —39 B.C. (Comp. on vii. 15–17.) The form of our e is artistic, yet simple. Proceeding from the underlyiug thought that what the Ephraimites took for the end, was only the first stage, the Prophet builds up his prophecy in three stages, each of which points to the succeeding one with the refrain: “for all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still.” Even the last concludes with these words to show that the judgment on Israel continues still beyond the immediate horizon of
the prophetic view. This extreme visible horizon is the exile (x. 4). Beyond that the Israel of the Ten Tribes has disappeared to the present day. They experienced no restoration like Judah did. But to “the day of visitation and desolation '' (x. 3) the punishments increase as the inward corruption grows. After that visitation to which the audacious words ix. 9 refer, Israel, instead of recovering and growing strong, is renewedly hard pressed on the East and the West. But still more comes (ix. 11 b). Still the people are not converted to Him that smites them. Therefore the punishment falls first of all on the leaders of the people, who have proved themselves betrayers, whose sins must be expiated by the betrayed down to the young men, the widows and the orphans (vers. 13–16). But still more comes. For the people are as a forest on fire: for the flames of discord spread on all sides with devouring and desolation (vers. 17–20). Injustice and violence, according to the constant Old Testament sentiment, the chief cause of the ruin of states, bring the people to the verge of the abyss. Then no seeking for aid from foreign nations will avail. Nothing remains but to submit to the horrors of exile. But still more comes. For even the carrying away into exile is not yet the end of ğ. judgments on Israel (x. 1–4).
#. we have four sections, of which the first two have each five verses, the last two four verses. They may be set forth as follows:
1. The supposed end is the beginning of the judgment (ix. 7–11).
2. * deceivers the bane of the deceived (ix. 12–16).
3. Israel devouring itself by the flames of discord (ix. 17–20).
4. Injustice and violence fill up the measure and precipitate Israel into the horrors of exile (x.1–4).
1. THE SUPPOSED END IS THE BEGINNING OF THE JUDGMENT.
8 (7) And it hath lighted upon Israel. 9 (8) And all the people shall know,
Even Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria,
That say in the pride and stoutness of heart, 10 (9) The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones:
The sycamores are cut down, but we will changethem into cedars. 11 (10) Therefore the LoRD shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him,
And "join his enemies together;
12 (11) The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind;
But his hand is stretched out still.
* Heb. with whole mouth. b a full mouth.