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3. THE TESTAMENT OF THE PROPHET TO HIS DISCIPLES.
CHAPTER VIII. 16-IX. 6.
CHAPTER VIII. 16–23. (IX. 1.)
That hideth his face from the house of Jacob,
And I will look for him. 18 Behold, I and the children whom the LORD hath given me
Are for signs and for wonders in Israel
From the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in Mount Zion. 19 And when they shall say unto you,
Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards
For the livinga to the dead ?
If they speak not according io this word,
It is because there is 'no light in them, 21 'And they shall pass through it, hardly bestead and hungry: And it shall come to pass, that when they shall be hungry, they shall fret thom
selves, And curse their king and their God,
And look upward. 22 And they shall look unto the earth;
And behold trouble and darkness, dimness of anguish;
And they shall be driven to darkness.
"When at the first he lightly afflicted
1 Heb. no morning.
For not-darkness is there where is distress.
2 Or, Galilee the populons. • Enquire of the dead spirits.
e whir. owno have no daun. & And obscure night vide-spread. | About the former time he brought disgrace on the, etc.
the circuit of the heathen.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 16. 1771yn beside here and ver. 20 occurs only mean "behold, I am here," but, “ behold I.” I do not Ruth iv. 7. The meaning is “testifying;" in the pas- deny that in itself it may mean the former. But I bo site sense, “that which is testified," which then may be lieve that were this the Prophet's meaning he would taken in various senses. The divine will which the
have expressed it in a less mistakable form by writing prophets testify to men (Exod. xix. 21, 23; Deut. viii
, 2.77 before "]}N or (Gen. xlix. 16) 1777. I think 1730 19; 1 Sam. viii. 9; Jer. xi. 7; xlii. 19; Am. iii. 13, etc.) has for contents both what men ought to do and what 'IJX, then, is epexegetical of the subject of inyon. God has resolved to do. ny imper. from any con
Then is explained why this subject is not more disstringere, colligare (31. 131; p = (in Isaiah again only tinctly marked by 'IN). The Prophet obtains a moro xxix. 11) is "to seal."
occurs only I a. 1. £; liv 13 and Jer. ii. 24; xiii. 23. It means doctus, eruditus ; and
and noin are combined as in Deuteronomy (Deut. is used both of spiritual and of physical relations.
iv. 34; vi. 22; vii. 19; xiii. 3; xxvi. 8; xxviii. 46; xxix 2; On vers. 17, 18. According to our construction it might xxxiv, 11. Comp. Isa. xx. 3.--11 Dyr depends on ! .
This addition is, in relation to ; lo -.
אוֹת--הנה אנכי emphatic prominence for it in the
.אתות ומופתיס | .חכיתי before יאני be expected that there would be .not superduous ,אשר נתן-לי | does not הנה אנכי follows in ver
. 18 ; for ואני But this
I construe with קלל
On ver. 19. 21x means an inflated leather bottle (oc- 1 of need? Others (KNOBEL, Delitzscu) take it as an incurs only Job xxxii. 19, and as a proper name Num. xxi. terrogative particle, referring it back to shop ver. 19: 10; xxxiii. 43), then the distended body of the ventrilo
"Or will not they accord in this word that are without quist, and then, not only the ventriloquist himself, (1 Sam. xxvuL. 3, 9; 2 Kings xxiii. 24; Isa. xix. 3; and the
dawn?" But from the context it appears that this is passage previously cited) but the pretended spirit of the just what they will not do. I construe x5-ox simply dead that spoke by him (1 Sam. xxviii. 7, 8; Is. xxix. 4; 1 – nisi, and begin the apodosis with a 11 ver. 21 (so, Chr. x. 13). In many of these passages it is indeed doubt-too, DIESTEL). -- 70 (comp. xix. 12) occurs xlvii. 11; ful which of these two meanings the word may have; or lviii. 8, as figure of the dawning revelation of salvation. if it does not have both, Elsewhere the word seems to
On ver, 21. M2 is referred by VITRINGA, MAURER, DEmean the secret art, necromancy, divination itself (2 Kings xxi. 6; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6). The plural is always
LITZ8CH, etc., to pod understood as a matter of course, nidi. Because this plural occurs also Job xxxii. 19, it ver. 22. But this page is not so a matter of course, becannot for that reason be concluded that only women cause it first appears after; and my cannot be said only were possessed of this necromancy (2 18 hyd, 1 Sam. in relation to the notion "land." 'Roorda, DRECHSLER xxviii. 7, the witch of Endor). Still it is surprising that
refer it more correctly to the condition intimated by DIN by(masc.) is found only in the Talmud (vid. Ge- nox's 78.—1707? is the är.dey. If nupp? FEN. Thes. p. 35). jy never occurs alone, but always durum esse, “ to be hard, heavy,” then 170p) is “treated joined with Six. It means “the knowing one, wise hard, grieved, oppressed." —Jun (ix. 19; xxix. 8; one, or wizard.” DELITZSCH, very much to the point, xxxii. 6; xliv. 12; lviii. 7, 10) adds to the notion of out compares dainwr according to Plato - dańuwv, “the ward pressure that of incapacity to bear, that is occamuch knowing being.”—739 Pilpel, found only in sioned by hunger. The full (Deut. xxxii, 15; Ps. lxxviii. Isaiah. The word primarily is used of the chirping of
29; Prov. xxx. 9) has easily too much, the hungry too
little strength.birds (x. 14; xxxviii. 14), then of the voice proceeding
-Hithp. 75png only here Kal. xlvii.
6; liv. 9 ; lvii. 16, 17; Ixiv. 4, 8.- I out of the ground (xxix. 4).-77277 is likewise a word
is in the sense of “curse against one.” Elsewhere it is that imitates a sound (comp. ach. ächsen). As 9353
construed with the accusative, and the following a sigrepresents a high, shrill sound, so nin does a low one;
nifies the higher power by which one swears, i. e., by for it is used for the growling of a lion (xxxi. 4), of the
whose mediation one imprecates evil on the object of rolling of the thunder (Job xxxvii. 2), of the low mur
his wrath (1 Sam. xvii. 43; 2 Kings ii. 24). But with that muring of the dove (xxxviii. 14; lix. 11). It occurs
construction there would be wanting here an object of again in Isa. xvi. 7; xxxiii. 18; lix. 3, 13. In classic antiquity, too, we find a gentle, chirping, whispering voice
the cursing (DIESTEL). And it is much more natural that ascribed to the dead. Comp. Iliad XXIII. 101, where it
one enraged should curse the cause of his sufferings is said of the soul of Patroelos “ XETO TETplyvia ; " Odyss.
than the sufferings themselves. xxiv. 5-9, where tpiselv stridere is equally ascribed to the with 3 after the analogy of verbs that mean striving (xix. souls of the dead suitors and to the whirring of the bats
2; xxx.32, etc.) and being angry (Deut. iii. 26; Ps.lxxviii. in the dark caves. Other examples see in GESENIUS, in loc. In our passage the necromancers are said to hiss
62; Gen. xxx. 2; xliv. 18, etc.).--On ver. 22. 0'377 Hiph.
xviii. 4; xxii. 11; xlii. 18 ; li. 1, 2, 6, ete. Zunii 778, and mutter, because they imitated the voice of the
distress and darkness," vid. comment, on ver. 30.dead in this fashion.-(
found again construed with $ Ezek. xiv. 7, or with 3 1 Sam. xxviii. 7up caligo “ obscurity," är. dey.-ps
xxx. 6; Prov. i. 27. -oox (again lviii. 10; lix 9) is 7, 2 Kings i. 2) by reason of Deut. xii. 30; xviii. 11, occurs in Isaiah three times; here, xi. 10; xix. 3; comp.
used for thick darkness, e. 9., Exod x. 22. n!!!? Job v. 8. The preposition is perhaps to be treated as some take in the sense of "scared away," so that the depending on the notion of “penetrating" that is con transition would begin here. 4 As to this time the natained in that of investigation.
tion will have been rejected, so from now on shall mis. On ver.20.minh is an exclamation, a sort of shout
fortune, as it were, be exiled " (DRECHSLER). But the of command. But if one must have a grammatical con
words 'D'OX are so completely co-ordinate with both
the foregoing members of the sentence, and on the struction, they may be taken as dependent on 1077 other hand the transition is so utterly without anything or OA (comp. Ler xix. 31: xx. 6), whereby the re to indicate it, that this meaning cannot be satişíactory. mark of Gesenius ( Thes. p. 728) obtains, that “prae
Others (K NOBEL, Delitzsch) explain after the analogy of mittitur homini, s rci locoque.” Delitszch compares Jud. vii. 18. pirmasis nn's, but it is doubtful whether 3 (OXI 1977?. But this also seems too artificial." The 2on is not to be supplied there according to ver. 20.
omission of the subject, when it is especially looked for
on account of its generic difference from the subjects Expositors differ extraordinarily about xs-ox. The
of both the foregoing members, must raise a doubt, explanation is grammatically quite incorrect that makes 0x begin the apodosis, and construes it as a par
But no has by no means only the signification " to
scatter, disperse." In Dent. xx '9 it means impellere (seticle of asseveration or of the apodosis (')) VITRINGA, curim), 2 Sam. xv. 14, propellero, immittere (miseriam) ROSENMUELLER, GESENIUS, etc.). Others (DE WETTE, MAU Prov. vii. 21 depellere, “drive away; seduce." Why then · LER, Ew., HITZIG, DRECHSLER) take X7-08 as a form of may not noin 7598 mean tenebrae immissae, whereby, adjuration: "they will say truly." But this involves an because the notion dispellere undoubtedly lies in the evident contradiction. For how can he who turns to word, it may be taken in the sense of ab omni parte immisthe law and testimony curse his king and God in time sae, longe lateque diffusae ? Bo substantially SAADIA, KO
may be construed קלל
elsewhere it is) אֵל with דָרַשׁ-
Jer. xxii. 12, as if it read nur in 1987), or
;13 .comp . Job xxxiv) אֶרֶץ a poetic form of אַרְצָה
and the change from the words of God to the 8; xxxiii. 2; li. 5; lix. 9, 11; lx. 9; lxiv. 2), more distinctly marked than by the simple ! saken the house of Jacob (he evidently means before 'n'on. The mention of binding up and “this people,” the fleshly Israel) and hidden His sioned by the actions appropriate to the real docu- But he does not hope alone. His children hope ments (vid. Jer. xxxii. 9 sqq.). Having so dis- with him. This is significant. We know, inwill, the Prophet prayed the LORD to do still That our passage follows close on viii. 1-4, is no posed of the writing that contained his own deed, nothing about the age of the children. better, and enclose and seal up his testament proof that it originated in that period. Isaiah
care. As regards the incongruity of gender, it need give 11 nyn is not a conjunction “as,” but a preposiDo surprise. The predicate is to be construed as neuter: tion, and signifies the coincidence (ix. 2; Gen. xviii. 1, tenebrae immissum, expansum aliquid. It is apparent that 10, 14; xxxix. 18; Jud. ii. 4, etc.) – “about the first time.” in the three members of ver. 22 6 reigns the law of unity This first time "evidently extends to the dawn of the in manifoldness. For evidently these three members are
new time that begins with the Messiah; and ponan ny so far alike that in all of them the words are in pairs,
“last time" coincides therefore with Dian nox and the notion of darkness recurs as the chief one. But in the first member occurs hendiady 8 (distress and (ii
. 2).—42 means levem, tenuem, exilem esse (Gen. viii. darkness obscuring distress, or distressing obscurity), 11; Job vii. 6; Nah. i. 14; Jer. iv. 13, etc.), therefore the in the second both are merged into one notion, dimness Hiph. (again in Isaiah only, xxiii. 9) levem, exilem reddere. of anguish; in the third the predicate is added in an
a (. ; adjective, i. e., participial form.
xxxvii. 12).--71001871 is best construed as accusative On ver. 23. I construe the words s5 px ver. 20 on to of time. It might, indeed, be taken as nominative, but 1735 ver. 22 as a parenthesis, and refer 119 quios's elegance is against it. The same regions, that in the first to onlyn'sı ooins ver. 20. Where law and testimony clause of the verse are described as the object of the live in men's souls, there, spite of distress (prin only 5p? “ degrading,” are now, in the second clause, by here in Isaiah ; comp. Job xxxvi. 16; xxxvii. 10), is no 7227, glorifying.” (“ The English version supposes
other divisions and names, said to be the object of år. dey. notice in Mu-aph a re
a contrast that requires Spot to be taken in the sense verse vowel pointing from Ma-uph, ver. 22, a play of of lightly afflicting, as distinguished from 7'3??? to afwords that reflects the contrast of thought.--anti- flict more grievously. But this distinction is unauthocipates the idea of "land" contained in next clause. rized by usage."-J. A. ALEXANDER).
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1, I cannot help thinking that in this section in the hearts of his disciples. For the propriety we have a farewell address of the Prophet; as it of the metaphor, vid. Prov. iii. 3; vii. 3; Jer. xxxi. kere, his spiritual will. That it speaks of " dis- 33. They are the same as“ are written to life," Isa. ciples," whereas there is no mention of them else. iv. 3. As primarily “the law” means the Mosaic where, is a hint that here lies before us a written law, which was the basis and norm of all proarchive specially meant for them. What, then, phetic announcements (Deut. xiii. 1 sqq., xviii. could the Prophet have given his disciples in this 18 sqq.), and which the Prophets ever and again Written form, but something that must be valua- had to 'reimpress (Jer. xxix. 19), so Isaiah ble to them for the time, when he could no longer must mean by " the testimony” all additional communicate with them by word of mouth as he prophetic testimony, especially all threatenings could at that moment? Then, too, the prayer to and promises that referred to the future. In the the Lord, to seal in the disciples law and testi- prayer he makes for his disciples
, he does not mony, the emphatic reference to the pledges of intend the preservation of the divine testimony faith given in the persons of himself and his unto the proper time for its revelation, but he Sons, the warning against future seductions, and would thereby give to themselves the only true the reference to that which could give light and support and comfort for the evil days to come. comfort in the troublous days to be expected, - As, according to ver. 17, his faith in the word of have actually the spiritual testament of Isaiah to directs his disciples to the law and testimony,
warning them against every false comfort (ver. -my disciples. - Ver. 16. 19). Though Isaiah had primarily disciples and The opening words of this will connect appro- scholars in mind, we need not suppose he priately with the LORD's words of exhortation was at the head of a school of prophets. What Ver. 13. I have no doubt that the words ver. 16, he would teach them was religious truth, not to are addressed to Jehovah. For only the LORD prophesy. And thus about this group of scholars
, phets might seal a Book roni
, or declare that the salem and Judah that had any heart for the meaning of a prophecy® is to be shut up till a cere spiritual jewels of Israel.
3. I will wait--in mount Zion.--Vers. this toi, 10; Isa. xxix. 11;" Jer. li.60
' sqq. and 17, 18. This affords a touching insight into the reve comment); but they cannot real the divine personal life of the Prophet. He enforces the the following verses the Prophet is the speaker, poster Lord, and waits (vid. v. 4; XXV. 9 ; xxvi. elation in the hearts of men. Moreover, in all prayer just made by confessing that he holds fast
sense was perhaps occa- face (comp. 1. 6; liii. 3; liv. 8; lix. 2; Ixiv. 6).
2. Bind up
would hardly at that time have designated his. Thus the words 131 wa are to be construed inchildren (plural) as companions of his faith. terrogatively: "For the living (shall one inFor Maher-shulal was hardly yet born, and this quire of) the dead ?" circumstance speaks rather for later composition.
4. To the law Galilee of the nations. Isaiah knows that his children are not only chil- 1 - Vers. 20-23 (ix. 1). Now Isaiah refers his dren of his body, but of his spirit too. They disciples to the divine source of light and comare miraculous children, products, not only of fort, which alone can keep them upright in the nature, but of the divine effective power. (Rom. impending evil days. Whoever does not find ix. 7 sqq. : Gal. iv. 28 sq.). Therefore, not only these his support, will undoubtedly be destroyed. are his an l their names prophetic, but their birth, Who shall say: “ To the law and the testitoo, is such ; at least that of Maher-shalal. Thus mony?” All that have no dawn. They are such they are by their existence as by their names as nowhere see in any outward relations a ray of hinx, signii, tutOL Tov utahovtoç (Rom. v. 14) light, that announces the day of salvation. When “finger boards,” and Dinois, miraculous pledges such see no inward comfort and support by means of miracles. “ Which Jehovah has given me;" by of God's word, they wander oppressed and hunthese words Isaiah points to the support of his gry, etc. As hunger smarts, it readily happens hope. For why should not we hope in God who that such fall into a bitter rage and curse their has done such wonders? Our passage, moreover, king and God, thus both the heavenly and earthly recalls the words of Joshua xxiv. 15: “I and government, as being to blame for their suffermy house will serve the LORD"
ings. Most expositors understand by 1040 “his 4. And when they shall say--to the king” that a divinity is meant; and only differ dead. -Ver. 19. The Prophet now adds a as to whether, according to Ps. v. 3; lxviii. 25, Warning azuinst seduction to idolatrous necro- Jehovah is meant, (so J. A. ALEXANDER and mancy. And does not this warning give the im- BARNES] or, according to Am. v. 26; Zeph. i. 5; preision of proceeding from a man who is on the the idols ; agreeing that “ king” and “God” point of leaving his own, and who, before his de
mean the same person. But against this speaks : parture, seeks to protect them against impending 1. ? occurring twice ; 2. the following “he danger? “And when they shall say," presents
Simithe superstition as at hand and to be dreaded. looks upward and to the earth he looks." From ii. 6; iii. 2 sq., we see that various sorts
lar blasphemy is described as a symptom of the of superstitious divination were practised among anti-Christian time Rev. xvi. 9, 11, 2i. the Jews at that time. Such were expressly for
Wherever the wretched look, above or to earth, bidden in the law. Comp. Lev. xix 31; xx. 6, everywhere presents itself only the mournful 27 ; Deut. xviii. 10, 11." In all these passages sight of dark distress. DIIK “familiar spirits” and D'IT' “wizards
About the first time, etc.—Ver. 23 (ix. 1). are named together, and Deut. xviii. 11 the words The Prophet now intimates what sort of light necromancer are expressly
shall arise to the believing from the law and testi
mony. He shall know from the prophecy, which added : so that Isaiah seems to have had this the Prophet with these very words gives to his passage in mind.
own (to which however, others still are added The second clause of the verse, “should not,” | later), that the North of Palestine, which hereto etc., is usually regarded as the reply of the be- fore was little regarded compared with the South, lieving disciples to those who tempted them [J. shall attain to great honor, and become a place A. ALEXANDER). But this seems to me unne of great blessing to the whole land. He evi
It is primarily the answer that Isaiah dently refers to the Messianic time, and intimates himself gives, and it is to be understood that the that the glory of it will illuminate in an eminent disciples are to reply to the same effect. Accord way that northern region of Palestine. More ing to the Prophet, those seductive temptations particularly as to the how ? and when ? the Proare to be met by two arguments. First, he urges phet does not know. If it is asked why he prethat every nation must inquire of its god as the dicts this just here, we may see the ground for it chief disposer of its destiny. Therefore Israel in the fact that at that time, it was just from that onght to turn to Jehovah. It appears from this northern quarter of the Ten Tribes, that great that the Prophet assumes the position that Je danger threatened Judah. The war with Syria hovah is the national god of Israel, without chal- and Ephraim was the occasion of this whole se lenging the existence of other gods, and that he ries of prophecies. The gaze of the Prophet is emassumes that those tempters recognize Jehovah phatically fastened on the North. What wonder as the proper national god. (God of the fathers). if on this occasion he not only predicts the imThe second argument Isaiah takes from the re- pending judgment of this northern land, but also presentation of the ancients of the relation of the lihe glory in store for it! dead to the living. Only he that lives in the Zebulon was bounded on the North by Naphbody lives really. By death he sinks deep down. tali, eastward by the sea of Galilee, westward Comp. FRIEDR., NAGELSBACH, Homer. Theol. VII. by Asher and Phænicia (comp. Josh. xix. 10
Nach homer. Theol. VII. % 14 899. But sqq.). Naphtali possessed the north-east of how nearly Hebrew representations approach Canaan west of Jordan, for it touched the base those of classic antiquity, may be seen from of Antilebanon, was bounded on the east by the passages like xiv. 9 sqq ; Ezek. xxvi. 20 sq.; sea of Galilee, on the south by Zebulon, and on xxxi. 14 sqq. ; xxxii. i7 sqq. ; Isa. xxxviii. 18 the west by Asher. (Josh. xix. 32 sqq.). As Bq.; Ps. vi. 6: lxxxviii. 4 sqq.; Job xiv. 10"the way of the sea,” according to the context, 899. It is therefore folly, nonsense, to seek any must be a land inhabited by Israelites, it cannot help for the living among those gone down deep. I be the coast of the Mediterranean, as some have
.. דרשׁ אל-המתים
& 14 899
supposed; for Phoenicians dwelt there. It can shall be revealed in Galilee, and from out Tibeonly be the coast of the DD' " the sea of rias shall the redemption dawn." But Matthew Chinnereth“(Num. xxxiv. 11; Josh. xii. 3; xiii. sees in the fact that Jesus came and dwelt in )
" bank of Jordan,” is East Jor- Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast in the dan land. The expression, with and without borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim" a fulfilthe sun-rising,” is extremely common (Gen. 1. ment of our prophecy, and justly (vid. Matt. iv. 10 sq.; Num. xxxv. 14; Deut. i. 1,5; Josh. i. 13 sqq.!. For that the Prophet notices such spe14 sq.; ii. 10, etc.). The region 'named here cial traits of the Messianic picture of the future
as the ante-nuptial conception, and the going forth D'un 5072 " Galilee of the nations,” (år. Qey.), from Galilee will not surprise those who reflect was originally called S-5201
, “the Galilee,” (the that these special matters are no trifles, but of
greatest importance, and thus in a high degree bent, the circuit, circulus, annulus, comp. 7) worthy of prophetic notice For they belong esand was a part of Naphtali. Comp. Josh. xx. sentially to that fundamental character of the 7; xxi. 32; 1 Chr. vi. 61; 1 Macc. ii. 63. The plan of redemption, whereby the Redeemer and region is called also 5-777? (1 Kings ix. 11), mility and ignominy to honor and glory.
His kingdom shall rise out of the depth of huand 7an (2 Kings xv. 29).
[J. A. ALEXANDER with HENDERSON, CocIn Jud. i. 30-33 we are told that, as elsewhere,
CEIUS and others regard the words ver. 16 as the Canaanites were not exterminated from this spoken to the Prophet “ by God, or, as some supregion. From the nature of things, in a region pose, by the Messiah, the 07?? mentioned in 80 distant from the national sanctuary, the the foregoing verse; and likewise vers. 17 and 18, heathen element would increase more than else because there is no intimation of a change in the where. The continual intercourse with neigh-speaker, and because Heb. ii. 13, v. 17 is quoted boring heathen in war and peace, moreover, the as the words of the Messiah, not as an illustradepriving the land of its Israelite inhabitants by tion, but as a proof that Christ partook of the Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings xv. 29) may have grad same nature with the persons called His children. ually given the heathen element a preponderance. DELITZSCH and v. HOFMANN (vid. their comment From the New Testament, we know that the on Heb. ii. 13), who agree in treating these words Jews looked down on the Galileans with a cer- of vers. 16-18 as the Prophet's, and yet recogtain contempt (Jno. i. 46; vii. 41, 52; Acts ii. nize a typical and prophetic reference to Christ, 7). When, Jno. vii. 41 the Jews questioned explain the use made of this in Heb. l. c. by the whether the Messiah would come out of Galilee, canon: "it admits of no doubt that the writers when they, ver. 52, asserted, too, that not even a of the New Testament, allow themselves to quote Prophet was to come out of Galilee, it is the utterances of typical Old Testament personages more remarkable that, as DELITZSCH quotes, con
oncerning themselves as utterances, and words Talmud and Midrasch say: that "the Messiah of Christ." DELITZSCH.—TR.].
b) The light of the future proceeding from a child that is to be born of the
race of David.
CHAPTER IX. 1-6. (2-7). 2 (1) The people that walked in darkness, have seen a great light: They that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them bath the light
And 'not increased the joy :
And as men rejoice when they divide the spoil.
And the staff of his shoulder,
As in the day of Midian.
And garments rolled in blood;
* But this shall be with burning and 'fuel of fire. 6 (5) For unto us a child is born,
Unto us a son is given :