Obrazy na stronie

finger-board for the remote future (vii. 17 sqq.), indeed know of prophecies of which she was the all this was calculated to em bitter him and his authoress, but she, along with other things of the against the Prophet. Had, therefore, the Pro- Prophet's family, was set for a sign and wonder phet announced publicly the pregnancy of his (ver. 18). wife, the mother and child might have incurred Our exposition of vii. 14 of itself shows that danger. This was easiest avoided by imparting the present history is not coincident with vii. 10 the announcement only to witnesses, who, how- sqq., and therefore that Maher-shalal is not ever, were in such esteem with the nation, that identical with Immanuel. Yet the present nartheir assurance that they had at the proper time rative is nearly related to vii. 10 sqq. In both, received such a communication from the Prophet pregnancy and the birth of a son are pledges of was universally credited. Then we obtain the deliverance. In both, a stage of development in following chain of events First, the tablet. the child is made the measure that defines the This, makes known in general that the LORD. period of the deliverance. But a child can say purposes a great crisis of war, and that it is to father and mother, sooner than it can distinguish be looked for shortly. Immediately thereupon between good and evil. If then, as also the place the witnesses receive the announcement of the of the passage in the book, indicates, what is pregnancy of the Prophetess, The son is born, now narrated, took place somewhat later than the and thereby, on the authority of the witnesses, is events vii. 10 sqq., it agrees very well. Both have given to all, the pledge that the event to which the same objective end, viz., the rendering harmthe inscription of the tablet and the correspond- less Syria and Ephraim. Therefore the later one ing name of the child pointed, shall really come must use the shorter time measure. As Pekah

and Rezin lived during the events prophesied Whether Uriah is the priest mentioned, 2

here, yet the former died B. c. 739, so the transKings xvi. 10 sqq. [BARNES, J. A. ALEX" actions related here must fall between B. c. 748 the temple the altar made after the heathen pat: border regions (2 Kings xv. 29). But as ANDER), who, out of regard for Ahaz, placed in and 739. The king of Assyria did not at that

He only desolated a few identical with the one said to be the author of showed at vii. 17, that the prophecy contemplated Zech. ix-xi., or with the son of Asaph (2 Chr. two events, in wardly related, but separated as to xxix. 13).

time, so it is here. That first, preliminary de

vastation of the region of Ephraim bears the Isaiah's wife is hardly called Prophetess, be- later one (2 Kings xvii. 6) so really in it, that cause she was the wife of a Prophet, but because the Prophet is justified in comprehending both she herself was a prophetic woman. We do not together.

to pass.





CHAP. VIII. 5-8. 5 TOE LORD spake also unto me again, saying, 6 For as much as this people 'refuseth

The waters of Shiloah that go softy,

And rejoice 'in Rezin and Remaliah's son; 7 Now therefore, behold, the LORD bringeth up upon them

The waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory; And he shall come up over all his channels,

And go over all his banks;
8 And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over,

He shall reach even to the neck ;
And the stretching out of his wings shall fill
The breadth of thy land, O Immanuel.

1 Heb. the fulness of the breadth of thy land shall be the stretching out of his wings.



• over into.

a the flapping of his, ata


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TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 6. 789 90comp. at vii. 10.—? is com-, vii. 1; ix. 14; xxvi. 5; Joel ii. 2,5; Mic. iv.3; Zech. viii pounded of UX (1 Kings xxi. 27) lenitas and the prefix. 22; Diy y signifying rather the intensive, 27 the exThe prefix is used like in nuas, 39 (Ewald, & 217 d); notion of roight," as elsewhere that of riches (1. 3;

tensive greatness. -73 here involves the secondary comp. Gen. xxxiii. 14; 2 Sam. xviii. 5; Job xv. 11.

Ixi. 6; Ixvi. 12, the last citation seeming to stand in inCorrections of the reading like Didn (Meier ="faint- tentional contrast with our passage. Comp. the Latin ing away before Rezin," z. 18) and vivipa (“ and blind opes). Knobel regards 790-18 to 1713) as a gloss, begroping seized,” BOETTCHER Aehrenl. p. 30, comp. Job v. cause “good poets do not add explanatory notes to their 14 are unnecessary. Isaiah often uses the verb voin metaphors." As if Isaiah were only a poet, and had not, (xxxv. 1; Ixi. 10; Ixii. 5; Ixiv. 4; Ixv. 18 sq ; lxvi. 10, too. a very practical interest! Comp. vii. 17, 20.14) and the substantive jivy (xii. 3; xxii. 13; xxxv. 10 ; (not again in Isaiah) is the bed of a torrens, synonymous li. 3, 11; Ixi. 3) and viun (xxiv. 8, 11; xxxii. 13 sq.; Ix. with 5073 (Josh. i. 20; iv. 18); 1171. plur. tantum, in Isa 15; lxii. 5; lxv. 18; Ixvi. 10). Here viup seems chosen only here; besides Joel iii. 15; iv. 18; 1 Chr. xii. 15 Kori for the sake of a paranomasia with DAP The follow- (beside K'thib ni?)

, is from 777?, kindred to 771 ing nx cannot be the sign of the accusative, because cidit, secuit, is “the indentation, the shore-line, the

shore." the subject of joy is never so designated. It resembles the proposition like lxvi. 10 (viv? nnx 100). Joy

On ver. 8. g?(comp. on ii. 18) is originally with Rezin and Pekah is the rejoicing that is felt in com

change" thence transire (to change place, whence “to munion, in connection with these rulers. Moreover the change ” in hunters' language said of wild game). Comp.

xxi. 1; xxiv. 5. you

, substantive vion is dependent on py", which accord

the pressing forward (both notions joined as in xxviii. ingly governs two clauses, a verbal and a nominal clause. Thus, too, DRECHSLER. There is then no need 15, 18), y? 1813-7y the height of the water.--nium for regarding iyiu?

as the status absol. according to from 101 “to spread out,” are the out-spreadings, exEWALD, 8351, 6. According to a usage especially common

pansiones; än. dey.--The sing. 17'71 is in consequence with Isaiah, the status constr. stands before the preposi- of the verb coming first —7 is to be construed in

an active sense (comp. vi. 3; xxxi. 4; xxxiv. 1; xlii. 10). On ver. 7. 391 Diy y combined like Exod. i. 9; Deut. 1 207 not again in Isaiah.



עבר ,means the spreading out


EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. This section has the external mark of a sup- sendeth the springs,” Ps. civ. 10; hence áreotahplement in the transition formula “the LORD pévos "sent" Jno. ix. 7; comp. EWALD & 156 a). spake also again,” which occurs again only vii. It occurs only here, John ix. 7 and Luke xiii. 10, and which here as well as there intimates | 4, in which last place is told of the tower of Sithat an interval occurred between these words loam (so LXX and New Testament, Aqu. and and what goes before. But the contents, too, SYMM., THEOD. spell the name Einwá : Vulg.: show that we have no immediate and necessary amplification of the foregoing words and deeds Siloe). Yet the name 1750 which the ben nan? before us. Nothing more is said of the son of the

pool of Siloah,” Neh. iii

. 15, bears is very proProphet. Rather the language turns suddenly bably identical 'with our Shiloah. The descent against the Ephraimites who contemned the quiet between the fountain of Mary above and the founfountain of Shiloah, i. e. David's kingdom, and tain of Siloam is very little, therefore the flow is rejoiced in communion with Rezin and the son very gentle and soft. of Remaliah (ver. 6). Therefore the floods of

The weak brooklet, welling up at the foot of the Euphrates, which the Prophet himself ex- Moriah and Zion, represents the unobservable plains as meaning the king of Assyria, shall over- nature of the kingdom of God in the period of its flow Ephraim (ver. 7), but of course Judah also, earthly humility. It recalls the form of a serthe land of Immanuel (ver. 8). The mention of vant which the Lord assumed, and the “I

am Rezin and Pekah, the calling Judah land of Im- meek and lowly in heart” (Matth. xi. 29); This manuel, and the threatening of overflow by An- feature is prominent in all the stages of the hissyria, prove that these words belong to the same tory of salvation. Outwardly Israel was the least period as the preceding chief prophecies. And as of all nations (Deut. vii. 7); Bethlehem was the the expression “Immanuel

presupposes the least of the cities of Judah (Mic. v. 1); David transactions narrateri vii, 10, the insertion of this section at this place is completely explained.

was the youngest among his brothers, and his fa2. The Lord_Remaliah's son.-Vers. election of a king (1 Sam. xvi. 11 fqq.). So, too,

ther supposed he must be of no account at the 5,6. Most authorities agree that the fountain of at the time of our present history, the kingdom Shiloah or Siloam is on the south side of Jerusa- of David was very small and weak amid the lem; vid. Robinson's Palestine, Vol. I. p. 501-505. world-powers. If now and then it arose to greatThe name (written ibo, ribe and ribu) means er power, that makes but one resemblance more to

the intermittent fountain of Shiloah. emissio, or emissus (comp. Dosyp nhunn, " He And rejoice, etc. The passage is easily ex.

upon them"

plained if one only notices that the Prophet does / spreading out its wings, to which he is evidently not till ver. 8 represent the swelling stream as moved by the fact that the floods of water mean overflowing also the territory of Judah. Then army hordes. Accordingly, he designates the

ver. 7 means those whom the As- wings of the army as the wings of the extended syrian stream, that comes in from the north, over- flood. Because the space covered by the exflows first. That is evidently the Ephraimites. panded wings coincides with the breadth of the Therefore by the people ver. 6, to whom “upon sand, so it may be said that the stretching out of them” refers back, must, at least primarily, be the wings is at the same time the filling up of the understood the nation of the Ten Tribes. The land. It is very significant that the Prophet nation Israel, then, i. e. Ephraim looks down con- closes his address so emphatically with the word temptuously on the kingdom of Judah as on a “Immanuel.” He signifies thus that the land is weak flowing brooklet, and meanwhile with proud Immanuel's, and that consequently the violence self-complacency rejoices in its own king and in is done to Immanuel. It is plain that Immanuel the alliance with the Syrian king that added to is written as a proper name, from the suffix in his strength. This haughtiness shall not escape 7378. Yet most editions separate the words, the avenging Nemesis. From the Euphrates and several versions too, as LXX. and ARAM., shall mighty foods of water overflow first Eph- translate accordingly. The occasion for this is the, raim and then Judah. [“To understand this it of course, correct notion that in the word there is an is necessary to remark that the Euphrates annual intimation of comfort that is to be the stay of Israel ly overflows its banks."-BARNES). That by in that great tribulation. But evidently the Prothis is meant the king of Assyria with all his phet has immediately in mind a person, whom he glorious army, Isaiah himself proceeds to explain. addresses. He turns to Him who is predicted in It is a proof that the Prophet before this had the the birth of that child vii. 14. Although He is a territory of Israel in mind, that here he makes person of the future, still the Prophet knows Him 80 prominent the trespassing of the waters into as one already present. How else could he turn Judah's territory, the spreading beyond its bor- to Him with this lamentation? Herein, then, ders. Iu ver. 8 b, the Prophet by a glorious lies a preparation for what the Prophet says of figure compares the volumes of water to a bird the promised one in the predicates of ix. 5 (6).


9 ASSOCIATE yourselves, O ye people, "and ye shall be broken in pieces ;

And give ear, all ye of far countries :
Gird yourselves, band ye shall be broken in pieces :

Gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces.
10 Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought;

Speak the word, and it shall not stand :

For God is with us. 11 For the LORD spake thus to me 2 with a strong hand,

And instructed me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying, 12 Say ye not, A confederacy,

To all them to whom this people shall say, A confederacy;

Neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. 13 Sanctify the Lord of Hosts himself; And let him be your fear, and let him be your

dread. 14 And he shall be for a sanctuary ;

But for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence
To both the houses of Israel,

For a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 15 And many among them shall stumble,

And fall, and be broken,
And be snared, and be taken.

• Heb. in the strength of hand. Break ye nations, break to

6 and break in pieces.

with pressure of the hand. as often as this people, etc.

1 Or, yet.


d To warn me not to walk.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 9. fyn. The forms and meanings of the roots this root has been transferred the meaning, too, of 1997. yyn, yin and yn croes each other in a peculiar man- Although originally 397 has the meaning malum esse, as ner. yy'n can only come from the root


; but to appears from the imperf. Niph. yin? (Prov. xi. 15; ziil

does not designate the object that לכל וגו .12

.On ver


sustain an adverbial relation to one התאזרו וחתו tires

20) which can only be derived from a root '93, yet this The preposition so is to be treated as dependent on the root never occurs in Kal., but all Kal forms that mean

notion of "holding back, restraining," contained in * to be evil” are to be derived from a root yun (comp.

InD' (constructio praegnans). Num. xi. 10, then the adjective y_ , and perhaps, too,

. the forms 1777 Dent. xv. 9; 2 Sam. xix. 8 and infin. y is given a name. For then the second member must Eccl. vii. 3). On the other hand yyn has undoubtedly


, Drecusler the meaning "to break” (Ps. ii. 9; Jer. xi. 16; xv. 12, etc.). We must therefore choose here between the mean: justly remarks,” before 5o – darauf hin, bei, “ at,” ings "be evil” and “break." With DRECHSLER and “ with,” and his has the meaning cunque (compare others, I prefer the latter, because “ be wicked” and nur-43-488 Prov. xvii. 8, “whither-so-ever"). Not so "break in pieces" involve no contradiction; for wherefore may not what is wicked also break in pieces ? (“GE often as those

, not incessantly shall they eay hop, EENIUS in his latest lexicons gives this verb its usual if there were nothing in the world to fear but this. X710 sense of being evil, malignant, which is also expressed only here in Isaiah. - Wyn Hiph. in Isaiah also ver. by LUTHER (scid böse, ihr Volker). It is bere equiva- 13 and xxix. 23. Kal. ii. 19, 21; xlvii. 12. From xxix. lent to do your worst.” J. A. ALEXANDER.]. —PM?? 23 it is seen that Isaiah uses the word in the sense of frequent in Isaiah (x. 3; xiii. 5; xvii. 13; xxx. 27; xlvi. “ timere aliquid;" in our passage it means "to fear" and 11; plural opna xxxiii. 17). —— The double impera ver. 13 “ to affright.” Thus it appears that Isaiah uses

the Hiph. sometimes as indirect, sometimes as direct another: break up yet break in pieces yourselves; gird causative, and then uses the latter in a transitive sense. ye yourselves, and spite of it break in pieces. Comp.

On ver. 13. In DDR Isaiah has evidently in mind. GESEX., & 130, 2. The former word seems to me not to

Gen. ix. 2; Deut. xi. 25. mean bellum parare, for the war is far progressed; but

On ver. 14. wypo (again in Isa. xvi. 12; 1x. 13; lxiii. 18) in accord with the proper vis vocabuli, the girding the

means sanctuary generally, here evidently with the adloins, bracing oneself up as men are wont to do in the

ditional notion of asylum (comp. 1 Kings i. 50 sq. ; midst of an attack. On ver. 10. pay only here and Judg. xix. 30. On n73 y.

ii. 28 sqq.). 1 before y28% is adversative.—71) only comp.on v. 19.

(. xxxiii. 21; Zecb. xi. 11).--Other forms of 770; xiv. " that over which one stumbles," (again lvii. 14; 118 27; xxiv. 5, 19; xxxiii. 8; xliv. 25.

hoan only here).-ND (mayis, “cord,” vid. xxiv. 17 On ver. 11. opiņ wherever else it occurs (2 Chr. xii

. sq.). wpis “loop-snare” of the bird-catcher, only here 1; xxvi. 16; Dan. xi. 2) means “the being strong," and

in Isaiah. is used everywhere of the fortified power of a potentate. To npin is therefore “ the hand being strong." It is

On ver. 15. The operation of boven and no are in the hand of God that comes over the prophets (Ezek. i.

ver. 15 represented by five verbs, of which the first 3; iii. 22; viii. 1; xxxiii. 22; xxxvii

. 1; xl. 1) and in fact three relate to 943 and 5w3n, and the last to no and our expression signifies the condition that Ezekiel de wpis.—Many, e. g., Gesenius, Hirzia, Umbreit, refer 17' iii. 14.- Dy to the two notions of stone and snare.

But as Kno., ! BEL justly remarks, it is a “chief thought of Isaiah that the imperf. stands as jussive with the Vav,consec. (Comp. the judgments overtake the sinners; the pious are left EWALD, 2 347 a). "70") is, then, pot co-ordinate with as a remnant: i. 25, 28; vi. 13; xxviii. 18 sq.; xxix. 20 10X 77) as K NOBEL and even Ewald would have it; but sq.; xxxiii. 14."-- Son comp. iii. 8 Niph. 700) xiv. it continues and declares the object of Top npins, 29 ; xxiv. 10; xxvii. 11; xxviii. 13; xli. 1.--up xxix. co-ordinate with the latter, subordinate to the former 21; xxviii. 13, in which last cited passage the verbs here (DELITZSCH . As regards the form, the imperf. 10' un. derlies it, which Hos. x. 10 is used in the first person.- | in Isaiah only xx. 1; xxiv. 18.

. מכשל.dr.ley אבן נגף only here in Isaiah

here in Isaiah and moreover תפר Pual-

עֲלֵי חָזְקָה seribes with the words But יסרני cannot be the perf

. , or it must read וסיני


again לכר--נפלו employed are repeated excepting

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Having reproved the perverse policy of the 9, is contrasted with "this people," ver. 6. The earthly-minded Israel, the Prophet proclaims to Prophet plainly addresses nations, that arm the nations conspiring against Judah that they, themselves against the land of Immanuel, dethe breakers-in-pieces, shall themselves be broken vise plans, issue commands... Nothing shall come in pieces (vers. 9, 10). Then he says-turning to this. Comparing vii. 7, it is seen that the spiritually-minded Israel—the LORD has em- Syria and Ephraim must be meant here. A rephatically warned them against the ways of the markable contrast is put, when he that has broken fleshly-minded (ver. 11) and forbidden them to others to pieces himself breaks to pieces. Syria regard the conspiracy of the enemies as most to and Ephraim had already done Judah considerabe dreaded (ver. 12). Jehovah ought to be feared ble harm (comp. on vii. 1, 2); ver. 9, they are (ver. 13). He is to the one a sanctuary (asylum), challenged to prepare still more, but spite of the to the others, a stone of stumbling and a snare breaking already accomplished, and these first (ver. 14, 15).

attempts, they shall themselves be broken to 2. Associate--God is with us.-Vers. pieces. The Prophet moreover summons distant 9, 10. These words are addressed to the Diny nations to take notice of this for their own warn

ing. The clause: "give ear--countries” is a “peoples ;" vers. 5–8 were addressed to “this parenthesis. As the Prophet repeats the words people," ver. 6. Evidently then “peoples," ver. of vii. 7 " and it shall not stand, with little al

-ac יִקְשֵׁר

teration, he intimates that he has the same matter xxix. 23, the only other instance of this Hiph.); in his mind. And in fact vii. 5 sq., speaks of He ought to be the object of fear, the terror-maker. "evil counsel" on the part of Syria and Ephraim In such a case He will be for man a safe, sheltering, against Judah, the land of Immanuel, as here of holy asylum (comp. Ps. xv. 1; xviii. 3; xxiii. 6; taking counsel together," and speaking a lxxxiv. 5). But He will be a stone of stumbling

Therefore the word.”

By this arises the conspiracy (787.) to those that fear, Him not. spoken of ver. 12, which can mean nothing but be destroyed just by the Lord. It would

two houses of Israel, Judah and Ephraim, shall

have the alliance of the two states named. 5 n30

y 3. been better for this fleshly Israel, had it never For the third and last time we have the words known the LORD. Jerusalem is mentioned exImmanuel. They must certainly be read sepa- pressly, because, as capital city, its example had rate here as a clause. They express the idea of great influence. To ii the LORD will be a snare. the name as an independent judgment. The [J. A. ALEXANDER on vers. 12-14. world-power must shiver on the rock Israel, cording to etymology and usage, is a treasonable for it is thereby the strong rock in that God is combination or conspiracy. It is elsewhere comwith it. But this strong rock is not the 'Iopaña. cap-monly applied to such a combination on the part Kerós, but the 'lopana TVEVPLOTERÓS (not the fleshly of subjects against their rulers (2 Kings xi. 14; Israel, but the spiritual Israel]. Comp. Ps. ii. xii. 21 ; xiv. 19; xv. 30). It is not strictly ap

3. For the Lord--your dread.- Vers. plicable, therefore, to the confederacy of Syria 11-13. Judah is safe from the breaker-in-pieces, and Israel against Judah (GESENIUS, ROSENfor God is with it (ver. 10). That is, in a cer

MULLER, HENDERSON, etc.), nor to that of Ahaz • tain sense, not unconditionally. For the LORD with the king of Assyria (BARNES, etc.). It

will be an asylum only to those who fear and would be more appropriate to the factious comsanctify Him; but to others, who fear men more binations among the Jews themselves (ABEN than Him, He will be their fall. “For the Ezra, Kimchi), if there were any trace of these LORD spake thus,” etc. : "for," relates to the in history. The correct view seems to be: that thought contained in the words Immanuel, God the opposition of the Prophet and his followers is with us." This thought is both established

to seeking foreign aid, viz. : Assyrian, as a violaand limited by what follows. For God is with tion of duty to Jehovah, like the conduct of Jerethat part of the people only that fears Him miah during the Babylonian siege, was regarded above all things, loves and trusts Him alone. by the king and his adherents as a treasonable Therefore the Prophet says that this word of

combination to betray them to their enemies. the LORD was directed to him. But he is re

But God commands not to regard the cry of treapresentative of the believing Israel. Therefore son or conspiracy, nor to share the real or prever. 12 continues with "say ye not," and those tended terrors of the unbelievers." addressed are expressly distinguished from “this On ver. 14.07p?. Although the temples people,” ver. 11.

“Yo shall not say conspiracy."-Ver. of the gods were regarded as asylums by the 12. It is impossible that the Prophet can mean

Greeks and Romans, no such usage seems to have to say: “Ye shall not call everything conspiracy Constantine (BINGHAM's, Orig. Eccles. viii. 11,

prevailed among the Christians till the time of that people call conspiracy !” For what sort of confederations did they incorrectly call conspira- | 1). As to the Jews, the only case which has cies? May, perhaps, Pekah's alliance with been cited to establish such a practice seems to Rezin be justified here? Or is some conspiracy prove the contrary: So far was the altar from of the Prophet and his followers against Ahaz protecting Joab, that he was not even dragged (Roorda) approved of? Or, are the believing away, but killed on the spot. [The same obtains Ísraelites warned against taking part in conspira: Tr.). The word was meant to bear the same

with 1 Kings i. 50 sq., cited by NAEGELSBACH. cies (HOFMANN, DRECHSLER), which does not the least lie in the words ? According to vii. 2, relation to wopo (in ver. 13) that *710 bears

, . trees before the wind, when intelligence came to only proper object to be dreaded, feared and Jerusalem of the union of Syria with Ephraim. sanctified, i. e., regarded as a holy being in the At that time, assuredly, the political wiseacres widest and the most emphatic sense. might be seen in every corner putting their heads plained W700 corresponds almost exactly to the together, and anxiously whispering: : Greek tò iyrov, the term applied to Christ by the “conspiracy, conspiracy." They called the alli- angel who announced His birth (Luke i. 35). In

1 Pet. ii. 7, where this very passage is applied to ance of Pekalı with Rezin a . and saw therein, Christ, 1 tuuh seems to be employed as an equivaof course with some justice, the chief danger of lent to wipe as here used. To others he is a Judah. Thus, the Prophet adds, “and what stone of stumbling, but to you who believe He is they fear shall not ye fear.” It must therefore “ Toph, something precious, something honored, have been a conspiracy that was the subject of something looked upon as holy. The same apfear to the mass of the nation of Judah. The plication of the words is made by Paul, Rom. ix. meaning then is that men ought not to say con- 33. These quotations seem to show that the spiracy 80 often, not so incessantly to have this Prophet's words have an extensive import, and word in their months, and make the conspiracy are not to be restricted either to his own times the matter of greatest concern.

or to the times of Christ. The doctrine of the 4. Sanctify--be taken.-Vers. 13-15. text is, that even the most glorious exhibitions Here begins the antithesis, that says what ought of God's holiness, i. e., of His infinite perfection, to be. They ought to sanctify Jehovah, (comp. I may occasion the destruction of the unbeliever."]

Thus ex

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