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14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign;

Behold, a virgin “shall conceive, and bear a son,

And shall call his name Immanuel. 15 Butter and honey shall he eat,

"That he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good. 16 For before the child shall know

To refuse the evil, and choose the good,
The land that thou abhorrest

Shall be forsaken of both her kings. 17 The LORD shall bring upon thee,

And upon thy people, and upon thy father's house,
Days that have not come,
From the day that Ephraim departed from Judah ;

Even the king of Assyria.
18 And it shall come to pass in that day,

That the LORD shall hiss
For the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt,

And for the bee that is in the land of Assyria. 19 And they shall come, and shall rest all of them

In the desolate valleys, and in the holes of the rocks,

And upon all thorns, and upon all cebushes.
20 In the same day shall the LORD shave 'with a razor that is hired,

Namely, by them beyond the river, by the king of Assyria,
The head, and the hair of the feet:

And it shall also consume the beard. 21 And it shall come to pass in that day,

That a man shall snourish a young cow, and two sheep; 22 And it shall come to pass,

For the abundance of milk that bthey shall give he shall eat butter :
For butter and honey shall every one eat

That is left in the land.
23 And it shall come to pass in that day,

That every place 'shall be,
Where then were a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings,

It shall even be for briers and thorns.
24 With arrows and with bows shall men come thither;

Because all the land shall become briars and thorns.
25 And on all hills that shall be digged with the mattock,

Then shall not come thither 'the fear of briers and thorns :
But it shall be for the sending forth of oxen,
And for the treading of lesser cattle.

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TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. On ver. 10. 1990.1" occurs again in Isaiah only viii. 5. | 15 sqq.). The LXX. VULG., PEBCH., AraB. have it, and it

On ver. 11. The words (119 payn admit of several commends itself in point of sense very much. For explanations. But that must be excluded at once which when it says. " Descending deep into hell, or mounting reading 17x8 (with the tone on the ultima) takes the up to the height,” both members correspond admirably

But this conword as substantivo. For “request” is beo, and both in respect to sense and to sound. there is no reason for assuming that the Masorets struction is dubious. For the examples cited by EWALD punctuated falsely. The explanation is very old that 2 93, a, 3, rest all of them on this, that an existing or pos

sible form with a may be chosen in pause for the form takes 17hxv as a pausal form for 778W (Gen. xxxvii. with o in accordance with the law of variation. For 35; xlii. 38; xliv. 29, 31; Num. xvi. 30, 33; Ezek. xxxi. I there is no such thing as an o changed into a in pause.

TIT:

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TIT:

ונזה

TIT:

1 סְעָרָה ;19

.Dan
.
ix שְׁמָעָה סְלָחָה ;11

הַעֲמק

TIT:

Kings

לדעתו tion

.
Therefore

עָלַם and has nothing to do with

refore take hav as imperative (comp. | For this form is still to be found Gen. xxxiii. 11; Exod. ; , ; 1

v. 16 (?); Lev xxv, 21; xxvi. 34; Deut. xxxi. 29; Jer. xiii.

19; xliv. 23; 2 Kings ix. 37 (K'thib); Ps. cxviii. 23. It is Then

?

(xxix. 15; xxx. 33 ; xxxi. 6) seen that the form occurs most frequentiy in the Penta112707 (Ps. xiii. 5) are inff.abs. with a gerund sense: teuch, while Jer. xliv. 23 is a verbatim quotation from "going deep ask or mounting up high.”

Deut. xxxi. 29; and 2 Kings ix. 37, there exists likely an On ver. 12. 7028-8059 a paratactic construction.

error of the pen, thus leaving only two instances not in

the Pentateuch beside our verse. The form occurs noOn ver. 13. The construction Da wyon means ori. where else in Isaiah. ginally “is it from you out (from your point of view) a On ver. 15. That inych is not: "until his knowing," little ?" The 'y has a causal sense: because ye insult appears from this, that the Prophet would in that case my God. One sees that to insult men is a small matter, say that from his birth on to the years of discretion the an unsatisfying indulgence to your haughtiness. Comp. boy would be nourished with butter and honey, and Num. xvi. 9; Job xv. 11; Ezek. xxxiv. 18.

then no longer. Thereby, too, the prospect of a brief pe

riod of desolation for the land would be held out, which On ver. 14. Regarding 777 ?y it may be considered plainly is not the meaning of the Propbet. For Isaiah settled that directly and properly it can never signify & had in mind the periods of exile, both the Assyrian and married woman. It may, perchance, be used of a young the Babylonian, and neither comprises in itself and in

the Prophet's representation so short a period. That married woman, whose youth or youthful looks one

the latter is so is seen in the way he expresses himself would especially emphasize, like Ruth (ii. 5, 6) as a (ver. 17 sq.) on the occasion and extent of the desolayoung wife is called any2 But in point of fact no .

means: "toward the time of his such form of expression occurs in the Old Testament. knowing; or about the time.” Comp. 275, 27y ny? On the other hand a virgin, as such, (as virgo illibata) is på, vix, Ps. XXX. 6; Job xxiv. 14; Gen. iii. 8; viii. never called 77953. For the proper term for virgin is 1.; xlix. 27, etc.—7897 is “thick milk,” lac spissum, hana (Gen. xxiv. 16; Lev. xxi. 3, 13, 14; Deut. xxii. 14, (comp. Gen. xviii. 8; Judg. v. 25 ; Prov. xxx. 32), 19, 20; Jud. xix. 24; 2 Sam. xiii. 2, 18) and virginity is On ver. 16. That the Prophet says 079787 and not D'Syng (Deut. xxii. 15, 17; Judg. xi. 37 sq. ; Ezek. xxiii. 1787, has for its reason doubtless that he would desig. 3,8) . tpyy is fem. of opy (1 Sam. xvii. 66; XX. 22) nate Syria and the territory of the Ted Tribes by one

" to conceal." oby,

word. But the two together did not constitute an pox, however, is from a root oby, kindred to Say (trans. su

but a land complex in a physical sense.-On

YPF

comp

at ver. 6. gere, potare, intr. redundare, succulentum, vegetum esse). occurs in Hebrew only in the words

On ver. 17. The form of expression 1x3 x3 70x is

like Exod. x. 6; xxxiv. 10; Dan. ix. 12. The construction oby, opsy, ophy (atas juvenilis of women Isa. liv.

101 Drish is like Jer. vii. 7, 25; xxv. 11. All that follows 4, of men Ps. Ixxxix. 46; Joh xx. 11; xxxiii. 25) more common in the dialects, where it has the meaning of

depends as one notion on the distributive 5. Without “becoming fat, thick, strong, mature, manly.” nohy ? Exod. x. 6. occurs (not to count the musical term

On ver. 18. 1777 Dil) 7171, this formula occurs Ps. xlvi. 1; 1 Chron. xv. 20) six times : Gen. xxiv. 43;

vers. 21, 23; x. 20, 27; xi. 10, 11; xvii. 4; xxii. 20; xxiii.

15; xxiv. 21; xxvii. 13, and not again. In this formula Exod. ii. 8; Prov. xxx. 19; Ps. Ixviii. 26; Song of Sol. i. 3; vi. 8. In none of these passages can it be proved to

Ol' does not designate only a day in the ordinary sense, have the sense of virgo illibata or conjug. Especially riod, like we use the word “ period.”—-3131 only here

but, according to circumstances, an undetermined pefrom Song of Sol. it appears that the third class of the occupants of Solomon's harem comprised the night which, however, has become naturalized in Hebrew.

in Isaiah.—78 is an Egyptian word (comp. on xix. 6) Was virginity characteristic of them? Prov. xxx. 19 is

It is partly appellative, and as such means “ ditches" difficult. According to all the foregoing it seems to me (Exod. v ii. 1; Isa. xxxiii. 21) and rivers (Nah. iij. 8;

a , Dan. xii. 5); partly a proper name, and as such means .

the Nile (xix. 7,8; xxiii. 10). The Dino 18' (comp. generally, and may be used of men as well as of women,

xix. 6; xxxvii. 25; 2 Kings xix. 24) are the canals of the

Nile (Exod. viii. 1). ()

Ding is är, dey. If it is kindred to young woman, still fresh, young and unmarried, without regard to whether still a virgin in the exact sense.-

ning (v. 6) which is most probable, it means abscissum

(found 7777 Vol 07307, that these words may be read : “ be- praeruptum, the steep side of a wady.—PP} hold, the virgin is pregnant," is owned by every one. beside only Jer. xiii. 4; xvi. 16) is, as appears plain from The expression occurs twice beside. Gen. xvi. 11 the Jer. xiii. 4, " the cleft."-

--p93y2 (again only lv. 13) is angel says to Hagar, who was already pregnant:

“the thornbush; !

xl. 11; xlix. 10; li. 18, * to lead to pasture") pascuum, the passage has, moreover, so much resenıblance to ours that we must suppose that it was in the Prophet's mind.

pasture, grazing ground. Judg, xiii. 5, 7, it is at least very probable, considering

. . Ver. 12, that the wife of Manoah was already pregnant. subs. abstractum (conductio), but may be also fem. of The form MN?, in the original passage, Gen. xvi. 16, is

TV (conductus, “ hired") occurs nowhere else. This 2 pers. fem. In our passage it may also be 3 pers. fem.

). ) ,

עָלַם The latter

:

עלמות

but not ,עַלְמָה is indeed a בְּתוֹלָה certain that every is the time of youth עֲלוּמִים As .בְּתוּלָה a עַלְמָה every is the עלמה could not be said of men ) then בְּתוּליס)

On ver. 19.

Sanz (from 2003. Exod. xv. 13; Isa.

This הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ שְׁמָעאל

שכירה .only here in Isaiah תער and גלח .20

.On ver

,without article נהר בעברי נהר razor is to be had

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like Mich. vii. 12, and Jer. ii. 18 (which passage, more On ver. 21. 783 no, because femal the over, looks back to ours), is the Euphrates. The way milk are meant. He does not kill the xii.

them

is does

1.7. 1773 are the two sides of the Euphrates; for 13 y alone live, raises them, 17°N is “ to make

not occur only when something dead, 311-existent, may mean the territory on the hither side as well as the

is called into life : but also when something living, but further side (comp. Josh. xxiv. 2, 3, 14, 15; 2 Sam. x. 16;

on the point of dying. is let live; therefore “ preserves 1 Chr. xix. 16, with 2 Kings v. 4; Ezra viii. 36; Neh. ii. alive." . Comp. xxxviii. 1; Gen. vii. 3; Sam. xii. 3; 1 7, 9; iii. 7), and D'?? are the sides generally: Exod. Kings xviii: 6, etc.

On ver. 23. On nou now see on v. 6. xxxii. 15; 1 Kings v. 4; Jer. lviii. 28; xlix. 32.

On ver. 25. Both the verb ny? and the substantive 0227 ww is euphemistic, like Deut. xxviii. 57; Isa. 27 occur only in Isaiah, viz., here and v. 6.— xxxvi. 12 K'ri. Comp. Jud. iii. 24 ; 1 Sam. xxiv. 4. 2007 proves that the Prophet uses yn as fem., which usu

nkuin is a place where cattle are allowed to roam free ally is masc. Thereby the adjective construction of (comp. xxxii. 20). The expression belongs to Deutero 0700 is confirmed as the correct one. Regarding the

nomy, where only, except here, it is found; Deut. xii. usus loquendi, comp. xiii. 15; xxix. 1; xxx. 1.

7; xv. 10; xiii. 21; xxviii. 8, 20.-OP?? see on v. 6.

שְׁאֹלָה our passage as if

to the “

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. Moreover the Lord -tempt the Tyv å 3vocov, Rom. x. 7, seems to show that Paul Lord, vers. 10-12. When Isaiah says: “ More- combines the language of Deuteronomy and Isaiah, over the Lord spake,” he puts himself quite in and also to favor the LXX. and Vulg. in reading the background. He gives prominence only to

were meant.-Tr.). the proper author of the address, as ver. 3, he reports only the words of Jehovah to himself, and

2. And he said--Immanuel, vers. 13, 14, passes over the performance that was his, a man's It seems to me that this form of address, joined work, as a matter of course. Though Ahaz was

moreover the Lord spake," ver. 10, intia backslider, the divine love on its part does not mates that the Prophet spoke these words, not on let him go. The Lord says still to him: I am the spot mentioned ver. 3, but in the house of thy God. De jure He is so, though de facto so no David, i. e., in the royal palace, and before the longer. Because Jehovah still loves A haz, He royal family, and that the contents of his address seeks to reclaim him, coming to him half way, concerned very nearly the house of David as a and holding out His hand in order to make re- family, (not merely as representative of the goLord demands no unconditional faith from Ahaz, vernment). 7857, “to weary,” corresponds exbut He permits him to attach his faith to any actly to the French ennuyer, which means primacondition that he will. If Jehovah fulfils the rily the discomfort one experiences from anything condition, then that is security, or the sign, that that lasts too long, and then any sort of discomJehovah deserves to be believed, that He is there fort. Without doubt Ahaz had often enough made fore the God He gives Himself out to be. trial of human patience. But “to weary men”

There is no other instance of submitting to a seems to point to the fact that in Ahaz's refusal man's choice what the sign shall be. It may be lay an insult to the Prophet. For this refusal fearlessly said that for Isaiah to propose to Ahaz might be regarded as indirectly repelling an inthe choice of a miraculous sign is itself a sign. sane presumption on the part of İsaiah. Still, It is a pledge that he serves the true, living, and doubtless, the insult to his God is the chief matter almighty God; that therefore there is such a God, to the Prophet. Notice that by “my God” here, who not only can do miracles, but who, under he in a measure retracts the "thy God” of ver. circumstances, will do them. Kad Isaiah offered 10. By this one word he lets Ahaz know that by Ahaz this choice without possessing the power his unbelief he has excluded himself from a part to perform what he promised, he would have in the LORD. Full of this displeasure, the Probeen either a deceiver or a crazed enthusiast. In phet declares to the house of David : Because ye the name of science, rationalistic expositors may will have no sign, one shall be given to you. The be challenged to prove that Isaiah was a deceiver sign must therefore be one that Ahaz could obor an enthusiast. In any case the Prophet leaves serve, and every meaning that ignores this, must it to Ahaz, from what part of the universe he will from the outstart be regarded as mistaken. It is have a miracle.

further clear that the sign which Ahaz must acThe reply of Ahaz is hypocritical. He acts cept against his will must be of a character unas if he still believed in Jehovah, and as if he pleasant to him. The whole connection shows declined the proposal only through fear, lest he this clearly. The unbelief, the desertion, the hyshould have the appearance of tempting God pocrisy of Ahaz must be punished. Had he ac (Deut. v. 16). But he had already his own plans. cepted the offer of the LORD, he might at will He had already resolved to oppose to the gods have chosen a sign from any sphere. But beand kings of Syria and Ephraim, not Jehovah, cause he insolently declined ihe offer, he must the God of Judah, but the gods and the king of put up with a sign that will appear in a very deliAssyria.

cate quarter, and consist in a fact very unplea[Ver. 11. "Ask it in the depth,” etc. There sant for him. Consider in addition that the may be an historical relation between this ex- Prophet, as we learned above, spoke these words pression and Deut. xxx. 11-14, and Jno. iv, 11-in the royal palace, and before the royal family, 13, and Rom. x. 6-8, and comp. Ps. cxxxix. 6-10, and we obtain an important threefold canon for that makes them useful for mutual interpretation, the exposition of the passage: the sign must have

been for Abaz, 1) recognized; 2) unpleasant, | bility, without reference to its realization (" were punishing; 3) of concern to his whole family., a virgin to conceive this instant a boy as an em

Behold the virgin, etc.—“Behold” has blem of his native land, the mother would name great emphasis. “It stands here as if the Pro- her babe like the land at that time must_say: phet raised his hand, signed to all the world that God was with us," EICHHORN, comp. J. D. they should be still and give hed to this the MICHAELIS, Paulus, STAEHELIN, ctc.). The archiefest miracle of which he would now preach.” bitrariness of this exposition is manifest; the (FOERSTER).-On ghyn see Text. and Gr. Who Prophet does not speak hypothetically, but quite is "the virgin” here? To whom does the defi- categorically. This sign, too, would be neither nite article point? We must at the outset ex

observable, nor threatening. clude all those exposisions according to which

Others find the key to the exposition (ROSENthe Alma=“ virgin is a purely ideal person,

MUELLER, EWALD, BERTHEAU), in the snpposiwhether belonging to the present or the future: tion that Isaiah saw the Messiah"Himself in the What sort of a sign for Ahaz could it be, if the child to be born, and that consequently we have Prophet in spirit saw in the remote future a virgin Prophecy. But it is incredible that the Prophet,

before us, an erroneous hope and an unfulfilled that bore the Messiah ; even if, by means of an ideal anticipation, the wonderful child, which

accompanied as he was by his son Shearjashub, formed, as it were, the soul of the people's life, could have expected in soʻshort a period the fulis construed as representative of the contempo- The people must first become a remnant. Comp.,

filment of the Prophecy contained in his name. raries of Ahaz (HENGSTENBERG)? It is no better when, by a figurative construction the Alma is the Prophet's inquiry vi. 10 and the reply ver. made to mean Israel, out of which a people of

11. If the Alma does call her con Immanuel, salvation shall arise, which, after it has endured It may mean only that he signifies the Im

he is not necessarily therefore really Immanuel. the consequences of the present ignorance, shall manuel. And so, too, viii. 8, the land of Imknow to prefer the good to the bad ( v. HOFMANN). manuel is not the land of the present, but of the It is the same with the explanation of W. SCHULTZ future Immanuel, who only is the true LORD and Prof. in Breslau, Stud. and Krit., 1861, Heft. IV.) who by comprehending under the Alma or virgin Master of the land. In viii. 10 where x upy the Messiah and His mother, and all their typical is written separately as two words, can at most forerunners, understands by this person “the quiet only a play on the name Immanuel be recogones of the land, who needed not the king nor his nized. Moreover if Isaiah saw in the boy Imco-operation.” The canon we have set up as impe- manuel the Messiah himself, then must certainly rative, is equally violated by KUEPER ( Die Proph. his mother be the legitimate wife of a member d. A. B. übersichtle dargestellt

, Leipzig, 1870, p. of the family of David. But it is incredible that mean a pure virgin, yet he lays especial empha- nipay alone without any qualification, can mean sis on the virginity of the mother, because it may married women. be inferred from the name Immanuel, which The ancient Jewish explanation, according to proves the piety of the mother; and he sees pre- which the Alma was the mother of Hezekiah, cisely in this virginity the threat against Ahaz, be- that Abi, daughter of Zachariah (2 Kings xviii. cause it follows that Immanuel is to be born without 2), was shown by JEROME even to be impossible, co-operation of a man of the race of David. Forit is inasmuch as Hezekiah at the time Isaiah spoke impossible that Ahaz could infer this virginity thus these words was already 12 years old. The later from the words of the Prophet. Beside, there is Jewish explanation ranks among its supporters nothing threatening in the promise that the Mes- Faustus SOCINUS, JOH. CRELLIUS, (Socinian), siah shall be born as the Son of God in the sense GROTIUS, (who in his De ver, religionis Christ, still of Luke i. 35, without co-operation of a man, of presented the orthodox view, but afterwards went the race of David; it is rather the highest honor. over to CRELLIUS' views), Joh. LUDWIG VON The latest attempt at exposition, too, by ED. EN WOLZOGEN (Socinian), John Ernst. FABER GELHARDT (Zeitschr. f. Luth. Theol. and K. 1872 (in the Anm. zu Harmar's Beobachtungen über den Hejt. IV.), does not satisfy. “The house of Orient, etc., I. S. 281), [Put DR. BARNEs here: David cannot be destroyed before the promised only that he includes a reference to Messiah, acdeliver comes forth from it. The mother is there cording to Matth. i. 22.-TR.] GESENIUS, Hitfore, yet to appear that bears Him, and this ZIG, HEUDEWERK, KNOBEL. etc. According to mother, determined by the word of the Prophecy, it this view the Alma is the wife of the Prophet is that the Prophet means here "(1. c. page himself, either the mother of Shear-jashub, or a 627)”. How is it to be proved that nobyo was

younger one, at that time only betrothed to him. a standing expression for the mother of the Mes. But this is wrecked on the impossibility of refersiah? What, moreover, was there punitive in ring nobyo to the wife or the betrothed of the this? What in the text says that the house of Da- Prophet without any nearer designation and vid would be destroyed after the birth of the Mes- without the faintest hint of her being present. siah's mother? Moreover, how is this conceiva- Beside, how should the family of the Prophet ble? Toexpress what ENGELHARDT fancies is the happen to have the Immanuel horn in it? Were meaning of the Prophet, the words must read: the promises to David to be transferred to Isaiah? the Alma has not yet borne. What sort of a sign, Kimchi and ABARBANEL modify this view by Wonld that be?

saying that by the ALMA must be understood the Others adopt an ideal construction in the sense wife of Ahaz. But then, instead of something that they regard the birth of a son from the bad, the Prophet would rather have announced Alma, at the time indicated, as an idea, a possi- I something joyful. Others again understand by

the Alma any virgin, not more particularly spe- divine will. For if the Alma does not name the cified, that was present at the place of interview, child Immanuel self-prompted, she gives no proof and to whom the Prophet “pointed with the of fearing God and faith in God. She did only finger.

what she could not have omitted to do without For my part I believe, that in expounding our defying the divine will. But how is it conceivapassage, it is an exegete's duty to leave out of ble that God should make such a child the bearer view at first Matt. i. 23. We have only to ask: and symbol of His holy purpose of salvation, a What, according to the words and context, did child to which clung the reproach of illegitimate Isaiah in that moment wish to say, and actually birth, that was therefore the fruit and the contisay? How far his word spoken then was a pro- nual monument of sin, whose mother, in fact, in phecy, and with what justice Matt. i. 18 regards some circumstances, might have incurred the pethe fact recounted there as the fulfilment of this nalty of stoning, according to Deut. xxii. 21 ? prophecy will appear from inquiry that must be How can this fruit of sin bear the holy name of made afterwards. Bearing in mind then the ca

Immanuel ? Does this not involve the dangerous non proposed above, and we obtain the meaning: inference that God does not take strict account of Behold the (i.e. this) virgin (i.e. this yet unmar

sin? that in some cases He does not mind using ried daughter of the royal house) is pregnant, etc. it as means and instrument for His plans? To After the indignant words of the Prophet, ver. 14 a, this I would reply as follows. The Prophet is that roll up like dark clouds, we must look for a extremely sparing in portraying the historical sign that strikes the house of David like thun- background of his prophecies. He indicates only der and lightning. Doubtless Ahaz was not the what is indispensable. It is just this scantiness only guilty person. While Joshua (xxiv. 15) had that makes our passage so difficult, and all efforts said: “I and my house will serve the Lord,” at expounding it sutter alike from this. For Ahaz had said the contrary. If not, why did the there is not a single one against which it may not Prophet, instead of addressing himself to the king be objected that one explanatory statement or with such emphasis, address the whole house? other is necessary to its complete establishment. And did what was said iji. 16 sq. about the lux- It seems to me that the presence of the article in ury of the daughters of Zion have no application the Alma” is easiest explained if

, in the circle to the women in the household of Ahaz? There to which the Prophet addressed, there was only fore the whole house must with terror endure the one person present that could be designated as shame of one of the princesses who was present Alma. In every language in such a case a more being pointed out as pregnant. That is the bold exact pronominal definition may be dispensed manner of the prophets of Jehovah-a man

with. Besides, in Hebrew, the article in some ner that is no respecter of persons-the “sackcloth cases has decidedly a demonstrative meaning, and roughness" of men that know that they have Al can be used dELKTIKŪS (comp. Dz97), JŲn, ni'?, mighty God for their support. Thus, for exam-7607). ple, Jeremiah said to king Jehoiakim that he should be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn The Prophet, as the servant of Jehovah, might and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem, Jer. come to the king unannounced. Though hated xxii. 19.

by the king, the king still dreaded him, and, acAs rogards the sense, it remains essentially the cording to ver. 12, A haz did not venture to exsame whether X77p is translated" thou wilt call” press his unbelief openly, but only under the

mask of reverence. Assuredly Nathan did not or "she will call.” For in any case the word is first request an audience and permission to delispoken in presence of the Alma. She herself takes

ver a message of Jehovah's to the king (2 Sam. note of what the Prophet announces in regard to xxiv. 11 sq.). And thus we may assume that the the name to be given. Whether she is spoken to | Prophet came to the palace at a time when the or spoken of, remains immaterial. If God, with king was not surrounded by officers of state-at no expression of disapproval, says "she will call / least not by these alone, but also by his family. him Immanuel,” is not that as much as to say: | And in the circle into which Isaiah stepped in the "she shall so call him?” She would hardly have discharge of his prophetic disciplinary office there thought of that name herself. It was not a usual must have been one--but only one-daughter of

It is found only here in the Old Testa- the royal house who was indeed unmarried, but ment. It was a beautiful name, rich in consola- no longer a virgin. More than this we do not tion. The Lord would have spoken quite differ- know. The Prophet writes no more than he said, ently if the name had given Him displeasure. perhaps out of compassion, or perhaps to avoid That such was not the case, we see from viii. 8, 10 making the person in question the object of hovery decidedly. If often occurs in Scripture that nors she did not deserve (possibly of idolatrous mothers give names to their children: Gen. iv. worship in after days). By revealing this secret 25; xix. 37 sq.; xxix. 32; xxx. 6, 8, 11, 13, 18, to the dismay of the family, the Prophet had 20, 24; xxxv. 18; 1 Sam. i. 20. Often the name of course given a sign, a pledge of the credibility is determined by divine command: Gen. xvi. 11; of what was promised ver. 7. For whoever knew xvii. 19; Hos. i. 4, 6, 9; 1 Chron. xxii. 9; Matt. that secret of the past and present could know i. 21. Here, now, grave doubts arise. Is it con- also the secret things of the future. And the king ceivable that God has made a fallen woman the could at once ascertain the verity of the sign that type of the cotókos, and an illegitimate child the was given. Of course he might take measures to type of the Son of God become man? The objec- defeat the prophecy and render its accomplishtions to our view, founded on the piety of the Alma ment impossible. But what good would that do? (see above), disappear when we refer back the The chief thing, that there was a boy in the body giving of the name to the announcement of the l of the (supposed) virgin, he could not undo, and

T:

name.

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