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life was cast into the lake of fire.” From this necessary and aliding factor of the mutual reladescription there seems to me to result that the tion between God and mankind, that shall be books necessarily are meant for those who are, established for ever in its full glory. There shall by the Supreme Judge charged with the judg- come a time wherein Israel shall expand to humanment of particular ones. To this end they need, ity and humanity receive power to become Israel, in the first place, many books that contain the wherein, therefore, the entire humanity shall be works of individuals. God has a book-keeping Israel. Then is the tabernacle of God with men for the life of every man. This divine record no more a pitiful tent, wade of mats, but the holy will be produced to every single one at the day congregation is itself the living abode of God; of judgment. Is he a Jew? by one of the twelve and the gracious presence of Almighty God, Apostles. Is he a heathen? by some other saint. whose glory compares with the old pillar of fire No man shall be able to remonstrate against this and cloud, like the new, eternal house of God, account for it will carry the evidence of truth in with the old perishable tabernacle, is then itself itself, and in the consciences of those to be judged. the light and defence of His house. Should such a protest occur, the arraigned will 25. On iv. 5, 6. “But give diligence to learn be referred to the book of life. This is only one. this, that the Prophet calls to mind, that Christ For it contains only names. After this manner alone is destined to be the defence and shade of will the separation be accomplished, spoken of those that sufler from heat and rain. Fasten your in Matt. xxv. 32 sq. For those whose names eyes upon Him, hang upon Him as ye are exare found in the book of life go to the right side; horted to do by the divine voice, 'Ilim shall ye the rest to the left. Then the great Judge Him- hear! Whoever hearkens to another, whoever self takes up the word in the manner described looks to any other flesh than this, it is all over in Matt. xxv. 34 sq1., and calls the righteous to with him. For He alone shelters us from the Himself, that they may inherit the kingdom that heat, that comes from contempla:ing the majesty is prepared for them. But the wicked He re-li. e. from the terror that God's holiness and pulses from Him into everlasting fire, that is pre- righteousness inspire), lle alone covers us from pared for the devil and his angels, in regard to the rain and the power of Sa:an. This shade which the account of the judgment in Matt. xxv., affords us a coolness, so that the dread of wrath as far as the end is concerned, harmonizes en- gives way. For wrath cannot be there where tirely with Rev. xx. 15.

thou seest the Son of God given to death for thee, 24. On iv. 5, 6. “The pillar of fire and cloud that thou mightest live. Therefore I commend belongs to the miraculous graces by which the to you that name of Christ, wherewith the Profounding of the Old Testament kingdom of phet adorns Him, that He is a tabernacle for God was glorified just as the New Testament shade against the heat, a refuge and place of conkingdom was by the signs that Jesus did, and by cealment from rain and tempest.”—LUTHER.– the charismata of the Apostolic time. But that With some modification, we may apply here the appearance was quite appropriate to the state of comprehensive turn FOERSTER gives to our passdeveloped revelation of that time. This had not age: 1) The dwelling of Mount Zion is the reached the New Testament level, and not even church ; 2) the heat is the flaming wrath of God, the prophetic elevation that was possible under and the heat of temptation (1 Pet. iv, 12; Ecclus. the Old Testament, but only the legal in which ii

. 4, 5); 3) tempest and rain are the punishthe divine stands outwardly opposed to the hu- ments of sins, or rather the inward and outward man. God is present among Ilis people, but still trials (Ps. ii. ; Isa. lvii. 20); 4) the defence or in the most outward way ; He does not walk in the pillar of cloud and fire is Jesus Christ (1 a human way among men; there is, too, no in- Cor. x.). ward leading of the congregation by the Holy 26. On v. 1-7. This parable has a brother in Spirit, but an outward conducting by a visible the New Testament that looks very much like it. heavenly appearance. And, for these revelations I might say: the head is almost the same. For to the whole people, God makes use entirely of the beginning of that New Testament parable nature, and, when it concerns His personal mani. (Matth. xxi. 33; Mar. xii. 1), “A man planted festation, of the elements. He does so, not mere à vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged ly in distinction from the patriarchal theophanies, a wine-fat and built a tower," is manifestly imi

but, particularly in contrast with heathen- tated after our passage. But here it is the vineism, in order to accustom the Israelitish con- yard that is bad, while there, in the New Testasciousness from the first not to deify the visiblement, the husbandmen are good for nothing. world, but to penetrate through it to the living, Here the Lord appears as at once owner and culholy God, who has all the elements of nature at tivator of the vineyard ; there the owner and culcommand as the medium of His revelation.”—tivators are distinguished. This arises from the AUBERLEN.

fact that the Lord Jesus apparently had in His As at the close of John's Revelation (chaps. mind the chiefs of the people, “the high-priests xxi., xxii.) we see the manifestation of the God- and elders”. (Matth. xxi. 23, 24). From this it head to humanity return to its beginning (Gen. is manifest that here as there the vineyard is the ii., iii., iv.), in as much as that end restores just nation. In Isaiah, however, the vineyard, that that with which the beginning began, i. e. the is to say the vine itself is accused. The whole dwelling of God with men, so, too, we see in Isa. people is represented as having equally gone to iv. 5, 6, a special manifestation of the relative) | destruction. In the Synoptists, on the other beginning time recur again in the end time; thé hand, it is the chiefs and leaders that come bepillar of fire and cloud. But what in the begin tween the Lord and His vineyard, and would exning was an outward and therefore enigmatical clude Him from His property, in order to be able and unenduring appearance, shall at last be a I to obtain it wholly for themselves, and divide it

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amongst them. Therefore there it is more the to smother in oneself the fundamental truths that wicked greed of power and gain in the great that may be proved from the light of nature, and the is reproved; here the common falling away of correct conclusions inferred from them, but espethe whole nation.

cially revealed truths thai concern religion, and 27. V. 8. Here the Prophet denounces the to pronounce them in others to be prejudices and rich, the aristocracy, and capital. Thas he takes errors. Bitter and sweet have reference to conthe part of the poor and lowly. That grasping stitution, how it is known and experienced. To of the rich and noble, which they display some-make sweet of bitter means, to recommend as times like beasts of prey, at other times gratify in sweet, pleasant and useful, what is bad and bea note crafty and legal fashion, the Prophet re-longs to darkness, and is in fact bitter and disbukes here in the sharpest manner. God's work tasteful, after one himself believes he possesses in is opposed to every sin, and ever stands on the the greatest evil the highest good.” STARKE. side of those that suffer oppression, no matter what 32. V. 21. Quotquot mortales,etc. As many may be their rank. God is no respecter of persons as, taking counsel of flesh, pursue salvation with (Deut. x. 17 sq.).

confidence of any sort of merit of their own or ex. 28. V. 11-17. The morning hour, the hour ternal privilege, a thing to which human nature when light triumphs over darkness, ought to be is much inclined, oppose their own device to the consecrated to works of light, as it is said: Aurora wisdoin of God, and, according to the prophet, are Musis amica, hjúc Tol Apoợépet pièv odno, atnoợépei de called wise in their own eyes (xxviii. 15; xxx. 1, kai épyov (Hesiod. ¿py. K. ill. 540, Morgenstund 2; Jer. viii. 8, 9; ix. 23 sq.; xviii. 16). Virhat Gold im Mund. “It was," says FOERSTER,“ a laudable custom anong the Persians, that the 33. V. 26 sqq. The Prophet here expresses in chamberlains entering in to their kings early in a general way the thought that the Lord will call the morning, cried out with a lond voice: 'Arise, distant nations to execute judgment on JerusaO king, attend to business, as Mesoromastes com- lem, without having in mind any particular namauds.On the other hand, "they that be tion. VITRINGA quotes a remarkable passage drunken are drunken in the night,” i Thess. v. from the excerpts of JOHN ANTIOCHEN US in VA7 sq. So much the worse, then, when men do the LESIUS (p. 816), where it is said, that immediately works of night even in the early hour, and dare after Titus had taken Jerusalem, ambassadors to abuse the light. "Plenus venter despumat in from all the neighboring nations came to him to libidines," says AUGUSTINE. In vino áowria (Eph. salute him as victor and present him crowns of v. 18). Corpus, opes, animam luxu Germania per- honor. Titus refused these crowns, "saying that dit. MELANCTION. On ver. 15 FOERSTER cites it was not he that had effected these things, but the expression of AUGUSTIN: "God would not that they were done by God in the display of His suffer any evil to be done in the world unless wrath, and who had prospered his hands." Comp. some good night thence be elicited."

also the address of Titus to his soldiers after the 29. RV. 18.°"Cords of vanity are false preju- taking of Jerusalem in JOSEPH. B. Jud. VII. 19. dices and erroneous conclusions. For example: no one is without sin, not even the holiest; God does not take notice of small sins; he that is among wolves must howl with them; a man cannot get 1. ii. 6-11. Idolatry. 1) What occasions it along in the world with a scrupulous, tender con- (alienation from God, ver. 6 a); 2) The different science; the Lord is merciful, the flesh is weak, kinds: a. a coarse kind (ver. 6b, ver. 8), b. a more ete. By such like a man draws sin to him, binds refined kind ver. 7); 3) Its present appearance his conscience fast, and resists the good motions (great honor of the idols and of their worshipof preventing grace. Thick cart-ropes signify a pers, ver. 9); 4) Its fate at last (deepest humiliahigh degree of wickedness, the coarsest and most tion before the revelation of the majesty of God revolting prejudices. For example: God has no of all that do not give glory to Him (vers. 10, 18). concern about human affairs; godliness delivers 2. ii. 12–22. The false and the true eminence. 1) no one from misery and makes no one blessed; | False eminence is that which at first appears the threatenings of the prophets are not to be high, but at last turns out to be low (to this befeared; there is no divine providence, no heaven, longs impersonal as well as supersensuous creano hell (Deut. xxix. 17, 18, 19). Out of such a tures, which at present appear as the highest in man twists and knots a stout rope, with which the world, but at last, in the day of the Lord of he draws to him manifest blasphemy, entangles Hosts, shall turn out to be nothing); 2) The real himself in it, so that often he cannot get loose, but eminence is that which at first is inconspicuous is sold as a servant under sin (Rom. vi. 16; 1 and inferior, but which at last turns out to be the Kings xxi. 20, 25).” STARKE.

highest, in fact the only high one. 30. V. 19. "The wicked mock at the patience 3. iii. 1-9. Sin is the destruction of a people. 1) and long-suffering of God, as if He did not see or What is sin? Resisting the Lord: a. with the care for their godless existence, but forgot them, tongue, b. with deeds, c. with the interior being and cast them out of mind (Ps. x. 11), so that the (vers. 8, 9); 2) In what does the destruction conthreatened punishment would be omitted. They sist (or the fall according to ver. 8 a)? a. in the would say: there has been much threatening, but loss of every thing that constitutes the necessary nothing will come of it; if God is in earnest, let and sure support of the commonwealth (vers. 1Him, etc., we don't mind threats; let God come 3); 6. in insecure and weak props rising up (ver. on if He will! Comp. xxii. 12. 13; xxviii. 21, 4); c. in the condition that follows of being with22; Am. v. 18; Jer. v. 12; viii. 11; xvii. 15; ont a Master (ver. 5); d. in the impossibility of Ezek, xii. 21 sqq." STARKE.

finding any person that will take the governance 31. V. 20. “To make darkness of light, means of such a ruinous state (vers. 6, 7).


4. iii. 4. Insurrection is forbidden by God in one; 3) The false injores the one comforted; the express words, who says to Moses “that which is real is health to him." HARMS. altogether just thou shalt follow,” Deut. xvi. 20.

6. iy. 2-6. The holiness of God's Church on earth Why may not God permit an intolerable and often unjust authority to rule a land for the same minary: the judgment of cleansing and purifying

that is to be looked for in the future. 1) Its prelireason that He suffers children to have bad and unjust, parents , and the wife a hard and intolera- (ver. 4); 2) What is requisite to becoming a par

taker? a. belonging to the remnant (vers. 2, 3); ble husband, whose violence they cannot resist ? give children to be their princes, and babes shall the Lord (vers. 5, 6). Is it not expressly said by the Prophet “I

will b. being written in the book of life (ver. 3); 3)'The

of its permanence: the gracious presence of rule over them?” “I gave thee a king in mine anger, and took him away in my wrath," Hos. 7. v. 21. The ruin of trusting in one's own wisxiii. 11. THOLUCK.

dom. 1) Those that have such confidence set 5. iii. 10-13. “Let us learn to distinguish be- themselves above God, which is: a. the greatest tween false and real comfort.1) False comfort wickedness, b. the greatest folly; 2) They chaldeals in illusion: the real deals in truth; 2) The lenge the Divine Majesty to maintain its right false produces a present effect; the real a lasting |(ver. 24).



We have already shown above, in the general “What UMBREIT says, that chap. vi. makes the introduction to the threefold entrance, that Isaiah impression on every unprejudiced mind of being would not place this account of his call at the the inaugural vision of the Prophet cannot in fact head because he felt the need of preparing his be denied. Only the position that chap. vi. has readers for it. At the same time he brings it in the book wields a contrary influence against about that this, not merely elevated, but holy, this impression as long as it does not admit of and even holiest of all dramas, is put in the place being understood in some other way. But the that becom23 a holiest of all, that is to say, not impression remains (as with i. 7-9) and even rewithout, but within; not in aditu, but in adyto. appears." Well, then, we bring the impression As in the temple, the court of the priests and the that chap. vi. makes (of being the account of the holy place, with the altar of incense, constituted inauguration) into the most harmonious relation the approach to the holiest of all, so, too, here to the place it holds in the book, by explaining it Isaiah puts two entrances in front of that history as the third, the most elevated and holiest enthat really transposez us into the inmost sanctu- trance to the prophecies of Isaiah. Concerning ary, that explains to us how it was possible that the time of its composition not much need be Isaiah, the son of Amoz, should be admitted to said. That Isaiah wrote chapter vi. no one dethe vision of God, and had the boldness to offer nies. Whether, then, he wrote it immediately himself as God's messenger. If one were not go- after he had the vision, or later, is indifferent. verned by the illusion that only chap. i. can be From the nature of things the former is more an introduction, it would never enter his mind probable. At all events he assigned the chapthat chap. vi. is the account of a second call to a ter its present position when he made up his merely special mission. DELITZSCH remarks: I book.


CHAPTER VI. 1-13. 1 In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the LORD sitting upon a throne, 2 high and lifted up, and 'his train filled the the temple. Above "it stood the sera

phim: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain 3 he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. And 'one cried unto another, and


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Holy ! holy ! holy! is the LORD of hosts :

The whole earth is full of his glory. 4 And the bposts of the door moved at the voice of 'him that cried, and the house 5 was filled with smoke. Then said I, Woe is me! for I am Sundone; because I am

a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips : for

mine eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts. 6 Then few one of the seraphim unto me, having da live coal in his hand, which 7 he had taken with the tongs from off the altar: and he 'laid it upon my mouth,

and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy

sin purged. 8 Also I heard the voice of the LORD, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go 9 for us? Then said I, Here am I; send me. And he said, Go, and tell this people,

Hear 'indeed, but understand not;

And see ye 10findeed, but perceive not. 10 Make the heart of this people fat,

And make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes,
Lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears,

And understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. 11 Then said I, LORD, how long? And he answered,

Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant,
And the houses without man,

And the land be "utterly desolate;
12 And the LORD Whave removed men far away,

And there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land. 13 But yet in it shall be a tenth,

125 And it shall return, and shall be eaten : As a teil tree, and as an oak, 'whose 13,ubstance is in them, when tbey cast their

leaves. So the holy seed shall be the substance thereof.

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TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. 1. The prophet designates the Lord as "178 (with Ver. 10. The verb , pinguem esse, is found in the the sign of the accusat., but without the article as a pro- Kal. only Dent. xxxii. 15, and Jer. v 28; beside the preper noun). Both jimx i. 24 ; iii. 1; X. 16, 33 ; xix. 4) and sent the Hiph. occurs only Neh. ix. 25, with the meaning 1978 (iii. 17, 18; iv 4; vi. 1, 8, 11; vii. 14, 2; viii. 7; ix. " to become fat." The ears shall become heavy, bard 7. 16; 2. 12; xi. 11; xxi. 6, 8, 16; xxix. 13; xxx. 20; of hearing, deaf. 72 (Kal) is used in this sense lix, 1. xxxvii. 24; xxxviii. 16) occur only in the first part of Also the word is used of the eyes (Gen. xlviii. 10) and of Isaiah.-XV) 07 is used by Isa. ii 13, 14, and lvii. !5, the tongue (Exod. ix. 10 (72) adj.], Comp. Zech. vii. where the Lord Himself is so named.-oibre the hem, 11 (Hiph.). The Hiph. occurs more frequently of the broad folded train of which the hems are the ends. making heavy, i. e., hardening the heart: Exod. viii. 11, The word (used mostly of the priestly garments, Exod. 28 ; ix. 34 ; x. 10. yun7 is the Hiph. imperat. from y yo xxviii. 33, 31; xxxix. 24, 25, 26; comp. Jer. xiii. 22, 20; oblinere, to besmear, plaster over (comp. xxix. 9; xxxii. Nah. iii. 5) does not again occur in Isaiah

3). Xon is always used transitively. It must therefore Ver. 3. sehip (is not infin., which is always rxbp, but) be thoright of as joined to the general, ideal subject, is substantive

, written oftener xibp. Comp. vii. 8; which the notion of the verb of itself suggests. As is mui. 4; xxxiv. 1; xlii. 10.

well known, especially verbs that designato a trade or Ver. 7. Piel and Pual in xxii. 14 ; xxvii. 9; an occupation in some art are wont to be so used.

Therefore may a verb that signifies the healing art be viii. 18; xlvii. 11,

readily so constrned. Isaiah resorts to this mode of Ver. 8. 1h after the, is grammatically considered speech not seldom ; vii. 24 ; viii. 4 ; xxi. 9 ; xxxiv. Dat commodí. Who will do us a service by going? is One might fall on the conjertire by comparison of the sense.

5, that as there so here it ought to read X???:



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אשר אם


Ver. 11. As to particulars, it is to be noted that T Vor. 13. 72'y comp. iv. 4.072 is terebinth (i.

“* until" (comp. beside Gen. xxviii. .5; Num. 30) and ; & oak (ii. 13; xliv. 14). Both are extremely xxxii. 17) involies a conditional sentence; the end does lasting trees, that become very old and grow steadily not come, except that before, etc. - In the root 1780 in size. Comp. Gescx. Thes. p. 51; Job xiv.7-9.—now the meaning " to be desert" developes out of the mean occurs ngain only 1 Chr. xxvi. 16, where a nohu ju ing “to make a noise, to rage;" comp xvii. 12 sq.; xxxvii.

is spoken of. Is this the gate of casting out (probably 26, and substantive pixa v. 14; xiii, 4; xxiv. 8; xxv. 5; only an opening in the wall throug! which things were lxvi. 6.—2017'* comp. on v.9. – 0781*comp. thrown out) then the word hero is dcjcctio, prostratio Jer. xxxii. 43 ; xxxiii

. 10, 12. The expression occurs (comp. Jer, ix. 10). Instead of op we look for on?? acbeside here only in the second comforting discourse cording to our mode of expression. But the Ilebrew of Jeremiah.

in his way of representation secs, as it were, the idea Ver. 12. The Piel po?? is used by Isaiah again of the whole treo before him still

, and in or on this ideal only xxvi. 15; xxix. 13. On the contrary Kal. occurs in tree he distinguishes the stump still prese:t od tho the second part: xlvi. 13; xlix, 19; liv. 14; lix. 9, 11. (in reality sovered) trunk. This is that uso ule Writ

may ho called partitive. Comp. at x. 22.The fliph. does not occur in Isaiah at all.

nany properly the forsaken one, fem. But this on belong together.—üp ini (comp. i. 4; Ezr. ix. feminine here must be taken as the collective ge- 2) significs the still-cxisting principle of holy life. The nus, so that the word signifies the forsaken (tho for- sufiix in 1939 (123only hero in Isaiah, 17337 sakenness, desolation). Comp. xvii. 2, 9.

xix, 19) refers to 17'900.

and אשר


1. Isaiah describes in plain and simple lan- vers. 8–13 his call to the prophetic functions and guage, by which the grandeur of the contents is the commission imparted to liim. only made the more conspicuous, how, in the year 2. In the year, ailed with smoke.that King Uzziah died he saw the Lord sitting Vers. 1-4. The year that Uzziah dicd was the on a high, elevated throne. The train of His gar- year 758 B. C. JEROME (in the Epist. 18 ad ments filled the temple (ver. 1). Seraphim sur- Damas.) remarks that this was the same year rounded Him, cach having three pairs of wings: quo Romulus, Romani imperii conditor, natus est," one covered the countenance, one the feet, and that Romulus was born. The theocracy declines: with the third they flew (ver. 2). One cried to the world - power springs up:

It is asked the other the thrice-holy (ver. 3), a cry whose whether the event took place before or after the power shook the threshold. But the house was death of Uzziah. Without doubt the event took full of smoke (ver. 4). The majestic vision place before the death, but the record of it was awakes in the Prophet the feeling of his sinful- made after it. Forif both occurred before Uzziah's ness, and the fear that he shall be destroyed, be death there would have been no mention made of cause he, as a sinful man, has seen the Lord (ver. it. If both occurred after the death of the king, 5). But one of the Seraphs reconciles him with a then the event would belong to the period of Joglowing coal that he has taken from the altar tham's rule, and one would justly look for the (vers. 6, 7). Thereupon the Prophet hears the name of this king. Thus what has been just voice of the Lord himself, who asks: whom shall stated remains the only possible answer to the I send? Isaiah offers himself as messenger (ver. above question. Our passage then agrees very 8). He is accepted and his commission is im- well with i. 1, for then Isaiah had prophesied parted to him. But this commission is of an ex- already under Uzziah. Moreover, xiv. 23 ("in traordinary character. For it is not so much told the year King Uzziah died ”) supports this exhim what he shall announce. but what shall planation, for there it is presumed in the whole be the immediate consequence of his announce context that Uzziah still lives. The opinion of

That is to say, he shall speak to the peo- those Rabbis, who, following the lead of the ple, but with the (express) consciousness that not Chaldee, understand the passage to refer to the only will it be of no use, but that the people will civil death of Uzziah, i. e., to his becoming a become only the more hardened (vers. 9, 10). leper, is justly pronounced by GESENIUS a rabbiThe Prophct

, without regarding the difficulty for nical caprice. himself in the matter, only inquires, because the How did Isaiah see the Lord ? In reality? or fate of his people distresses him, how long this only in the idea, i. e. in fancy, so that, then, the anger of the Lord against His people is to last (ver. grand painting were only the poctic clothing of a 11 a.). This answer is : until all is destroyed purely subjective, inward transaction? The latter (ver. 11 b.), the land devoid of men (ver. 12), is the opinion of rationalistic expositors. For exand not more than a tenth part of the inhabitants ample, K NOBEL says: " At all events there hapremain in it, that shall be dealt with as a tree pened a moment in Isaiah's life, when the seer, that was felled for burning. For such becomes a in holy, divine enthusiasm, soared aloft to Jehoprey to the flames to the very stump that remains vah and heard the Lord's call to the prophetic in the ground. So there will remain of Israel but office. This event of his God-inspired inward the remnant of a remnant (ver. 13). The struct- man he portrays in the passage before us, and

of the chapter is extremely simple: vers. 1-4 amplifies it with free, poetic art, more completely 'ribe the scene of the transaction; vers. 5-7 than he experienced it.” But one must be, just Yrror of the Prophet and the allaying of it; la rationalist, to hold that such a transaction can


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