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any one that regards but and that as conjunctions to explain such a passage as this: “But that he is so truthful, I could not believe the story.” The explanation is easy when we take the noun - proposition that he is so truthful as the subject of be—be out that he is so truthful, that he is so truthful be out.

Shall and will and should and would are treated in such a way that those who attend to the cautions need never use will for shall or would for should.

The author has endeavored to make each definition clear and accurate, expressing exactly the intended idea, not merely something approaching it more or less nearly. What are given in some works as definitions are often so loose that they are no definitions. “A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer” is a definition of the infinitive mood, and a very poor definition of that. “A verb is a word which expresses being, action, or state” does not distinguish verbs from abstract nouns. Existence expresses being; destruction expresses action; happiness expresses state. The very thing that constitutes the verb is disregarded. “A transitive verb requires an object to complete its meaning; as, “The hunter killed a bear.” The object does not complete the meaning of the verb, for the verb expresses its own meaning completely. “The hunter killed.” The verb killed does not require an object to complete its meaning; we know from the verb that something has been deprived of life, and the addition of bear to the sentence is no addition to the meaning of killed. Besides, if this definition were correct, it would apply to the active voice only. The definition, “A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action exerted directly upon some object,” applies to the passive voice as well as to the active, and it does not represent the object as completing the meaning of the verb.

Some writers follow the practice of huddling together two or more words and treating them as one word, notwithstanding that each word has its own distinot meaning. For instance, less useful and least useful are represented as simple adjectives, and the comparative and superlative degrees are defined so as to include all such forms. In this work each word is treated as a word.

Most of the common errors committed by writers are mentioned, from such abominations as “Come to me days and read and go home nightsto the insertion of the preposition of between the adjective all and its noun, as in “All of his men were taken prisoners.” Whenever a writer inserts of between all and its noun he shows that he is not a classical writer.

CONTENTS.

Tenses .....

.......... 88

ENGLISH GRAMMAR, DIVISIONS........... 11 | VERBS

Classes....

............................................... 61

ORTHOGRAPHY.

Voice.............................................. 64

LETTERS

..................... 11

Moods..........................

66

CLASSES OF LETTERS..................

11 Gerund.....

68

SYLLABLES AND WORDS.................. 13 Subjunctive and potential..

68

RULES FOR SPELLING. ............

14

72

Fuller view of....

74

ORTHOEPY.

Confounding time and action...... 77

From what to be learned..

.................... 18

Conditions or suppositions. ......... 77

Tenses and moods...

79

ETYMOLOGY.

Forms of participles....

........................ 80

INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES.................. 19 The house is built"

81

PARTS OF SPEECH........

23

Number and person..........

83

NOUNS

23 First and third persons of impera-

Classes of nouns.............

24 tive mood not “abridgments".. 84

Number

26 Conjugation....

84

Formation of the plural..

27 To love......

85

“The Miss Mortons".

...................... 29

To be..

87

Gender.............

31 “We be".

88

Painter or paintress 1 ..................... 34

“If I wasand “if I were

Case

35

Passive voice.............

89

Person

.......................... 37

“He is gone”.

.......................... 90

Declension

38 Progressive form

91

Parsing......

39 “I am loving," etc., not good En-

ADJECTIVES.

40 glish...

91

Comparison

42 “The house is building".

91

Articles.

Negative form....

93

Examples for parsing.

46 Interrogative form......

94

PRONOUNS

48 Interrogative negative form........ 94

Are pronouns nouns ? ................. 48 Irregular verbs......

95

Classes of pronouns........................ 49

Remarks on bear and drink.......... 99

Personal....

49 Errors in the use of...................... 99

Compound personal... ..................... 50 Lay and lie, set and sit .................. 100

Relative

51 Conjugation of to take................. 102

Relative what.........

53 Defective verbs..

103

Compound relative..

55

Beware, methinks..

.104

Interrogative ................................... 56 Auxiliary verbs...

.104

Indefinite...

.................. 56 Shall and will..

.105

One and other.......

57 Cautions concerning will. 108

As and than...

58 Should and would .................

.112

Examples for parsing...

58 Cautions concerning would..........114

44

PREPOSITIONS ............

.120 | PROPOSITION, SUBJECT, etc.--continued.

What may be the object...... 121

Adverb-propositions.......

.........163

List...

.122 “That is so disagreeable that" etc.163

Remarks on aboard.................

.122

Elliptical propositions, explanation

According to, concerning................123 of many difficult constructions...163

Touching, regarding, respecting, Substitutes and transformations. ...166

bating, excepting, saving............. 124 " The difficulties were so great as

During, pending, notwithstanding...125 to deter him".

............................166

Except, save...........

..126 “Be it ever so humble," etc. 166

........127

“The man is said to be honest"..167

Out of....

..128 “He has more than atoned,” etc.167

ADVERBS.................... .........

.130 “Leaped like the roe," etc..........167

Classes ......................

..131 Exercises in analysis......................167

“I saw John only". ...................132 RULES OF SYNTAX..............

..........................178

The, nay, no, not, yes............... ..133 Subject of verb........... ..................178

To and fro, by the bye, ago, at last, “All perished but he".

.................178

at least...

..134 Predicate-nominative ...................... 180

The adverb than .............................

.135 “It is me"

.........180

Conjunctive adverbs..................... 135 " Whom he was;"

" The dog it

Comparison.....

....137

was that died”.

.182

Examples for parsing..

137 Nouns used independently or ab-

CONJUNCTIONS...

138

solutely.

..........184

Remarks on both, either, neither, that..139 Remarks on excepting, regarding,
Before, after, since, save, saving, etc. 140 granted, ago, etc..................

...184, 185

For this reason, for as much as, yet, Possessive case........

......................187

also, still, otherwise, besides, etc...141 “Warming his hands as if they

INTERJECTIONS....

..142

were somebody else's". ................188

O for a lodge,” etc.....................143 “Johnson and Richardson's Dic-

SAME WORD IN DIFFERENT CLASSES. ...143

tionaries".

..............188

The 's not always personal....... 189

SYNTAX.

"I am opposed to John writing "..189

PROPOSITION, SUBJECT, PREDICATE......145 Object of transitive verb................192

Subject and predicate, logical and “He learned me grammar". 192

grammatical...

..147

“ The house caught on fire". .192

Note on the verb be. ......................147 Graduate, locate, leave, etc.............193

It, there, that, for ........

.............150

Two objectives........

.............193

Subject and predicate, simple and Object of preposition......... ...........195

compound....

.152 After, before, ere, etc., with noun-

Kinds of sentences.....

.153 propositions.....

195

Modifications .............

.154 “Each man walks with his head

Sentences, simple, complex, and

in a cloud of poisonous flies”...196

compound..........

.159

Despite, instead, because, etc...........197

Noun-propositions............

.160

Preposition omitted....

Adjective-propositions.

..160

“As long as it freezes nights". .198

“In the day that thou eatest

“Where is my book at P.............. 198

thereof".

............161

Apposition..........

“It is to this place that the gulls Predicate-nominative not in ap-

resort"

.....161 position.

200

“He marched with what forces "The men went each his own way'201

he had”.

..161 Common nouns and proper nouns

Adjunct-propositions. .............. .162 in apposition......

.201

.........200

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RULES OF SYNTAX-continued.

Adjectives...

Quality assumed and quality as-

serted....

.203

“Granting this to be true”.........204

“ The two first" or “the first

two" ?.................

.205

“I have no brothers but myself”..206

The strangest of the two"........207

Each, every either, neither......

.207

Each other and one another ....... .208

“The old and young gentleman".208

“All of his men

209

“The north and south poles ” ......209

The Hon. John Smith"

...............209

Some fifty years ago"

210

Adjective or adverb ....

.210

Verb and subject.......

.213

Twice one is two".

Each, every, no ........

.214

“Thine is the kingdom," etc.......214

“Either thou or I am concerned”..215

Verb with collective noun............216

“The public is invited".

...........216

"As follows," etc....

... 216

“There is no man but knows"..... 217

Subject improperly omitted.. .217

“One of the greatest houses that

ever was in England".

.............. 217

The infinitive mood...

.220

Noun-infinitive...

.............................220

“I saw him fall"..

..........................220

Adjunct-infinitive...

.221

Verb-infinitive.......

.222

“Bills are requested to be paid in

advance".

To of the infinitive originally a

preposition.

.222

Expressions in which to is still a

preposition .....

The simple form used.................223

“ They are not willing to do so

much as listen ............... 223

Confusion with respect to the

subject of infinitive..................223

Improper use of one form of the

infinitive for the other.. ...........224

“Please excuse me," "I will try

and see him," "I can go if I

wish to"

.224

“He commenced to speak".....

RULES OF SYNTAX-continued.

Preposition and object................

Antecedent term omitted ....... .228

Two prepositions with the same

object .

.228

Proper prepositions....

...................... 229

Au fait of.....................................229

In or at l............

229

“I am obliged to you

“A sale by auction or at : .......

.....230

House in Lombard Street or on 1..230

Under his signature or over 1.........230

Adverbs...........

..232

“Glendower's absence thence'

Modified word omitted..... 232

Adjectives improperly used as ad-

verbs

.233

“The above statement," etc.........233

“Whether or no",

233

“A person I never saw but twice''.233

Affirming equality and denying

equality...

.233

Vulgar errors, Most suffocated,"

etc..........

Position of adverbs and adjuncts. 234

Conjunctions...

.236

Connected parts corresponding....237

Or or nor ?......

.237

“This always has been, and it al-

ways will be admired”. .237

Nothing conjunctions but con-

junctions ......

.237

The huddling system...

.237

Than, that, etc....

238

Interjections

.239

Miscellaneous remarks...

.239

"Jane and myself went".

.239

“The boy that studies” and “The

boy who studies”

.239

That and who or which.......... 239

Thou and you.............

.240

Ambiguity from position of adjec-

tive-proposition

.240

"He believed that there was but

one god".

240

“I wish I knew what the law

really was"

.240

Intermingling present and past

tenses....

.240

Past tenses for might, etc., with

the infinitive..........

... 240

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..........224

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