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OF

LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.

No. 1.]

SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 1822.

[PRICE 2d.

[graphic]

"The Treat-Mill at Brixton, that room commands a complete view into

terror to evil-doers," has excited so all the yards. A building behind the much attention, that the Proprietors of tread-wheel shed is the inill-house, con'The Mirror think a correct, view and taining the necessary machinery for description of it, cannot fail of being grinding corn and dressing the flour, acceptable to their readers. The tread- also rooms for stoving it, &c. On the mill is the invention of Mr. Cubitt *, of right side of this building a pipe is seen Ipswich, and is considered a great im- passing up to the roof, on which is a provement in Prison discipline; so large cast-iron reservoir, capable of inuch so, that since its beneficial effects holding some thousand gallons of water, have been experienced at Brixton, mills for the use of t of a similar construction have been voir is filled by means of forcing-pump erected at Cold-Bath-fields, and several machinery below, connected with the places in the country.

principal axis which works the machiThe above engraving exhibits a party nery of the mill :--this axis or shaft of prisoners in the act of working the passes under the pavement of the seveBrixton tread-mill, of which it is a cor- ral yards, and, working by means of rect representation. The view is taken universal joints, at every turn, comfrom a corner of one of the ten airing municates with the tread-wheel of each yards of the prison, all of which radiate class. from the Governor's house in the cen- This wheel, which is represented in tre; so that from the window of his the centre of the engraving, is exactly

similar to a common water-wheel; the This gentleman's name has given tread-boards upon its circumference rise to some jokes on the subject, among are, liowever, of considerable length, sı such of the prisoners as can laugh at as to allow sufficient standing room for their own crimes, who say, they are a row of from ten to twenty persons punished by the cubit.

upon the wheel. Their weight, the VOL. I.

B

first moving power of the machine, and it is conidently hoped, that as its produces the greatest effect when ape advantages and effects become better plied upon the circumference of the known, the introduction of the Mill wheel at or near the level of its axle; will be universal in Houses of Correcto secure therefore this mechanical ad- tion. As a species of prison labour, it vantage, a screen of boards is fixed up in is remarkable for its simplicity. It rean inclinec! position above the wheel, in quires no previous instruction; no taskorder to prevent the prisoners from master is necessary to watch over the climbing or stepping up higher than the work of the prisoners, neither are ma. level required. A hand-rail is seen fix- terials or instruments put into their ed upon this screen, by holding which hands that are liable to waste or misthey retain their upright position upon application, or subject to wear and the revolving wheel ; the nearest side tear: the internal machinery of the of which is exposed to view in the plate, Mill, being inaccessible to the prisonin order to represent ils cylindrical form ers, is placed under the management of much more distinctly than could other skilful and proper persons, one or two wise have been done. In the original, at most being required to attend a prohowever, both sides are closely board- cess which keeps in steady and coned up, so that the prisoners have no stant employment from ten to two hunaccess to the interior of the wheel, and dred or more prisoners at one and the all risk of injury whatever is prevented. same time; which can be suspended

By means of steps, the gang of pri- and renewed as often as the regulasoners ascend at one end, and when the tions of the prison render il necessary, requisite number range themselves upon and which imposes equality of lahour the wheel, it commences its revolution. on every individual employed, no one The effort, then, to every individual is upon the wheel being able in the least simply that of ascending an endless degree to avoid his proportion. Right of steps, their combined weight The arrangement of the wheels in acting upon every successive stepping the yards radiating from the governor's board, precisely as a stream of water central residence, places the prisoners upon the float-boards of a water-wheel. thus employed under very good in

During this operation, each prisoner spection-an object known to be of the gradually advances from the end at utmost importance in prison managewhich he mounted towards the opposite ment. At the Brixton House of Corend of the wheel, from whence the last rection, with the exception of the very man, taking his turn, descends for rest few confined by the casualties of sick(see the Plate), another prisoner imme- ness or debility, all the prisoners are diately mounting as before to fill up the steadily employed under the eye of the number required, without stopping the governor during a considerable part of machine. The interval of rest may the day. then be portioned to each man, by re- The classification also of the prigulating the number of those required soners, according to offences, &c. may to work the wheel with the whole num- be adhered to in the adoption of these ber of the gang; thus, if twenty out of discipline wheels; the same wheel, or twenty-four are obliged to be upon the the same connected shafts, can be easiwheel, it will give to each man inter- ly made to pass into distinct compartvals of rest amounting to 12 minutes in inents, in which the several classes every hour of labour. Again, hy vary. may work in separate parties. In the ing the number of men upon the wheel, prison from which the annexed drawing or the work inside the mill, so as to is taken, a tread-wheel is erected in increase or diminish its velocity, the each of the six yards, - by which the indegree of hard labour or exercise to convenience and risk of removing a set the prisoner may also be regulated. of prisoners from one part of the prison At Brixton, the diameter of the wheel to another is obviated. being five feet, and revolving twice in As the mechanism of these Treada minute, the space stepped over by Mills is not of a complicated nature, each man is 2193 feet, or 731 yards per the regular employment they afford is hour.

not likely to be frequently suspended To provide regular and suitable em- for wantof repairs to the machinery ; ployment for prisoners sentenced to and should the supply of corn, &c. at hard labour, has been attended with any time fall off, it is not necessary considerable difficulty 'many parts of that the labour of the prisoners should the kingdom : the invention of the Dis- bu suspended, nor can they be aware of cipline Mill has removed the difficulty, the circumstance: the supply of hard

labour may therefore be considered as The Magistrates' clerks know not how almost unfailing.

to behave, it's It is unnecessary to occupy much So puzzling to draw up the right affi. time in proving the advani age which da vits : the invention of the Stepping-Mill pre- Then how shall I pick Cupid's bone of sents as a species of preventive pu- contention, nishment. Although but very recently. Remote as I am from the scene of disIntroduced, and hitherto but sparingly sension? brought into action, the effects of its My client, Jack Junk, with a heart discipline have in every instance proved hot as Ætna, eminently useful in decreasing the num. Has cut through the knot by post horses ber of cominitments. As a corrective and Gretna. punishment, the discipline of the Step- One says the church notice must not be ping-Mill has had a most salutary ef- a scrawl; fect upon the prisoners, and is not like. One says there is no need of notice at ly to be easily forgotten ; while it is an

all; occupation which by no means inter: A third swears it must be in black and feres with, nor is calculated to lessen in white; the value of, those branches of prison A fourth hints that, where neither party, regulation which provide for the moral

can write, and religious improvement of the cri. A cross is sufficient; forgetting, of minal.

course, By an excellent contrivance, when That a cross before marriage is cart the machinery of the mill has attained before horse its proper speed, certain balls rise by My female complainants are equally their centrifugal force, so as to draw a busy, box below the reach of a bell-handle, And ply me with plaints till I'm really which will then cease to ring a bell, dizzy. placed in some convenient situation for Miss Struggle, aged fifty, still baiting the purpose. But should the men at

Love's trap, the wheels cease to keep up the requi- Asks, who keeps the children should Bite speed in the mill.work, the balls Hymen's chain snap. will descend, and a projecting pin on Miss Blue, equi-wrinkled, has dipp'd the box, striking the handle, placed in me in ink, the proper situation for that purpose, With doubts on divorce à mens. and è will continue to ring the bell, till they vinc. go on again properly; and by this Aunt Jane understands it: her niece means, a certain check will be kept on Mary Anne the labourers, and the governor or task- Says she cannot conceive others say master apprised, even at a distance, that she can; that the full work is not performed. And gladly would hie to St. George's,

full trot, SPIRIT OF THE

To clench Cupid's nail while the iron is Public Journals.

hot.

To flourish my flail, feather mounted, THE NEW MARRIAGE ACT.

and draw Cases for the Opinion of A handful of wheat from a barn full of DR. LUSHINGTON.

straw ; Dear Doctor, in vain, by September set Five Cases I've hit on, in Cupid's dofree,

minion, Have I, a poor Proctor, eloped toward On, which I request your advice and the sea.

opinion. This new Marriage Act, which my Lord Case one.-Kitty Crocodile married Ellenborough

Ned Bray, Has whisk'd through the House like a And swore she would honour, and love, colt o'er the Curragh,

and obey. Has set the pent foars of my clients at The honeymoon over, thorns mingie large

with roses, I'm boarded by dunces, like Pope in And Ned's upper head is the picture of his barge.

Moses. My bag won't contain half the cases Love, honour, obey, toll a funerad they draw,

knell, The Church can't absolve, so they fly Up start, in their place, hate, disdain, to the Law,

and rebel.

aud say,

jury?

to a peer,

sand a year:

You'll please to look over the statute, In temper both fired: 'twas a word and

a blow: In case, at the next Lent Assizes, Ned (See Dibdio's Reports, Captain Watile Bray

and Roe,) Indict Mistress Kate for false swearing, And both, while the stool is at either can her jury

head flung, Bring the delinquent in guilty of per. Try to tear with their teeth what they

tied with their tongue. Case two.--Captain Boyd, to his tai- Please to study the Act for this couple, lor in debt,

and tell 'em Ador'd, at the Op'ra, Ma'amselle Pi. If they can't be replaced “ statu quo rouette:

ante bellum.” 'Twas Psyche that slew him: he woo'd; Case five.-Doctor Swapp'em, allied

she consented: Both married in May, and in June both Has farm'd his great tithes for five thou

repented: The steps that she took gain'd eight He never is vex'd, but when pheasants hundred a year,

are wild; The step that he took made that sum And got a rich helpmate who bore him disappear,

no child. Please look at the Act, and advise whe. The curate of Swapp'em is pious and ther Boyd

thrifty, By debt made the deed nudum pactum His annual stipend in pounds mounts to and void;

fifty; And say, if eight hundred per annum, His helpmate in annual parturience is Miss Pirouette

seen, May get back from Boyd, by a count His children already amount to ffquantum meruit!

teen. Case three.-Martha Trist, of Saint While keeping the dictum Ecclesiæ in Peter-le-Poor,

view, Had stuck up her notice upon her church (God never sends mouths without senddoor.

ing bread too) The Act (section eight) says, the wife You'll please to advise, if the Act has must annex

a clause Her proper description, age, station, To marshal the bread, or to average and sex.

the jaws. Her age, four-and-thirty, she fix'd to But see, while my pen your Opinion the door,

implores, But somehow the wafer stuck over the Fresh couples, love-stricken, besiege four;

the church doors. And Martha, if judged by some ill. The porch of St. Anne's ninety couple temper'd men,

disgorges, Would seem to have own'd to no more Thrice ninety stand fix'd on the steps of than thrice ter,

St. George's; If Wildgoose, her spouse, should dis. The fresh and the jaded promiscuously cover the flaw,

mingle, Please to say if the wedlock's avoided Some seek to get married, some seek to by law;

get single: And if" on the whole,” you would not While those, sage Civilian, you're fetdeem it safer

tering, please To interline “ four” at the top of the To hit on a scheme tu emancipate wafer.

these. Case four. -Captain Sykes won the Teach mortals, who find, like the man heart of Miss Dighton

who slew Turnus, While driving a dennet from Worthing A marvellous facile descent to Avernus, to Brighton.

Like him, back their Pluto-bound steps Her West-India fortune his hot bosom to recall, stirs,

And breathe the light æther of BacheHis cap and mustachios are too much lor's Hall : for hers.

Do this, through my medium, dear DocThey married: the Captain was count tor, and then ing his gain,

Ere Easter, my life on't, we both are . When sugar and rum grew a drug in

made men; Mark-lane.

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