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body, saying, "This is my body which shall be given to “death for you,”" yet he meant not, that the bread should be given to death for us, but his body which by the bread was signified.
If this excellent clerk and doctor understand not these manner of speeches, that be so plain, then hath he both lost his senses, and forgotten his grammar, which teacheth to refer the relative to the next antecedent. But of these figurative speeches I have spoken at large in my third book; first in the viiith chapter, proving by authority of the oldest authors in Christ's Church, that he called bread his body, and wine his blood; and again in the ixth, xth, xith, and xiith chapters, I have so fully entreated of such figurative speeches, that it should be but a superfluous labour here to speak thereof any more: but I refer the reader to those places.
And if Mr. doctor require a further answer herein, let him look upon the late Bishop of Winchester's book, called the Detection of the Devil's Sophistry, where he writeth plainly, that when Christ spake these words, This is my body, he made demonstration of the bread.
the cart be
THEN further in this Prologue this papist is not ashamed Setting of to say, that I set the cart before the horses, putting reason fore the first and faith after; which lie is so manifest, that it needeth horses. no further proof but only to look upon my book, wherein it shall evidently appear, that in all my five books I ground my foundation upon God's word. And lest the papists should say, that I make the expositions of the Scripture myself, as they commonly use to do, I have fortified my foundation by the authority of all the best learned and most holy authors and martyrs, that were in the beginning of the Church and many years after, until the Antichrist of Rome rose up and corrupted altogether.
And as for natural reason, I make no mention thereof in all my five books, but in one place only, which is in my second book, speaking of transubstantiation. And in that place I set not reason before faith, but, as an handmaiden, have appointed her to do service unto faith, and to wait
upon her. And in that place she hath done such service, that Dr. Smyth durst not once look her in the face, nor find any fault with her service, but hath slyly and craftily stolen away by her, as though he saw her not.
But in his own book he hath so impudently set the cart before the horses in Christ's own words, putting the words behind that go before, and the words before that go behind, that, except a shameless papist, no man durst be so bold to attempt any such thing of his own head. For where the Matt. xxvi. Evangelist and St. Paul rehearse Christ's words thus: Take, eat, this is my body, he in the confutation of my second book turneth the order upside down, and saith, "This is "my body, take and eat."
1 Cor. xi.
Of the wonderful works of God.
After this in his Preface he rehearseth a great number of the wonderful works of God, as that God made all the world of naught, that he made Adam of the earth and Eve of his side, the bush to flame with fire and burn not, and many other like, which be most manifestly expressed in holy Scripture. And upon these he concludeth most vainly and untruly that thing which in the Scripture is neither expressed nor understanded, that Christ is corporally in heaven and in earth, and in every place where the sacrament is.
And yet Dr. Smith saith, that God's word doth teach this as plainly as the other, using herein such a kind of sophistical argument, as all logicians do reprehend, which is called petitio principii, when a man taketh that thing for a supposition and an approved truth, which is in controversy. And so doth he in this place, when he saith: "Doth "not God's word teach it thee as plainly as the other?" Here by this interrogatory he required that thing to be granted him as a truth, which he ought to prove, and whereupon dependeth the whole matter that is in question; that is to say, whether it be as plainly set out in the Scripture, that Christ's body is corporally in every place where the sacrament is, as that God created all things of nothing, Adam of the earth, and Eve of Adam's side, &c. This is it that I deny, and that he should prove. But he taketh it for a supposition, saying by interrogation, "Doth not the word of
"God teach this as plainly as the other?" which I affirm to be utterly false, as I have showed in my third book, the xith and xiith chapters, where I have most manifestly proved, as well by God's word as by ancient authors, that these words of Christ, This is my body, and, This is my blood, be no plain speeches, but figurative.
THEN forth goeth this papist unto the sixth chapter of St. John, saying, "Christ promised his disciples to give "them such bread as should be his own very natural flesh, "which he would give to death for the life of the world. "Can this his promise," saith Mr. Smith, "be verified of John vi. “common bread? Was that given upon the cross for the "life of the world ?"
Whereto I answer by his own reason. Can this his promise be verified of sacramental bread? Was that given upon the cross for the life of the world. I marvel here not a little of Mr. Smith's either dulness or maliciousness, that cannot or will not see, that Christ in this chapter of St. John spake not of sacramental bread, but of heavenly bread: nor of his flesh only, but also of his blood and of his Godhead, calling them heavenly bread that giveth everlasting life. So that he spake of himself wholly, saying, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall not hunger; and he that believeth in me shall not thirst for ever. And neither spake he of common bread, nor yet of sacramental bread for neither of them was given upon the cross for the life of the world.
And there can be nothing more manifest than that in this sixth chapter of John, Christ spake not of the sacrament of his flesh, but of his very flesh. And that, as well for that the sacrament was not then instituted, as also that Christ said not in the future tense, 'The bread which I will give shall be my flesh,' but in the present tense, The bread which I will give, is my flesh; which sacramental bread was neither then his flesh, nor was then instituted for a sacrament, nor was after given to death for the life of the world.
But as Christ, when he said unto the woman of Samaria, The water which I will give, shall spring into everlasting life, he meant neither of material water, nor of the accidents of water, but of the Holy Ghost, which is the heavenly fountain that springeth unto eternal life: so likewise when he said, The bread which I will give, is my flesh which I will give for the life of the world, he meant neither of the material bread, neither of the accidents of bread, but of his own flesh. Which although of itself it availeth nothing, yet being in unity of person joined unto his Divinity, it is the same heavenly bread that he gave to death upon the cross
for the life of the world.
But here Mr. Smyth asketh a question of the time, saying thus: "When gave Christ that bread which was his very "flesh that he gave for us to death, if he did it not at his "last Supper, when he said, This is my body that shall be given for you?”
I answer, according to Cyril's mind upon the same place, that Christ alone suffered for us all, and by his wounds were we healed, he bearing our sins in his body upon a tree, and being crucified for us, that by his death we might live.
But what need I, Mr. Smith, to labour in answering to your question of the time, when your question in itself containeth the answer, and appointeth the time of Christ giving himself for the life of the world? when you say, that he gave himself for us to death, which, as you confess scant three lines before, was not at his supper, but upon the
And if you will have none other giving of Christ for us but at his supper, (as your reason pretendeth, or else it is utterly naught,) then surely Christ is much bound unto you, that have delivered him from all his mocking, whipping, scourging, crucifying, and all other pains of death, which he suffered for us upon the cross, and bring to pass that he was given only at his supper without blood or pain, for the life of the world. But then is all the world little beholding
[Cyril, In Joan. lib. iv. cap. 12. See Authorities in the Appendix.]
unto you, that by delivering of Christ from death will
AFTER the Gospel of St. John, Mr. Smyth allegeth for The place of his purpose St. Paul to the Corinthians, who biddeth every 1 Cor. xi. man to examine himself before he receive this sacrament, for he that eateth and drinketh it unworthily, is guilty of the body and blood of Christ, eating and drinking his own damnation, because he discerneth not our Lord's body.
Here by the way it is to be noted, that Dr. Smyth in reciting the words of St. Paul doth alter them purposely, commonly putting this word "sacrament,” in the stead of these words "bread and wine," (which words he seemeth so much to abhor as if they were toads or serpents, because they make against his transubstantiation,) whereas St. Paul ever useth those words, and never nameth this word "sacrament."
But to the matter: "What need we to examine our"selves," saith Dr. Smith, "when we shall eat but common "bread, and drink wine of the grape? Is a man guilty of "the body and blood of Christ, which eateth and drinketh "nothing else but only bare bread made of corn, and mere "wine of the grape ?" Who saith so, good sir? Do I say in my book, that those which come to the Lord's table do eat nothing else but bare bread made of corn, nor drink nothing but mere wine made of grapes? How often do I teach and repeat again and again, that as corporally with our mouths we eat and drink the sacramental bread and wine, so spiritually with our hearts, by faith, do we eat Christ's very flesh and drink his very blood, and do both feed and live spiritually by him, although corporally he be absent from us, and sitteth in heaven at his Father's right hand. And as in baptism we come not unto the water as we come to other common waters, when we wash our hands or bathe our bodies, but we know that it is a mystical water, admonishing us of the great and manifold mercies of God towards us, of the league and promise made between him and us, and of his wonderful working and operation in us: wherefore we