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[The following lines were prefixed to the edition of
Accipe præclarum, lector studiose, libellum,
Quem tibi Cranmerus scripserat ante rogos.
Ut jaceas veluti sensibus absque fera.
Rixandi posset si tamen esse modus.
PREFACE TO THE READER.
I THINK it good, gentle reader, here in the beginning to admonish thee of certain words and kinds of speeches, which I do use sometime in this mine Answer to the late Bishop of Wynchester's book, lest in mistaking, thou do as it were stumble at them.
First this word, "sacrament," I do sometimes use (as it is Sacrament. many times taken among writers and holy doctors) for the sacramental bread, water, or wine; as when they say, that "sacramentum est sacræ rei signum," a sacrament is the
sign of an holy thing." But where I use to speak sometimes, as the old authors do, that Christ is in the sacraments, I mean the same as they did understand the matter, that is to say, not of Christ's carnal presence in the outward sacrament ; but sometimes of his sacramental presence: and sometime by this word, "sacrament," I mean the whole ministration and receiving of the sacraments, either of Baptism, or of the Lord's Supper, and so the old writers many times do say, that Christ and the Holy Ghost be present in the sacraments, not meaning by that manner of speech, that Christ and the Holy Ghost be present in the water, bread, or wine, (which be only the outward visible sacraments,) but that in the due ministration of the sacraments according to Christ's ordinance and institution, Christ and his holy Spirit be truly and in deed present by their mighty and sanctifying power, virtue, and grace, in all them that worthily receive the same. Moreover when I say and repeat many times in my book,
The real presence of
Christ's that the body of Christ is present in them that worthily rethe godly ceive the sacrament, lest any man should mistake my words,
and think that I mean, that although Christ be not corporally in the outward visible signs, yet he is corporally in the persons that duly receive them, this is to advertise the reader, that I mean no such thing, but my meaning is, that the force, the grace, the virtue, and benefit of Christ's body that was crucified for us and of his blood that was shed for us, be really and effectually present with all them that duly receive the sacraments, but all this I understand of his spiritual presence, of the which he saith, I will be with you until the world's end. And, Wheresoever two or three be Matt. xviii. gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of John vi. them. And, He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. Nor no more is truly he corporally or really present in the due ministration of the Lord's Supper, than he is in the due ministration of Baptism; that is to say, in both spiritually by grace. And wheresoever in the Scripture it is said, that Christ, God, or the Holy Ghost is in any man, the same is understand spiritually by grace a.
The nam- The third thing to admonish the reader of is this, that ing of the late Bishop when I name Doctor Stephen Gardyner, Bishop of Wynof Wynchester.
chester, I mean not that he is so now, but forasmuch as he was Bishop of Wynchester at the time when he wrote his book against me, therefore I answer his book as written by the Bishop of Wynchester, which else needed greatly none answer for any great learning or substance of matter that is in it.
The last admonition to the reader is this, where the said
["That is to say- understand spiritually by grace." This clause is taken from the edition of 1580; it does not exist in that of
of the bread
late Bishop thinketh, that he hath sufficiently proved tran- of Christ substantiation, that is to say, that the substance of bread prove no and wine cannot be in the sacrament, if the body and blood stantiation of Christ were there, because two bodies cannot be together and wine. in one place; although the truth be, that in the sacrament of Christ's body, there is corporally but the substance of bread only, and in the sacrament of the blood, the substance of wine only; yet how far he is deceived, and doth vary from the doctrine of other papists, and also from the principles of philosophy, (which he taketh for the foundation of his doctrine in this point,) the reader hereby may easily perceive. For if we speak of God's power, the papists affirm, that by God's power two bodies may be together in one place, and then why may not Christ's blood be with the wine in the cup, and his flesh in the same place where the substance of the bread is? And if we consider the cause wherefore two bodies cannot be together in one place by the rules of nature, it shall evidently appear, that the body of Christ may rather be in one place with the substance of the bread, than with the accidents thereof, and so likewise his blood with the wine. For the natural cause wherefore two bodies cannot be together in one place, as the philosophers say, is their accidents, their bigness and thickness, and not their substances. And then by the very order of nature it repugneth more, that the body of Christ should be present with the accidents of bread, and his blood with the accidents of wine, than with the substances either of bread or wine. This shall suffice for the admonition to the reader, joining thereto the Preface in my first book, which is thisb:
b [See vol. ii. p. 287.]