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NOTES.

CHORUS.

P. 168, col. 1, 1. 20.

Fortunately the Greeks have been taught that they The quenchless ashes of Milan.

cannot buy security by degradation, and the Turks, MILAN was the centre of the resistance of the Lom

though equally cruel, are less cunning than the smooth

faced tyrants of Europe. bard league against the Austrian tyrant. Frederick Barbarossa burnt the city to the ground, but liberty

As to the anathema, his Holiness might as well have lived in its ashes, and it rose like an exhalation from

thrown his mitre at Mount Athos for any effect that it its ruin.-See Sismondi's “ Histoires des Répub- produced. The chiefs of the Greeks are almost all liques Italiennes," a book which has done much

men of comprehension and enlightened views on retowards awakening the Italians to an imitation of their ligion and politics. great ancestors. P. 169, col. 2, 1. 1.

P. 172, col. 2, 1. 30.

The freeman of a western poet chief. The popular notions of Christianity are represented A Greek who had been Lord Byron's servant comin this chorus as true in their relation to the worship mands the insurgents in Attica. This Greek, Lord they superseded, and that which in all probability they Byron informs me, though a poet and an enthusiastic will supersede, without considering their merits in a rela- patriot, gave him rather the idea of a timid and unention more universal. The first stanza contrasts the terprising person. It appears that circumstances make immortality of the living and thinking beings which men what they are, and that we all contain the germ inhabit the planets, and, to use a common and inade of a degree of degradation or greatness, whose conquate phrase, clothe themselves in matter, with the nexion with our character is determined by events. transience of the noblest manifestations of the external world.

The concluding verses indicate a progressive state of more or less exalted existence, according to the degree

P. 173,"col. 1, 1. 10. of perfection which every distinct intelligence may

The Greeks expect a Saviour from the test. have attained. Let it not be supposed that I mean to dogmatize upon a subject concerning which all men

It is reported that this Messiah had arrived at a sea. are cqually ignorant, or that I think the Gordian knot

port near Lacedemon in an American brig. The assoof the origin of evil can be disentangled by that or

ciation of names and ideas is irresistibly ludicrous, but any similar assertions. The received hypothesis of a

the prevalence of such a rumour strongly marks the Being resembling men in the moral attributes of his

state of popular enthusiasm in Greece. nature, having called us out of non-existence, and after inflicting on us the misery of the commission of error, should superadd that of the punishment and

P. 175, col 1, 1. 19. the privations consequent upon it, still would remain

The sound inexplicable and incredible. That there is a true

As of the assault of an imperial city. solution of the riddle, and that in our present state the solution is unattainable by us, are propositions

For the vision of Mahmud of the taking of Conwhich may be regarded as equally certain ; meanwhile,

stantinople in 1445, see Gibbon's Decline and Fall as it is the province of the poet to attach himself to

of the Roman Empire, vol. xii. p. 223. those ideas which exalt and ennoble humanity, let him

The manner of the invocation of the spirit of be permitted to have conjectured the condition of that

Mahomet the Second will be censured as overdrawn. futurity towards which we are all impelled by an in.

I could easily have made the Jew a regular conjuror, extinguishable thirst for immortality. Until better

and the Phantom an ordinary gbost. I have preferred arguments can be produced than sophisms which dis

to represent the Jew as disclaiming all pretension, grace the cause, this desire itself must remain the or even belief, in supernatural agency, and as tempting strongest and the only presumption that eternity is the

Mahmud to that state of mind in which ideas may be inheritance of every thinking being.

supposed to assume the force of sensation, through the confusion of thought, with the objects of thought,

and excess of passion animating the creations of the P. 169, col. 2, 1. 51.

imagination. No hoary priests after that Patriarch.

It is a sort of natural magic, susceptible of being The Greek Patriarch, after having been compelled to exercised in a degree by any one who should have fulminate an anathema against the insurgents, was put

made himself master of the secret associations of to death by the Turks.

another's thoughts.

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CHORUS.

the One, who rose, or Jesus Christ, at whose appearP. 177, col. 2, 1. 5.

ance the idols of the Pagan world were amerced of their worship; and the many unsubdued or the mon

strous objects of the idolatry of China, India, and the The final chorus is indistinct and obscure as the Antarctic islands, and the native tribes of America, event of the living drama whose arrival it foretells. | certainly have reigned over the understandings of men

Prophecies of wars, and rumours of wars, &c. may in conjunction or in succession, during periods in which safely be made by poet or prophet in any age ; but to all we know of evil has been in a state of portentous, anticipate, however darkly, a period of regeneration and, until the revival of learning and the arts, perand happiness, is a more hazardous exercise of the petually increasing, activity. The Grecian Gods seem faculty which bards possess or feign. It will remind indeed to have been personally more innocent, although the reader, “ magno nec proximus intervallo" of Isaiah it cannot be said that, as far as temperance and chastity and Virgil, whose ardent spirits, overleaping the actual are concerned, they gave so edifying an example as their reign of evil which we endure and bewail, already saw

The sublime human character of Jesus the possible and perhaps approaching state of society Christ was deformed by an imputed identification in which the “lion shall lie down with the lamb," and with a power, who tempted, betrayed, and punished

omnis feret omnia tellus." Let these great names be the innocent beings who were called into existence by my authority and excuse.

his sole will; and for the period of a thousand years,

the spirit of this most just, wise, and benevolent of P. 177, col. 1. 35.

men, has been propitiated with myriads of hecatombs

of those who approached the nearest to his innoSaturn and Love their long repose.

cence and wisdom, sacrificed under every aggravation Saturn and Love were among the deities of a real of atrocity and variety of torture. The horrors of or imaginary state of innocence and happiness. All the Mexican, the Peruvian, and the Indian superstitions those who fell, or the Gods of Greece, Asia, and Egypt; are well known.

successor.

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The south of Europe was in a state of great bosom. But they had slender hopes ; they knew political excitement at the beginning of the year that the Neapolitans would offer no fit resistance 1821. The Spanish Revolution had been a signal to the regular German troops, and that the overto Italy-secret societies were formed—and when throw of the Constitution in Naples would act as Naples rose to declare the Constitution, the call a decisive blow against all struggles for liberty in was responded to from Brundusium to the foot of Italy. the Alps. To crush these attempts to obtain liberty, We have seen the rise and progress of reform. early in 1821, the Austrians poured their armies

But the Holy Alliance was alive and active into the peninsula : at first their coming rather in those days, and few could dream of the seemed to add energy and resolution to a people peaceful triumph of liberty. It seemed then that long enslaved. The Piedmontese asserted their

the armed assertion of freedom in the south of freedom ; Genoa threw off the yoke of the King Europe was the only hope of the liberals, as, if it of Sardinia ; and, as if in playful imitation, the prevailed, the nations of the north would imitate people of the little state of Massa and Carrara the example. Happily the reverse has proved gave the congé to their sovereign and set up a the fact. The countries accustomed to the exerrepublic.

cise of the privileges of freemen, to a limited Tuscany alone was perfectly tranquil. It was extent, have extended, and are extending these said, that the Austrian minister presented a list limits. Freedom and knowledge have now a of sixty Carbonari to the grand-duke, urging their chance of proceeding hand in hand ; and if it imprisonment; and the grand-duke replied, “I continue thus, we may hope for the durability of do not know whether these sixty men are Car. both. Then, as I have said, in 1821, Shelley, as bonari, but I know if I imprison them, I shall well as every other lover of liberty, looked upon directly have sixty thousand start up." But the struggles in Spain and Italy as decisive of though the Tuscans had no desire to disturb the the destinies of the world, probably for centuries paternal government, beneath whose shelter they to come. The interest he took in the progress slumbered, they regarded the progress of the of affairs was intense. When Genoa declared various Italian revolutions with intense interest, itself free, his hopes were at their highest. Day and hatred for the Austrian was warm in every after day, he read the bulletins of the Austrian

army, and sought eagerly to gather tokens of its their general, not their particular purport. He defeat. He heard of the revolt of Genoa with did not foresee the death of Lord Londonderry, emotions of transport. His whole heart and soul which was to be the epoch of a change in English were in the triumph of their cause. We were living politics, particularly as regarded foreign affairs ; at Pisa at that time ; and several well-informed nor that the navy of his country would fight for Italians, at the head of whom we may place the instead of against the Greeks; and by the battle celebrated Vacca, were accustomed to seek for of Navarino secure their enfranchisement from sympathy in their hopes from Shelley: they did not the Turks. Almost against reason, as it appeared find such for the despair they too generally ex to him, he resolved to believe that Greece would perienced, founded on contempt for their southern prove triumphant ; and in this spirit, auguring countrymen.

ultimate good, yet grieving over the vicissitudes to

be endured in the interval, he composed his drama. While the fate of the progress of the Austrian armies then invading Naples was yet in suspense,

The chronological order to be observed in the the news of another revolution filled him with arrangement of the remaining poems, is interexultation. We had formed the acquaintance at rupted here, that his dramas may follow each Pisa of several Constantinopolitan Greeks, of the other consecutively. “ Hellas"

was among the family of Prince Caradja, formerly Hospodar of last of his compositions, and is among the most Wallachia, who, hearing that the bowstring, the beautiful. The chorusses are singularly ima. accustomed finale of his viceroyalty, was on the ginative, and melodious in their versification, road to him, escaped with his treasures, and took

There are some stanzas that beautifully exemplify up his abode in Tuscany. Among these was the Shelley's peculiar style ; as, for instance, the gentleman to whom the drama of Hellas is dedi- assertion of the intellectual empire which must be cated. Prince Mavrocordato was warmed by for ever the inheritance of the country of Homer, those aspirations for the independence of his Sophocles, and Plato: country, which filled the hearts of many of his

But Greece and her foundations are countrymen. He often intimated the possibility Built below the tide of war; of an insurrection in Greece ; but we had no idea

Based on the crystalline sea

Of thought and its eternity. of its being so near at hand, when, on the 1st of April, 1821, he called on Shelley ; bringing the And again, that philosophical truth, felicitously proclamation of his cousin Prince Ipsilanti, and, imaged forthradiant with exultation and delight, declared that

Revenge and wrong bring forth their kind, henceforth Greece would be free.

The foul cubs like their parents are ; Shelley had hymned the dawn of liberty in Spain

Their den is in the guilty mind,

And conscience feeds them with despair. and Naples, in two odes, dictated by the warmest enthusiasm ;-he felt himself naturally impelled The conclusion of the last chorus is among the to decorate with poetry the uprise of the descend most beautiful of his lyrics ; the imagery is disants of that people, whose works he regarded with tinct and majestic ; the prophecy, such as poets deep admiration ; and to adopt the vaticinatory love to dwell upon, the regeneration of mankindcharacter in prophesying their success. “Hellas” | and that regeneration reflecting back splendour was written in a moment of enthusiasm. It is on the foregone time, from which it inherits so curious to remark how well he overcomes the much of intellectual wealth, and memory of past difficulty of forming a drama out of such scant virtuous deeds, as must render the possession of materials. His prophecies, indeed, came true in happiness and peace of tenfold value.

1

END OF HELLAS.

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ADVERTISEMENT.

No liberty has been taken with the translation of

this remarkable piece of antiquity, except the supThis Tragedy is one of a triad, or system of three

pressing a seditious and blasphemous chorus of the Pigs Plays, (an arrangement according to which the Greeks

and Bulls at the last act. The word Hoydipouse, (or were accustomed to connect their Dramatic representa

more properly Edipus,) has been rendered literally tions,) elucidating the wonderful and appalling fortunes

SweLLFOOT,

without its having been conceived necesof the SWELLFOOT dynasty. It was evidently written

sary to determine whether a swelling of the bind or by some learned Theban, and from its characteristic

the fore feet of the Swinish Monarch is particularly dulness, apparently before the duties on the importa- | indicated. tion of Attic salt had been repealed by the Bæotarchs. The tenderness with which he beats the Pigs proves him to have been a sus Bæotie ; possibly Epicuri found, entitled,

Should the remaining portions of this Tragedy be

Swellfoot in Angaria," and de grege porcus; for, as the poet observes,

Charité," the Translator might be tempted to give “ A fellow feeling makes us wond'rous kind." them to the reading Public.

DRAMATIS PERSONÆ.

TYRANT SWELLFOOT, King of Thebes.

The GADFLY.
IONA TAURINA, his Queen.

The LEECH.

The RAT.
MAMMON, Arch-Priest of Famine.

The MINOTAUR.
PURGANAX,
DAKRY,
Wizards, Ministers of

Moses, the Sou-gelder.
SWELLFOOT.

SOLOMON, the Porkman.
LAOCTONOS,

ZEPHANIAH, Pig-Butcher.
CHORUS of the Swinish Multitude.
Guards, Altendants, Priests, &c. &c.

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SCENE. Thebes.

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A magnificent Temple, duilt of thigh-bones and death'sheads, and tiled with scalpe. Over the Altar the statue of Famine, veiled ; a number of boars, sous, and sucking. pigs, crowned with thistle, shamrock, and oak, sitting on

the steps, and clinging round the Allar of the Temple. Enter SWELLFOOT, in his royal robes, without perceiving

the Pigs.

SWELLFOOT. Thou supreme Goddess ! by whose power divine These graceful limbs are clothed in proud array

[He contemplates himself with satisfaction. Of gold and purple, and this kingly paunch Swells like a sail before a favouring breeze, And these most sacred nether promontories Lie satisfied with layers of fat; and these Bæotian cheeks, like Egypt's pyramid, (Nor with less toil were their foundations laid,*) Sustain the cone of my untroubled brain, That point, the emblem of a pointless nothing ! Thou to whom Kings and laurelled Emperors, Radical-butchers, Paper-money-millers, Bishops and deacons, and the entire army Of those fat martyrs to the persecution Of stifling turtle-soup, and brandy-devils, Offer their secret vows ! Thou plenteous Ceres Of their Eleusis, hail !

CHORUS OF SWINE.
I have heard your Laureate sing,
That pity was a royal thing;
Under your mighty ancestors, we pigs
Were bless'd as nightingales on myrtle sprigs,
Or grasshoppers that live on noon-day dew,
And sung, old annals tell, as sweetly too :
But now our sties are fallen in, we catch

The murrain and the mange, the scab and itch; Sometimes your royal dogs tear down our thatch,

And then we seek the shelter of a ditch; Hog-wash or grains, or ruta-baga, none Has yet been ours since your reign begun.

FIRST SOW.

My pigs, 'tis in vain to tug !

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Aigh ! aigh ! aigh !

SWELLFOOT.

What! ye that are The very beasts that offered at her altar With blood and groans, salt-cake, and fat, and

inwards, Ever propitiate her reluctant will When taxes are withheld ?

SEMICHORUS.

SWINE,

Ugh! ugh! ugh!

Happier swine were they than we,
Drowned in the Gadarean sea-
I wish that pity would drive out the devils
Which in your royal bosom hold their revels,
And sink us in the waves of your compassion!
Alas! the Pigs are an unhappy nation !
Now if your Majesty would have our bristles

To bind your mortar with, or fill our colons With rich blood, or make brawn out of our gristles,

In policy-ask else your royal Solons You ought to give us hog-wash and clean straw, And sties well thatched; besides, it is the law!

SWELLPOOT.

What! ye who grub With filthy snouts my red potatoes up In Allan's rushy bog? Who eat the oats Up, from my cavalry in the Hebrides ? Who swill the hog-wash soup my cooks digest From bones, and rags, and scraps of shoe-leather, Which should be given to cleaner Pigs than you ?

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* See Universal History for an account of the number of people who died, and the immense consumption of garlic by the wretched Egyptians, who made a sepulchre for the name as well as the bodies of their tyrants.

GUARD,

Your sacred Majesty !

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