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Whether the words neceffitudo and neceffitas have

distinct meanings,

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T is a circumstance worthy of ridicule, that

many grammarians affert there is a great and material difference between neceffitudo' and neceffitas ; that neceffitas is a certain urgent and compelling power, neceffitudo a certain law and bond of religious connexion, and this is its only signifiCation. But as there is no difference whether you

Neceffitudo.]. Cicero confirms the observations of Gelo lius by his usage of these words. In his oration de Harufpicum responsis, he has," ordo rerum et neceffitudo for necefsity; and in that for Roscius, we find magnam necessitatem poffidet paternus maternufque fanguis ;” and in that for Sylla yet more clearly, “ Si noftram neceffitatem familiaritatemque violasset.” In both which places intimacy of union must be understood. Yet some old grammarians still extant, infift upon the distinction of the words,

Neceffarius was commonly used for a relation. See for example Apuleius, p. 4. Price's edition.

Hunc talem quanquam neceffarium et fumme agnitam, &c. The following from Seneca is no bad commentary on the chapter before us :

« Officium effe filii, uxoris, et earum perfonarum quafi neceffitudo fuscitat et ferre opem jubet. See also Feftus, at the word meceßariusa


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say suavitudo or suavitas, fanćtitudo or fanctitaso acerbitudo or acerbitas, acritudo or (as Accius in his Neoptolemus) acritas, so there can be no reason why neceffitudo and necesitas should be confidered as distinct. In old books you usually find necessitudinem applied to signify that quod necessum est, but necessitas is seldom used pro' jure officioque obfervantia afinitatisve, although they who are united by this jus affinitatis familiaritatisve are called necessarii, relations. I have, however, in that speech of Caius Cæsar, wherein he recommends the Plautian rogation, met with the usage of necesstudo in the sense of jus afinitatis. His words are thefe, equidem 4 mihi videor pro noftra necesitate, non labore, non opera, non industria defuiffe. I have written thus much upon these two words, since I read the fourth book of Sempronius Afellio, an old writer of history, in which he thus speaks of Paulus Africanus, the fon of Pau. lus: “ Nams se patrem fuum audise dicere Lucium Æmilium Paulum minus bonum imperatorem fignis

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Quod. ]-That which is necessary.
Pru.j-For the law and duty of reverence and affinity.

Equidem.)-I seem indeed, according to the nature of our relationship, to have omitted no labour, pains, or induftry.

Nam, &c.]—" For Lucius Æmilius Paulus had heard his father say, that a good general would never engage standard to standard, unless the greatest neceflity obliged him, or the faireft opportunity presented itself.”


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follatis decertare; nifi fumma necesitudo aut fumma i occafio data esset.

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The pleasant and wise reply of Olympias, the mother

of Alexander, to her fon.


N many of the records left us of Alexander's

exploits, and a little while ago in a book of Marcus Varro, entitled “ Orestes,” or “ De Infania,” I read that Olympias, the wife of Philip, wrote' a very witty answer to her son Alex


Olympias wrote.)–Plutarch relates two different accounts of the conduct of Olympias on this point. He writes thus, + Eratosthenes says that Olympias, when she brought Alexander on his way to the army, in his first expedition, told him in private the secret of his birth, and exhorted him to behave himself with courage suitable to his divine extraction. Others again affirm, that she wholly declined this vanity, and was wont to say, Will Alexander never cease te make Juno jealous of me s" For the credit of the lady's understanding it is to be hoped that the latter is the true account. A scandalous story is told by some authors, of an intrigue with Nectanebus, king of Ægypt; but this is refuted by chronological reasons. Dion Chryfoftom, in his fourth oration de Regno, relates a curious dialogue between Alex.


ander. When the youth thus addressed his mother, “ King Alexander, the son of Jupiter Ammon,


ander and Diogenes on this subject. Are you that Alexa
ander," said the philofopher, “ who is said to be spu-
rious ?” At this Alexander bln hed, and grew angry, but
restrained himself. He began, however, to repent that he
had condescended to converse with a clownish, infolent man,
as he then thought him. Diogenes, observing that he was
ruffled, resolved to humour him, as a child at play with dice;
and when he asked, “ What could induce you to call me
fpurious ?
“ Because," replied Diogenes,

Diogenes, “ I hear that your mother gives it out. Is it not Olympias, who says of yon, that you are not the offspring of Philip, but of a dragon, ør of Ammon, or I know not what god, or man, or animal? In which case you must be {purious.” At this Alexander smiled, and was singularly pleased ; considering Dio. genes not only as not clownish, but as peculiarly elegant in his manner of paying a compliment. Dion relates further, that when Alexander asked the philosopher, whether he beJieved this account or not, he replied that it was as yet una certain ; suggesting that it remained for him to prove his origin by his actions.

The following extract from Leland's Demosthenes seems also to deserve a place here:

« Flattery, and indulgence to the weakness of Alexander, who, when intoxicated with his successes, conceived the vanity of being thought the son of Jupiter, seem to have given rise to the fiction of an enormous serpenț discovered by Philip in ftri&t intercourse with his queen. The sight of a serpent in her bed, some of the ancients do not allow to have been

fo very extraordinary, in a country where they were tame Stand harmless; and as Olympias, who was remarkably devoted

to the celebration of the enthusiastic rites of Orpheus and Bacchus, is said to have danced in these ceremonies with great tame serpents twining round her, sometimes interwoven with the ivy of the sacred spears, or with the chaplets of her


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sends health to his mother Olympias,” Olympias replied to him in this manner : “ I beseech you," says the,“ my son, be at peace, do not summon me to a court of judicature, nor accuse me before Juno; for she will surely bring a grievous punishment upon me, when she finds it confessed in your letters that I am her husband's harlot.” This polished wit in a wise and prudent woman, addressed to her ferocious fon, seemed tenderly,

attendants, in order to inspire spectators with the greater awe and horror. Yet henceforward, faith Plutarch, his af. fection sensibly abated; and whether he feared her as a sorceress, or imagined that she held a commerce with some god, and was afraid of offending a superior rival, his correspondence with her became less frequent; and having fent to consult the Delphian oracle on this alarming occafion, he received for answer, that he was to pay peculiar honours to Jupiter Ammon, and matt expect to lose that eye which had presumptuously intruded on the secret communication of a divinity with his wife. According to Justin, Olympias herself first suggested the account of the ferpent; and is said by Eratosthenes, an ancient historian, to have informed her son, as he was preparing his expedition into Alia, of the secret of his birth. But this information was possibly nothing more than clearing up the suspicions of his legitimacy; and assuring him that he was really the son of Philip, whose actions might, with all propriety, have been urged as an incitement to his son to approve himself worthy of so great a father. This sentiment seems to have been confirmed by the well known answer of Olympias to her fon's letter, in which he styled himself the son of Jupiter for when the queen complained that Alexander made mifchief (if I may be allowed the expression) between her and Juno, I cannot conceive it in any other light but that of raillery on his fantastical vanity.


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