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service (for I did not expect that, nor could I accomplish it); but if any thing to which human nature is liable had happened to me, (for many things seem to happen contrary to the order of nature and of fate) I should this day leave my voice a witness to the republic of my perpetual attachment to its interests." Here he uses the words fate and nature: whether he intends they should bear the same signification, and uses two words initead of one, or whether he has so divided and separated them, that nature seems to bear one meaning, and fate another, is, I think, worthy of confideration. And first, we must enquire how

man who died what we call a natural death, was said to die according to fatė ; whereas an accidental death was supposed to be according to the regular course of fate or nature. Some philosophers also made fate and nature the same. Alexander Aphrcdifienfis concludes, after arguing the point, that fate is nothing more than the peculiar nature of each individual. He also cites Theophraftus for the same opinion.

Thcophrastus, says he, clearly demonstrates, that according to nature and according to fate mean exactly the fame. See Lucan, ver. 91.

Deus magnusque potensque
Sive canit fatum, feu quod jubet ipfe canendo
Fit fatum.

which Milton thus imitates

Though I uncircumscribed myself retire,
And put not forth my goodness, which is free
To act or not, necessity and chance
Approach not me, and what I will is fate.


he can affirm that many things may happen (humanitùs) according to the order of human nature, (præter fatum) in opposition to fate, since the plan and order, and unconquerable necessity of fate is fo appointed, that in the will of fate all things are included, unless he has followed Homer's expression,

Lest, spite of fate, you visit Piuto's realm. There is no doubt, however, that Homer here means a violent and sudden death, which may justly seem to happen contrary to nature. But why he has called that sort of death contrary to fate, it is not our business to enquire, nor have we time for the investigation. However, it must not be passed by, that Virgil has expressed the same opinion as Cicero upon fate, as in his fourth book, where he speaks of Elisa, who suffered death by force,

Since nor by fate nor her deserts she fell. As if in dying, those modes of death which are violent do not seem to come by the order of fate. But Cicero seems to have followed the words of Demosthenes, a man of equal wisdom and eloquence, who has said the same things of nature and fate, in his excellent oration, nepa στεφαν8. .

« He who thinks himself born only for his parents, awaits the natural and regular order of death ; but he who fancies himkelf born for the service of his country, will meet death

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that he may not see his country ensaved.” What Cicero seems to have called fate and nature, Demosthenes long before called “the natural and regular order of death,” which is that fort of death which comes in the course of fate and nature, and is occasioned by no external force.

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On the familiar conversation of Pacuvius and A

cius in the town of Tarentum.

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HEY who had leisure and inclination to

enquire into the modes of life which learn. ed men pursued, and to commit them to writing, have related this anecdote of the tragic poets Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius.

« When Pacuvius,” say they, " was an old man, and affieted with perpetual disease of body, he retired from Rome to Tarentum. Accius, who was a much younger man', in his way to Asia, com


Younger man.)- According to some authors he was fifty years younger, yet he exhibited a tragedy under the fame ædiles. Fragments remain of many of his tragedies, some of the finest of which are preserved in the philosophical

ing to Tarentum, visited Pacuvius, and being politely treated, and detained by him many days, read, at the request of Pacuvius, his tragedy of Atreus. Pacuvius, they said, remarked that his lines were fonorous and full of dignity, but that they seemed rather harsh and rugged. “What you say,” replied Accius, « is true ; nor do I lament it is so. Yet I hope that what I write in future will be better. For what we observe in fruits is true of the powers of the mind”, those which at


works of Cicero, and all are collected in the fragments of the ancien Latin poets, by H. Stephens.

Paterculus prefers him to Pacuvius, though he allows this latter to be a more correct writer, Horace, giving the po, pular judgment of his time concerning them, says.com

Ambigitur quoties uter utro fit prius; aufert
Pacuvius docti famam fenis, Accius alti.

Quintilian repeats nearly the same opinion of them.

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Powers of the mind.)– There are some excellent re. marks by Dr. Warton, in his Essay on the Genius of Pope, which may serve to illustrate this opinion of Accius. He is {peaking of the early signs of genius in a young man, and thus distinguishes the effects of opposite qualities : “ If his predominant talent be warmth and vigour of imagination, it will break out in fanciful and luxuriant descriptions, the colouring of which will perhaps be too rich and glowing, If his chief force lies in the understanding rather than in the imagination, it will soon appear by folid and manly observa, tions on life and learning, expressed in a more chaste and subdued style. The former will frequently be hurried into obscurity or turgidity, and a false grandeur of diction; the


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first are rough and bitter, become afterwards mild and sweet. But those which are soft and smooth, and are mellow at first, do not afterwards become ripe, but corrupt.

It seems therefore that in the mind something should be left for time to improve."

latter will seldom hazard a figure, whose usage is not already eitablished, or an image beyond common life; will always be perspicuous, if not elevated; will never disguft, if not transport his readers; will avoid the groffer faults, if not arrive at the greater beauties of composition; the

eloquentiæ genus” for which he will be distinguished, will not be the “ plenum, et erectum, et audax, et præcelsum," but the " pressum, et mite, et limatum.”

A remark somewhat of a similar kind occurs in a frag. ment of Alexis the comic poet, preserved in Athenæus. It is thus translated by Mr. Cumberland, in his fourth volume of the Observer:

“ The nature of man in some respect resembles that of wine, for as fermentation is necessary to new wine, so is it also to a youthful spirit; when that process is over, and it comes to settle and subside, we may then, and not till then, expect to find a permanent tranquillity."

The same idea is carried on in a subsequent passage, which also is preserved in the same place, and translated by the same person thus :

“ I am now far advanced in the evening of life's day, and wliat is there in the nature of man that I should liken it to that of wine, seeing that old age, which recommends the latter, mars the former; old wine, indeed, exhilarates, but old men are miserable to themselves and others." Antiphanes the comic poet has fruck

the same com parison, but with a different turn, “ Old age and wine," says


may well be compared; let either of them exceed their date ever so little, and the whole turns four.''



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