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the "Observations and Corrections of the two vo"lumes of the History of the Reformation, made by Mr. Strype," which are printed in the Appendix to the first and second volumes. It is there said, "This Catechism was first made in "Latin by another, but translated by Cranmer's "order, and it was reviewed by him."

Burnet may have been led into this error by Cranmer's own words: The Catechism is said in the title-page to be "set forth by the mooste re"verende father in God Thomas archbishop of

Canterbury." In the words which stand at the head of the preface, immediately after the epistle dedicatory, it is said to be "oversene and cor"rected by the moost reverende father in God "the archebyshoppe of Canterburie:" though in some copies, instead of "oversene and corrected,” we find "set forth," as in the title-page. Cranmer speaks still more strongly in his " Defence of "the true and catholike doctrine of the sacra


ment," published in 1550, two years after the Catechism: "And in a Catechisme by me trans"lated and set furth, I used like maner of speeche, "&ce" And in his answer to Smith, to be quoted more at length hereafter, he says, "not long be"fore I wrot the sayd Catechisme." Notwithstanding these expressions, nothing is more cer


e Vol. III. part II. p. 545.

d Strype writes inadvertently, "it is said in the title page to "be overseen and corrected by the archbishop." Memorials of Cranmer, p. 160.

Page 100.

f Page 402.


tain, than that Cranmer's Catechism was translated from a Latin work, which was itself a translation from the German, made by Justus Jonas. This fact appears to have been well known at the time; at least it was known to Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. Cranmer, as has been stated, published a work upon the sacrament in the year 1550: to which book Gardiner, who was then in the Tower, wrote an answer, which he exhibited at Lambeth, when he was examined before the archbishop and the king's commissioners: the title of which was, " An explication and "assertion of the true Catholique fayth, touchyng "the most blessed Sacrament of the aulter with "confutation of a booke written agaynst the same. "Made by Steven Bishop of Wynchester, and ex"hibited by his oune hande for his defence to the kynges maiesties Commissioners at Lambeth"." In this work Gardiner speaks of the Catechism, as" in his (i. e. Cranmer's) name set forth h" and again, "a booke set forth in the archbishoppe of

Cantorburies name called a Catechismei:" but he says in another place, "Justus Jonas hath "translated a Catechisme out of Douch into La“tin, taught in the citie of Noremberge in Ger


8 There is also added "anno 1551" but over this date, in the Bodleian copy, there is pasted a small piece of paper with the words, "And nowe authorised by the Queenes high

nesse Counsaile. Imprinted at Roan." The book was certainly printed in France, as is stated by Cranmer in his Reply, p. 44-5; and he accuses Gardiner of not having adhered to the written copy which he exhibited at Lambeth.


h Page 2.

Page 17.

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manye, where Hosiander is cheife preacher "which Catechisme was translate into Englishe "in this auctor's name about two yeares pastek:" and still more plainly afterwards, "Oecolampa"dius of Germanye, aboute a two yeres before he impugned the truth of Christes presence in the "Sacrament, he translated oute of Greke into La"tyn the workes of the sayde Theophilacte, and gave the Latyn churche therby some weapon, wherewith to destroye his wicked follye after"warde, not unlike the chaunce in this auctor, translatynge into Englishe, two yeres by past, "the Catechisme of Germanye. And as Oecolampadius hathe sens his follye or madnes agaynste the Sacrament, confessed (as appeareth) that he did translat Theophilacte, so as "we nede not doubte of it. So this auctor hath "nowe in this worke confessed the translacion of "the catechisme, which one in communication "would nedes have made me beleve, had been his "mannes doynge and not his'."

These quotations might still leave it uncertain whether Cranmer was not himself the translator of the Catechism, though he was not the original composer of it. Gardiner in another place speaks of "the Catechisme by him translatem:" and when Dr. Martin said to the archbishop at his examination at Oxford, "When kinge Henrye dyed, did


you not translate Justus Jonas book?" he replied, "I did so":" and in his answer to Gardiner









* Page 5.


Page 70.

Page 85.

n Fox, Acts and Monuments, vol. II. p. 1877. ed. 1583.



he says, "And as for the Catechisme of Germany "by me translated into English":" but in the extract given above, Gardiner appears to have suspected that Cranmer employed the services of another. This suspicion is confirmed, if not fully established, by the evidence of Dr. Rowland Taylor, who was chaplain to Cranmer, and lived for some time in his house. This venerable saint and martyr was brought before Gardiner and other commissioners in the third year of queen Mary, when, according to one of his own letters, which is preserved by Fox, the following dialogue took place.

"Taylor. I do beleeve that the religion set "foorth in king Edward's dayes, was according "to the veyne of the holy scripture.


"Then mayster secretary Bourne sayde, Whyche " of the religions meane ye of in king Edward's dayes? There was a religion set forth in a Catechism by my lord of Canterbury. Do you meane that you will stick to that?


"I answered, My lorde of Canterbury made a "Catechism to be translated into English, which "booke was not of his oune making: yet he set "it foorth in his owne name, and truely that booke "for the time did much good."

Upon the whole, it seems evident that Cranmer was not himself the translator, though the work may have been "overseen and corrected" by him: and we may conclude with Strype, that it was

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by the archbishop himself, or his special order, "turned into English: and, to fix an authority to "the same, he caused it to be published in his own name, and owned it for his own book." The person employed by him to translate it was probably one of his chaplains. It might have been Rowland Taylor himself. Another was John Ponet or Poinet, who was well skilled in the Greek, Latin, and German languages. Another was Thomas Becon, who was also known as an author".

The Latin Catechism, as appears from the preceding extracts, was itself a translation from the German and of this German original no copy has as yet been discovered: but there are good reasons for thinking, that it was one of the numerous Catechisms which appeared in Germany about this period, and which were framed upon the model of Luther's shorter Catechism. Luther published this in 1529: and George Marquess of Brandenburg put forth in 1533 a book of ecclesiastical regulations, for the use of his own territories and of Nuremberg, which, from the account given of it by Seckendorft, might be thought to have contained the very Catechism which is now under consideration. Strype says that "Justus Jonas

"Memorials of Cranmer, p. 396. See also Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. II. p. 32.

See Strype, Memorials of Cranmer, p. 420, &c.

* Some German words may be seen in page 30. and 154. of the present edition.

t Historia Lutheranismi, vol. II. p. 71-2.

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