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was lost in and with Magdeburg. He contributed with the greatest generosity and pleasure, however, to the support of new schools and institutions of instruction, and, though he considered the system of giving stipends as in many respects defective, as it gives rise to abuses and hypocritical pretensions, yet he yearly disposed of considerable sums by way of stipends to poor students, who were either his godchildren or had been recommended to him.

To selfishness, that rust of little souls, as well as to envy, prejudice, and partiality in promotion, this great man was equally a stranger. Indeed, he was often heard to speak with satisfaction of the fact that he was childless, and as a stranger, must be entirely free from the most gently whispered suspicion of having favored his relatives. The man who conducted as the fittest and worthiest, God only being thoroughly acquainted with the heart, was always his favorite. Such an one he considered as his friend, while he counselled, recommended, and assisted him as far as it was in his power. He seldom took any thing for performing the duties of his office. Whatever he received in this way, he almost always handed over to the colleagues next to him in rank in the evangelical Court Church. He would scarcely ever receive any thing but books from his publishers for some of his choicest productions. All that he required of them was, to sell his works at a moderate price. They did so, and this accounts for the increase made in the price of subsequent editions. Indeed, he almost absolutely and unconditionally gave many of them away. The sum of three hundred dollars, which, according to the constitution, he received for every sermon he preached on the assembling of the Diet, he devoted to some pious object. In 1811, he disposed of it as a small premium-fund for diligent alumni, at St. Afra. For a sermon which he delivered on the third Advent Sunday in the University Church at Leipsic, in 1808, he was offered various and large sums, but he disposed of it for a work which was not in the university library, but which was to be presented to it by the publisher. Of course, he never made mention of these circumstances.

Reinhard had exalted views of the marriage state.

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Upon this subject he was wont to say with Luther, one of his favorite authors; 'a pious, humble, sympathizing and domestic wife, with whom a man can live satisfied and happy, and to whom he can intrust his property and whatever he has, yea his life and body, is one of the highest and best gifts of God.'* Of the truth of this he was well convinced from experience;† for he had two wives in the course of his life, who constantly stood by him, and, like genii, attended to all his wants; without whose aid it would have hardly been possible for him to attain to such perfection as he actually did, in observing the principles of virtue and happiness which he had selected as the rule of his conduct. His first wife was the widow of the learned theologian, John Chr. Schmid of Wittenberg, his former teacher and friend, well known even in foreign countries, for his application of his knowledge of French to theological purposes, and his defence of the anon of the sacred Scriptures. Reinhard had been an inmate of this man's family and derived much benefit from intercourse with him and access to his select library. He was well known therefore to Mrs. Schmid, who, on the death of her husband, considered this poor young professor, then just entering his academical career, splendidly distinguished as he was for his lectures, and remarkably strict and exemplary in attending to religion and the performance of his duties, as of all others the most deserving of her hand; and hence, resolved to go with him through life. The marriage was a happy one, though not of long continuance, for Reinhard lost her and her son, whom he loved exceedingly, and had taken great pains to instruct, the second year after his removal to Dresden. She possessed a feeble constitution, but a well-educated and matured mind, united with nobleness of soul, sound judgment, and a discriminating knowledge of men and things, and was highly interest

* See Bredow's Katharine von Boren, Minerva aufs Jahr. 1813, S. 327.

+ See his precious sermon Respecting a disposition for the domestic virtues, (vom Sinne für die Häuslichkeit,) Jahrg. 1801, I. 47, with which compare his Moral, III, 309-461; IV. 694.

+ Saxii Onomasticum, T. VII, p. 222 ff.

ing and profitable in conversation.* To the not inconsiderable property which she brought with her, Reinhard was indebted for the greater security and independence he enjoyed after her death in those relations of life which he was called to sustain.

For his second wife, Reinhard selected the daughter of Von Charpentier, captain of the mines, and immortal as a mineralogist and metallurgist in the annals of Freyberg, and the history of the art of mining. She was of a family distinguished for the union of uprightness and hospitality with the finest sense of art, and frequented by men of genius from both the north and the south of Germany,— was amiable, full of soul, blessed with excellencies of body and mind, and adorned with the female virtues. She carefully studied the character of her husband, and endeavored to render his troublesome life, easy, useful and happy. Indeed, as Reinhard's study door generally stood open, so that his study and parlor constituted as it were but one room, she may be said to have been always present with him while he was engaged in his domestic business; never interrupting him, but ever faithful, watchful, and tenderly attentive to his wants. He could not feel solitary while she was about him. Sometimes she acted as his librarian, and directed his letters, at others as his travelling marshal. She read, sung, or played to him on the harpsichord to comfort him when weary, and watched over him with the tenderest, most affectionate solicitude in his sickness, and to the last moment of his life, seldom calling to her aid the assistance of others, but presenting herself daily and hourly at his bedside, in a manner which fully evinced the real pleasure she felt in being there. To her extraordinary efforts in taking care of Reinhard, we

* He doubtless had her in view, when he wrote the passage: Animadverti feminas-celeritate iudicii viris non raro et multum antecellere; Opusc. Acad. II. 177 seqq.

+ Reinhard practised what he himself has recommended in a physical and ascetical respect, (Moral, IV. 618 ff.,) as a means of restoring and invigorating the system; namely, journeying. From 1795 to 1803, he made a journey every summer, in addition to those which he was obliged to make in performing the duties of his office, and always in company with his faithful and beloved wife. On one of these occasions, he formed an acquaintance with the Moravian Brethren; on another, visited his native place; on a third, renewed the scenes of his youth at Regensburg or Ratisbon as it is usually called in English ; on a fourth visited a sister, married to a clergyman settled in Lower Saxony; and in 1802, he visited Vienna, where he spent several weeks,—a jour ney which he afterwards ever mentioned with the greatest satisfaction.

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are, humanly speaking, indebted for the preservation of his life from the year 1803,* and the blessing he proved during a space of nine years in preaching, writing and other labors, not only to Saxony, but to the whole Protestant world. With justice did he call her his guardian angel. Often in moments of severe anguish did he speak of her in grateful terms, and as his end drew near, return thanks to God for having sent him such faithful nurse to pray and suffer with him, alieviate his pains and fill him with such joy and consolation. Nor will others soon forget her. Whereever the German language is spoken, Reinhard's sermons produce their legitimate effects upon the heart, and any are left to rejoice at his lengthened activity, the name of Ernestine Reinhard and her domestic devotion will be mentioned with reverence and gratitude.

But here we must draw this imperfect account to a close and take our leave of Reinhard and the reader. We might indeed dwell longer upon his character with delight, but time and space forbid. What has been said respecting him,' says Böttiger in the preface to the work from which most of the preceding account has been taken,' has been drawn from the most authentic sources. I have been intimately acquainted with him since 1804, and have conscientiously endeavored to exhibit him as he appeared to me. He was indeed a man and doubtless sometimes erred, but I


ave never discovered a secret fault in him, and half of Europe acknowledges his excellence as a Christian and a scholar. With him theory and practice were united. He had not two coats or two faces, one for private life and another for the public. He did not speak every thing he thought, but he always thought as he spake, and was consistent in his convictions and actions, until death. His most bitter enemies have never suspected him of being influenced by selfishness, and all my acquaintance with him goes to prove what I hope has already been rendered apparent, that his activity did not originate in ambition, but in the most conscientious zeal for the cause of God and the good of man.'

He was distinguished for wonderful activity and genuine

* He has erected a public memorial to her care and assiduity in watching over him while he was confined in Chemnitz in 1803, during which painful season, she was his only nurse, day and night. See Jahrg. 1804, Pred. I. S. 16.

piety, a childlike goodness and amiableness of heart, as any one must be convinced who has attended to what has been said respecting him,-was always mild towards others but severe towards himself, and marked with genuine humility. True Christian feeling pervaded his very soul. He resembled John in love, and Paul in zeal and firmness. A sincere minister he used to say, must, like the coat of Christ, be without seam or patch-work. He made it his object from his earliest years, to exhibit a holy and just consistency in acting according to immutable principles, and to maintain that uniformity of character through life, which is so much extolled by Cicero. Hence, he was utterly averse to all half measures whether in great things or small, even in improving the liturgy; firmly opposed those notions which make virtue a periodical concern graduated by the thermometer of effervescing feelings; could not tolerate that prolixity which creeps around duties and promises, and hated inactivity as the very gate of Hades. Humble before God and man, and from his heart convinced of the imperfection of all human efforts, his only wish was, to work while it was day, and to be found engaged in his master's business. To man the holy ardor of his soul has ceased to glow, the powers of his mind to expand. All that was mortal of him has been conveyed away from the view of weeping friends and mourning thousands, to the silent tomb. His sun has ceased to shine, but it has gone out in the surpassing splendor of the San of righteousness. His example, however, still lives upon earth. In his own eloquent language we may say of him: "Noble friend of truth and goodness, God has called thee, but death shall not stop thy influence. From generation to generation shall the light which thou hast enkindled and increased, stream forth in new and more brilliant rays. From generation to generation shall the feeling which thou hast excited, the virtue which thou hast planted, the piety which thou hast cherished, the Christian love which thou hast extended abroad, remain rich and inexhaustible sources of blessing to mankind, and continue to exert their benign, their hallowed influence, when thy name has faded from the world."*

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* Jahrg. 1801, Th. I. S. 449. This passage was repeated at the solemniza tion of Reinhard's death in Chemnitz, Dec. 20, 1812, and produced a visible effect. It is from Mark 16. 14-20, and treats of the salutary influence which should he exerted by Christians upon earth alter their death.

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