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Reinhard seems also to have derived considerable benefit from Martini, at that time rector, with whom be became acquainted at a later period. He speaks of him with gratitude, and says he delivered some rich lectures on the Socratic mode of instruction, which proved of great value.*

He seems to have derived but little benefit from his other teachers. Their lectures were long and tedious, and came far short of satisfying the active mind of this youth, and hence, he spent the most part of his four years and a half at this place, in unwearied attention to his own studies. In the mean time, however, be found patrons and patronesses, in some of the first families in Regensburg, which was then very flourishing, whose assistance, together with what he received from some near relatives at home, poor as he was, supplied his wants, and prevented the necessity of his wasting the precious days of seed-time, in teaching others for the purpose of obtaining money; for though he sometimes gave private instruction, he did it gratis, and for his own improvement. +

Having become an able gymnasiast and auditor, in 1773, Reinhard left Regensburg, and entered the university at Wittemberg. Both Erlangen and Altorf were nearer, and each of them, at that time, presented some peculiar facilities and conveniences for a residence. Professor Grimm, however, one of Reinhard's teachers, and a zealous defender of the Crusian philosophy, then in high repute, particularly in the South of Germany, having conceived a high regard for him, gave him a most flattering recommendation to Mirus, the Electoral Saxon Secretary of Legation. This man's sons, one of whom still lives in Regensburg, had been Reinhard's school-fellows.

He was likewise zealously attached to the Crusian philosophy, and felt anxious to have a youth of such splendid talents, enlist under the same banners to which he himself had sworn allegiance. Accordingly, Mirus, who had studied theology, and made himself thoroughly acquainted with all its sciences, drew up a plan, agreeably to which Reinhard was to commence his studies at Wittemberg, the cheapest place, under the direction of Dr. Schmid, who was Cru

* Opusc. Acad. I. 109.
+ With the preceding, compare Tzschirner, Briefe, u. 8. W. 1, II.

sius' nephew, and thoroughly acquainted with his theological and philosophical views, and complete them at Leipsic, at the feet of the master himself, to whom Reinhard was early introduced, while on a journey through Leipsic, by a letter from Mirus, and from whom, he, at the same time, received paternal counsel and advice. The new and interesting acquaintances, however, which Reinhard had formed, during his first year's residence at Wittemberg, together with the death of Crusius in 1775, prevented him from carrying the second part of this plan into execution. He, nevertheless, remained firmly attached to the Crusian philosophy, at least, during the two first years of his academical career,- a thing, which was the natural result of the relations he sustained 10 Dr. Schmid, and the respect he had for his profound learning.

Or Reinhard's first and successful attempt at preaching in Dietrichsdorf, bis attention to the oriental languages, under Dr. Dresde, and his efforts to supply other deficiencies in his education, while a student at the university, he has given us sufficient information, in his 5th and 6th let

The only circumstance, which, perhaps, deserves to be particularly mentioned, is, that he had the happiness of attending Schröckh's lectures upon church history, in a private course of instruction; as they exerted a powerful influence upon him.* To them, indeed, and the almost daily intercourse he had with this thoroughly learned and ingenious man, after he became a teacher in the university, he attributed the freedom of thought which he afterwards acquired, and the disinclination he felt to being confined to any particular school. It was through the influence of this man, in particular, that Reinhard was induced, at the close of bis preparatory studies, to turn his attention to the business of instruction. He became thoroughly attached to him for the remainder of his life, and afterwards went twice from Dresden to the delightful neighborhood of Wittemberg, on purpose to see him.

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* See Tzschirner, Ueber Schröckh's Leben und Schriften, S. XLI.

Respecting Schröckh's aversion to the Crusian philosophy, see Nitzsch, Ueber Schröckh's Studienwesen und Maximen, S. 24. After Reinhard and Schröckh became colleagues, they, almost daily, had mutual intercourse with each other, respecting every new phenomenon in the literary and political world, generally in short notes, full of Attic salt, written from their studies.

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III. REINHARD AS A TEACHER.

In the year 1777, by means of an essay for uial, respecting the use of the Septuagint, in criticising the Hebrew text, Reinhard obtained liberiy to teach is the university at Wittemberg.* His education could bardly have been better than it was, to qualify him for this business. In addition to this, Reinhard was born a teacher, and never felt happier, than when surrounded with bis pupils, and giving them instruction. He then considered bimself as enjoying life in the bighest degree.f The period which he spent in this employment at the university, he afterwards considered as the brightest spot in his recollections. No wonder, then, that he grew with rapidiiy, and, in a short time, became philosophical and theological professor. The applause given to his lectures increased from one half year to ano: her, and was grounded upon ilie unbribed feelings of bis pupils. It was also well earned, for the discourses he delivered, which were not drawn frorn old, musly books, were full of rich thought, and always worked over anew every time they were delivered. That a man who received such dis inguished approbation should meet with some opposition, was to be expected. It is an unquestionable fact, bowever, that his discourses produced powerful

the youthful mind. Always engaged in investigating the subjects upon which be lectured, and conscientiously endeavoring to present bis hearers with the newest and the best, and truths to which he had been led by the most strennous efforts of which he was capable, it was natural that his lectures should be thronged, and should exert a great influence. The names of many are now mentioned with esteem in Germany, both as theological and philosophical writers, who received the finishing part of their education under Reinhard. Some of them ought to give us a history of their conversion, for it was not seldom, in this respect, that a Polemon came to a Xenocrates. The time which Reinhard spent in the business of teaching at Wittemberg, may be divided into two periods : The first extending from 1778 10 1784, when he was engaged in philosophy and theology; the second, from 1784 to 1792, when he was engaged in theology and homiletics, and, as provost, together with his theological colleagues, was obliged, according to rule, to preach every Sunday and festival in the University Church.

Schröckh never failed to be present when Reinhard preached, but used to come slyly and cordially to meet me in my little chamber, as the latter osten related, in after years; for they agreed in their views of revelation and the doctrines of the Bible. See Nitzsch S. 27 ff. Tzschirner, XLI-X1.V. The meeting of these men took place, by agreement, at Wörlitz, in the years 1795 and 1798.

* See the Opusc. Academica,
# According to Martia!, VI. 70, Non est yiue. e, sed docere vita.

Of the sacred attention he paid during this period of his lise to all the duties of his office; the doubts and struggles through which he had to pass, before he could bririg his mind to firm and satisfactory results in philosophy ; and finally, of his conscientiousness as a theologian, to found every thing upon the Bible, the salutary influence of which he daily felt in his own heart, he has given us ample insormarion in his Confessions.

When Reinhard commenced lis career as a teacher in the university at Wittemberg, there were many very perceptible defects in the course of instruction there pursued. Hiller, from the school of the great Berger, in his prime justly and truly esteemed as a lecturer in philology and philosophy, had not in the former, as yet gone far beyond ihe Racemationen Zum Tacitus, nor in the latter, far beyond Wolf and Baumeister. Reinhard iimrnediately set about remedying these defects, and his lectures in both departments, at once recommended themselves by their charining clearness and thorough and extensive investigations. Of the lectures which he delivered at a very early period, the pbilological upon some of Plato's dialogues, and the exegetical upon the Psalms, which he always translated into a rhythunical form, were looked upon by the unanimous consent of his hearers, as particularly distinguished.* The volumes which contain these lectures,

Among Reinhard's posthumous papers, there is a finished manuscript upon Phaeilon, Criton, and Platu's Republic, together with a mullilude of philological remarks upon Horace, Tacitus, &c. extracted from his earlier lectures; also a complete commentary upon Genesis, upon Isaiah and the Psalms, all in the Latin language, and seemingly prepared for the press. Each Psalm is accompanied with an introduction, and translated, in an excellent rhythmical form, into the German language, the words having been selected with the greatest propriety and taste, and the whole work having been carefully revised. This revised Translation was published in 1813, by Hacker, in the Jubilate-messe.

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worked out into a very perfect state, are still to be found among Reinbard's literary remains. His lectures however upon particular branches of philosophy, which were divided into different courses, were attended by far the greatest number of bearers, and their results were soon made known in a variety of publications. In these lectures, he always professed to be an Eclectic. He was often urged to publish them, at least 10 the extent of a small manual, but as he was constantly adding to his information and changing them, he could not be persuaded to do so, with the exception of a few outlines for the accommodation of his pupils.* To each position he added the literature of it, in doing which he evinced deep learning and acute judgment. He was always most interesting when he treated of psychology.

Reinhard, in the progress of his investigations, passed from the strictest Crusian philosophy to ibat of Plato and the old academy, and thence, to that of Leibnitz and Woll, between whose systems he remained for a long time in a state of pure skepticism. As he advanced, however, bis views continually enlarged, until he became so intimate with critical philosophy, whicli then comprehended every thing, that, shorily before he went to Dresden, he wrote a lecture upon it, entitled : Au examination of the peculiarities and most noted results of the Kantian philosophy, the entire manuscript of wbich is still in existence. In this examination, be seems to be a pure Kantian, treats this philosopliy as bis own, and does not allow bimself to bring forward any objections to it. Indeed, he was at this time far less consistent in his views of this philosophy than afterwards, when he wrote the celebrated preface to the third edition of his Moral and had penetrated much sarther into it. It is true, many of his hearers, particularly those from Reinhold's school in Jena, were dissatisfied with this lecture, but it answered the grand purpose for which he intended it, which was, to lead each one to in-: vestigate for bimself. As no new phenomenon, either in

* These lec'ures together with some upon natural law perfectly finished, are also extant, parily in the 1.atin and parily in the German. The acute author of Aenesideinus, one of Reinhard's pupils, hy his Grundriss der philosophischen Wissenschaften, Wintein. 1788–179), has given us a very lucid account of bis master's mode of philosophizing.

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