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CHAP. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper.
UR Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was betrayed, instituted the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be observed in his church unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe unto him, and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body ".
II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead; but only a commemoration of that one offering up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same; so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they
I. a 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread: Ver. 24. And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. Ver. 25. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. Ver. 26. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? the bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? Ver. 17. For we, being many, are one bread and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread. Ver. 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils; ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils. 1 Cor. xii. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we
be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
II. b Heb. ix. 22. And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. Ver. 25. Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; Ver. 26. (For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world;) but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. Ver. 28. So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto those that look for him shall he appear the second time, without sin, unto salvation.
c 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 25. [See them in letter a.] Matt. xxvi. 26. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. Ver. 27. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it.
call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ's one only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the electd.
III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an holy use; and to take and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants; but to none who are not then present in the congregation'.
IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any other, alone ; as likewise the denial of the cup to the people"; worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use; are all con
d Heb. vii. 23. And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death: Ver. 24. But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Ver. 27. Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself. Heb. x. 11. And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: Ver. 12. But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God. Ver. 14. For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. Ver. 18. Now, where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin.
III. e Matt. xxvi. 26, 27. [See in letter c.] Ver. 28. For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. And Mark xiv. 22. And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. Ver. 23. And he took the cup; and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it. Ver. 24. And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed
for many. And Luke xxii. 19. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body, which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Ver. 20. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. With 1 Cor. xi. 23–26. [See all in letter a.]
f Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow, and continued his speech until midnight. 1 Cor. xi. 20. When ye come together therefore into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper.
IV. g 1 Cor. x. 6. Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
b Mark xiv. 23. [See in letter c.? 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26. [See in letter a.] Ver. 27. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. Ver. 28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. Ver. 29. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.
trary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ'.
V. The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ; albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before1.
VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called Transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason'; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries m.
VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament", do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then
i Matt. xv. 9. But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
V. Matt. xxvi. 26. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed ir, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. Ver 27. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it: Ver. 28. For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
1 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. Ver. 27. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. Ver. 28. But let a man examine him. self, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. Matt. xxvi. 29. But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine,
until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.
VI. m Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven must receive, until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. With 1 Cor. xi. 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. Ver. 25. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. Ver. 26 [See in letter 1.} Luke xxiv. 6. He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee. Ver. 39. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
VII. n 1 Cor. xi. 28. [See in letter 1.]
not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses o.
VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy_coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries, or be admitted thereunto 1.
CHAP. XXX. Of Church Censures.
HE Lord Jesus, as king and head of his church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand of churchofficers, distinct from the civil magistrate.
o 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? the bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
VIII. p 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28. [See in letter 1.] Ver. 29. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. vi. 14. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with un. righteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? Ver. 15. And what concord hath Christ with Belial or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? Ver. 16. And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
q 1 Cor. v. 6. Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Ver. 7. Perge out therefore the old leaven,
that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. Ver. 13. But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person. 2 Thess. iii. 6. Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us. Ver. 14. And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. Ver. 15. Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. Matt. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
I. a Isa. ix. 6. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The
II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require ↳.
III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring of others from the like offences; for purging out of that leaven which
Prince of Peace. Ver. 7. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth, even for ever: the zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this. 1 Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. 1 Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. Acts xx. 17. And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church. Ver. 18. And when they were come to him, he said unto them, Ye know, from the first day that I came into Asia, after what manner I have been with you at all seasons. Heb. xiii. 7. Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God; whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation. Ver. 17. Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves; for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account; that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you. Ver. 24. Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you. 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set some in the church: first, apostles; secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teachers; after that miracles; then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. Matt.
xxviii. 18. And Jesus came, and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Ver. 19. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Ver. 20. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
II. b Matt. xvi. 19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. Matt. xviii. 17. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church; but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man, and a publican. Ver. 18. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. John xx. 21. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. Ver. 22. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost: Ver. 23. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. 2 Cor. ii.6. Sufficient to such a man is this pu nishment, which was inflicted of many. Ver 7. So that, contrariwise, ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such an one should be swallowed up with over-much sor