Obrazy na stronie

In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi
Castaeque damnatum Minervae

Cum populo et duce fraudulento.
Jam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae
Famosus hospes nec Priami domus
Perjura pugnaces Achivos

Hectoreis opibus refringit,
Nostrisque ductum seditionibus
Bellum resedit. Protinus et graves
Iras et invisum nepotem

Troica quem peperit sacerdos
Marti redonabo; illum ego lucidas
Inire sedes, ducere nectaris
Succos, et adscribi quietis

Ordinibus patiar deorum.
Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion
Romamque pontus qualibet exsules
In parte regnanto beati ;

Dum Priami Paridisque busto

which gives some colour to the reading 'patris,' but not much, and the MSS. and editions are all in favour of 'Martis.' See note on Epod. xvi. 13.

21. ex quo] This signifies that the fall of Troy was determined from the time of Laomedon's crime, and that the crime of Paris and Helen caused its accomplishment. 'Destituo' with an ablative is unusual.

23. damnatum] Bentley prefers 'damnatam,' lest there should be any doubt whether Horace meant to say 'Ilion damnatum' or 'pulverem damnatum.' I do not think there can be any doubt. The feminine form 'Ilios' occurs elsewhere (Epod. xiv. 14).

25. adulterae] It is doubtful whether Horace meant this for the dative or genitive Doering thinks the former; Orelli


the latter.

28. refringit,] All the meanings of this word, which here means to repel, are well given by Forcell. with examples.

29. ductum] 'Ducere' and 'trahere' for producere' and 'protrahere' are usages well known.

32. Troica] There is no authority for 'Troïa;' but Bentley adopts it here and in i. 6. 14; also Jani and Fea, the way having been led by Heinsius. There is much scorn

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Ut sciat."

Dillenbr. among others has 'discere.' I do not like it at all, in the face especially of the very common use of ducere,' in this KEV and on. They both occur in one sense of quaffing. So the Greeks used verse of Euripides (Cycl. 417),

ἔσπασέν τ' ἄμυστιν ἑλκύσας.

35. quietis Ordinibus... deorum.] This savours of the Epicureanism Horace had learnt in early life; "deos didici securum agere aevum.' (S. i. 5. 101.)

"Scilicet is superis labor est, ea cura quietos Sollicitat." (Aen. iv. 379.)

40. Priami-busto] Priam had no tomb according to Virgil's account (Aen. ii.


Insultet armentum et catulos ferae
Celent inultae stet Capitolium
Fulgens, triumphatisque possit

Roma ferox dare jura Medis.
Horrenda late nomen in ultimas
Extendat oras, qua medius liquor
Secernit Europen ab Afro,

Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus,
Aurum irrepertum et sic melius situm
Cum terra celat spernere fortior
Quam cogere humanos in usus

Omne sacrum rapiente dextra.
Quicunque mundo terminus obstitit
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens
Qua parte debacchentur ignes,

Qua nebulae pluviique rores.
Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus
Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii
Rebusque fidentes avitae

Tecta velint reparare Troiae.
Troiae renascens alite lugubri
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur,
Ducente victrices catervas
Conjuge me Jovis et sorore.

557), but we need not quarrel with Horace for that. The whole plain of Troy, says Dillenbr., was in a sense his tomb. No greater affront could be supposed than is here desired. Electra represents Aegisthus as leaping on her father's grave, intoxicated with wine (Eurip. Elect. 326, sq.):

μέθη δὲ βρεχθεὶς τῆς ἐμῆς μητρὸς πόσις ὁ κλεινὸς, ὡς λέγουσιν, ἐνθρώσκει τάφῳ. Compare Epod. xvi. 10, sqq., and Il. iv. 177.

44. dare jura Medis.] This has been seized upon by one class of chronologists to prove the ode was written after the Parthians had restored the standards of Crassus and M. Antonius. But there is nothing in the words to warrant this inference.

48. rigat arva Nilus,] There is some variety in the punctuation of this passage in the different editions, some putting a full stop after Nilus, and a comma at 'dextra' (v. 52). I have followed Orelli in reversing this order, but it matters very little. Whe





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Ter si resurgat murus aëneus
Auctore Phoebo ter pereat meis
Excisus Argivis, ter uxor

Capta virum puerosque ploret.
Non hoc jocosae conveniet lyrae:
Quo, Musa, tendis? Desine pervicax
Referre sermones deorum et

Magna modis tenuare parvis.

65. murus aëneus]

Horace is partial to

this epithet. See Epp. i. 1. 60,




"necessaria est sane haec emendatio: nusquam enim aeneus trisyllabon apud veteres Hic murus aëneus esto." poetas invenias (nisi forte ubi prave ediderunt pro 'aereus'), sed ubique est aut

And below (C. 9. 18),—

"Diductosque jugo cogit aëneo."

C. 16. 1,

Robustaeque fores."

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turris aënea

It means no more in this derived use than strength and stability. Gellius (ii. 3) says it was written ahenus,' the aspirate being introduced in this as in other words which he mentions for no other reason "nisi ut firmitas et vigor vocis quasi quibusdam nimis additis intenderetur." But as he applies the same remark to 'onus,' 'onustum,' ' lacruma' (which he spells 'lachryma'), we must suppose that the MSS. he followed were none of the best. But his remark confirms Bentley's on S. ii. 3, 183, where he deserts the received reading aut aeneus,' and adopte et aëneus,' saying,

'aëneus' aut' aënus.""

66. Auctore Phoebo,] Bentley would like to change 'auctore' into 'structore,' but would not object to 'ductore,' because Horace says elsewhere,

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About A.U.C. 728.

Pursuing his purpose, Horace here commends the power of wisdom and learning in subduing brute force and violent passions. If A.U.C. 728 be the year in which Horace met with his accident (C. ii. 13), this ode could not have been written before that year, for the circumstance is referred to in v. 27. The expedition intended for Britain, but turned against Spain, took place that year, and seems to Franke to be alluded to in the ninth stanza. A Parthian expedition was in contemplation at the same time. The allusions to violent men unrestrained by the Muses appear to the same writer to have reference to Cornelius Gallus and M. Equatius Rufus, both disaffected men, the former of whom destroyed himself, and the latter conspired against Augustus' life, both in the above year (Dion. Cass. liii. 23, 24). This may or may not be true, but it is consistent with the notion, which some chronologies are not, that all these six odes were written about the

same time. That Horace was still a frequenter of Baiae appears from v. 24. But when he wrote Epp. i. 15, which was probably composed a.u.c. 731, he had been forbidden by the doctor to go there, which Franke also notices as limiting the date of the ode.


Come down, Calliope, and sing a lofty strain. Is it a dream or am I wandering in the Muses' grove? I was a child, and tired with play I lay down to sleep on the Apulian hills. There doves made me a covering of leaves, and I slept safe, and men might well wonder how the gods were present with me. Yours am I, ye Muses, on the Sabine hills, at Tibur, at Praeneste, or at Baiae. Because I love your fountains and your choir I perished not when the battle was turned, nor by the accursed tree, nor in the Sicilian waters. Be ye with me and I will visit the mad Bosporus, the sands of the East, the savage Briton, the Concan, the Geloni, and the Tanais, unharmed. Ye refresh Augustus when he brings back his weary troops from the war. Mild are your counsels, and in peace is your delight. We know how that bold giant band struck terror into the heart of Jove; but what was their strength against the aegis of Pallas ? 'Twas that which drove them back, though Vulcan too, and Juno, and Apollo with his bow, were there. Brute force falls self-destroyed: the gods detest violence, but tempered strength they promote : let Gyas be my witness, Orion the seducer, Earth mourning for her sons, Aetna with its ever-burning and unconsuming flame, the vulture of Tityus, and the chains of Peirithous.

DESCENDE caelo et dic age tibia
Regina longum Calliope melos,
Seu voce nunc mavis acuta,

Seu fidibus citharaque Phoebi.

Auditis, an me ludit amabilis
Insania? Audire et videor pios
Errare per lucos amoenae

Quos et aquae

subeunt et aurae.

Me fabulosae Vulture in Apulo
Altricis extra limen Apuliae

Ludo fatigatumque somno
Fronde nova puerum palumbes

2. longum] This seems to mean a sustained and stately song. There is a little likeness between this opening and a frag. ment of Alcman (29 Bergk) :

Μῶσ' άγε Καλλιόπα, θύγατερ Διός, ἀρχ ̓ ἐρατῶν ἐπέων ἐπὶ δ ̓ ἵμερον ὕμνον καὶ χαρίεντα τίθει χορόν.

4. citharaque] The balance of authority is in favour of 've,' but the sense is against it. There is no opposition between 'cithara' and 'fidibus.' They mean the same thing. Bentley as usual prefers 've,' which got into the MSS. probably from a careless reference to seu.'

6. pios Errare per lucos] See C. iv. 2.27. 9. fabulosae] The Scholiasts take this



with 'altricis,' but it clearly belongs to 'pa-
lumbes' the storied doves,' as 'fabulosus
Hydaspes' (C. i. 22. 8). The range of the
Apennines that bore the name 'Vultur' was
partly in Apulia and partly in Lucania.
It is still called Monte Vulture. Ve-
nusia, Horace's birth-place, was near the
boundary of those provinces, whence he
calls Apulia his nurse, though elsewhere
(S. ii. 1. 34) he says it is doubtful whether
he was an Apulian or a Lucanian. Bentley
expresses the greatest contempt for this, the
ordinary interpretation, and proposes to read

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nutricis extra limina sedulae' taking ‘nutrix' literally. For that word he has authority. The eldest Berne has it: but ‘limina sedulae' is his own invention.

Orelli says

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Texere, mirum quod foret omnibus,
Quicunque celsae nidum Acherontiae
Saltusque Bantinos et arvum

Pingue tenent humilis Forenti,
Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis
Dormirem et ursis, ut premerer sacra
Lauroque collataque myrto,

Non sine dis animosus infans.
Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos
Tollor Sabinos, seu mihi frigidum
Praeneste seu Tibur supinum
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae.
Vestris amicum fontibus et choris
Non me Philippis versa acies retro,
Devota non exstinxit arbos,

Nec Sicula Palinurus unda.
Utcunque mecum vos eritis, libens
Insanientem navita Bosporum

Tentabo et urentes arenas
Litoris Assyrii viator;

the passage is undoubtedly corrupt (V. L.). If so, all attempts to mend it have only made it worse. Doves have their part in sundry tales. Heyne's and Servius' notes on Aen. vi. 190 may be read by those who care to hear more about the birds of Venus.

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9. Apulo-Apuliae] The difference in the quantity of the first syllable is not singular. The word Sicanus is used as three different feet. Italus has the first syllable long or short, and so with other names. 11. Ludo fatigatumque somno] It is clear that some other word like oppressum' must be understood for somno.' It is a translation of καμάτῳ ἀδδηκότες ἠδὲ καὶ ὕπνῳ (Π. Χ. 98). Acherontia, Bantia, and Forentum were neighbouring towns, and still retain their names under the forms Acerenza, Vanzi, Forenza. Orelli, with the authority of only one of his Berne MSS. and that the latest, reads Forenti instead of Ferenti, which Bentley has adopted. The modern name is in favour of Forenti. Orelli says the mistake arose from confounding this place with Ferentinum, a Hernican town. Stories such as Horace has here invented for himself are told of Stesichorus, Pindar, Aeschylus, Plato. That which Pausanias (ix. 23) tells of Plato is very like


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"Collis apex medii subjectis imminet arvis : Tollor eo."

'Seu' is understood after 'vester.' The epithet 'liquidae,' applied to Baiae, is explained by Cruquius' Scholiast of the clearness and purity of the atmosphere.

28. Nec Sicula Palinurus unda.] Horace's escape from shipwreck off Cape Palinurus is no where else related; and his biographers have been much perplexed as to the period of his life to which it ought to be referred. I have no conjecture to offer. A suggestion which has been pretty confidently put forth (Class. Mus. ii. 205), that Horace was with the expedition against Sex. Pompeius, A.U.C. 718, in which many vessels were lost off Cape Palinurus, is inconsistent with the silence Horace maintains on the subject, which is no where alluded to in any part of his writings. It appears most improbable. Francis, in his note on the first Epode, makes the same statement: where he got it I do not know. Acron's comment is of no value: "Redeuntem se Horatius de Macedonia periclitatum dicit." 'Sicula unda'

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