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authorize us in this, as well as in other analogous cases, to speak of the cause of them as beautiful. In other words, there are some colors which possess, as we suppose, an original or intrinsic beauty.In support of this opinion, we are merely able to allude to some of the various considerations, which naturally present themselves, without entering into that minute exposition of them, which would be admissible in a treatise professedly and exclusively devoted to the subject before us.

(1) The pleasure, which results from the mere beholding of colors, may be observed in very early life. It is in consequence of this pleasing emotion, that the infant so early directs its eyes towards the light, that breaks in from the window, or which reaches the sense of vision from any other source. It is pleasing to see, with what evident ecstacy the child rushes from flower to flower, and compares their brilliancy. Casting his eyes abroad in the pursuit of objects, that are richly variegated, he pauses to gaze with admiration on every tree, that is most profusely loaded with blossoms, or that is burdened with fruit of the deepest red and yellow. It is because he is attracted with the brightness of its wings, that he pursues the butterfly with a labor so unwearied, or suspends his sport to watch the wayward movements of the humming bird.

(2) The same results are found also, very strikingly and generally, among all savage tribes. The sons of the forest are not so wholly untutored, so wholly devoid of natural sensibility, that they will not sometimes forget the ardor of the chase in the contemplation of the flowers, which bloom in the neighborhood of their path. Seeing how beautiful the fish of their lakes and rivers, the bird of their forests, and the forest tree itself are rendered by colors, they commit the mistake of attempting to render their own bodies more beautiful by artificial hues. They value whatever dress they may have, in proportion to the gaudiness of its colors; they weave rich and variegated plumes into their hair; and as they conjectured from his scarlet dress, that Columbus was the captain of the Spaniards, so they are wont to intimate and express their own rank and dignity by the splendor of their equipments.

(3) And the same trait, which had been so often noticed

in Savages, may be observed also, though in a less degree, among the uneducated classes in civilized communities. In persons of refinement, the original tendency to receive pleasing emotions from the contemplation of colors seems to have, in a measure, lost its power, in consequence of the developement of tendencies to receive pleasure from other causes. In those, on the contrary, who have possessed less advantages of mental culture,and whose sources of pleasure may in consequence be supposed to lay nearer to the surface of the mind, this tendency remains undiminished.

Colored objects generally affect them with a high degree of pleasure ; so much so that the absence of color is not, in their estimation, easily compensated by the presence of any other qualities. We cannot well suppose, that there is any intermediate influence between the beautiful object and the mind, of which this pleasure is the product ; but must rather conclude, in the circumstances of the case, that the presence of the object, and that only, is the ground of its existence. It is this view of the subject, which seems to be taken in a passage of Akenside, that is interesting for its poetical merit, as well as its philosophical truth.

“Ask the swain,
"Who journeys homewards from a summer day's
“Long labor, why, forgetful of his toils,
“And due repose, he loiters to behold
“The sunshine gleaming, as through amber clouds,
“O'er all the western sky ; full soon, I

ween,
“His rude expression and untutored airs,
“Beyond the power of language, will unfold
“ The form of Beauty smiling at the heart.

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§. 31. Further illustrations of the original beauty of colors. We may derive additional proof of the fact, that colors are of themselves fitted to cause emotions of beauty, from what we learn in the case of those persons, who have been blind from birth, but in after life have suddenly been restored by couching, or in some other way:-“I have couched, (says Dr. Wardrop,* speaking of James Mitchell,) one of his eyes successfully ; and he is much amused with the visible world, though he mistrusts information, gained by that avenue. One day I got him a new and gaudy suit of clothes, which

As quoted by Mr. Stewart, in his account of Mitchell,

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delighted him beyond description. It was the most interesting scene of sensual gratification I ever beheld.”

But this person, it appears, had some faint notions of light and colors, previous to the operation, by which his powers of vision were more fully restored. And the facts, stated in connection with his exercise of this imperfect vision, are equally decisive in favor of the doctrine under consideration. The statements to which we refer are as follows. At the time of life when this boy began to walk, he seemed to be attracted by bright and dazzling colours; and though every thing, connected with his history, appears to prove, that he derived little information from the organ, yet he received from it much sensual gratification. He used to hold between his eye and luminous objects such bodies, as he found to increase by their interposition the quantity of light; and it was one of his chief amusements to concentrate the sun's rays by means of pieces of glass, transparent pebbles or similar substances, which he held between his eye and the light, and turned about in various directions. These too he would often break with his teeth, and give them that form, which seemed to please him most. There were other modes, by which he was in the habit of gratifying this fondness for light. He would retire to any out-house or to any room within his reach, shut the windows and doors, and remain there for some considerable time, with his eyes fixed on some small hole or chink, which admitted the sun's rays, eagerly watching them. He would also, during the winter nights, often retire to a dark corner of the room and kindle a light for his amusement. On these occasions, as well as in the gratification of his other senses, his countenance and gestures displayed a most interesting avidity and curiosity.”

The conclusion, which we deduce from these sources of proof, is, that colors are fitted, from our very constitution, to produce within us emotions of beauty.

§. 82. Of sounds considered as a source of beauty. We next propose to inquire into the application of these principles in respect to sounds. And here also we have reason to believe, that they hold good to a certain extent ; in other words, that certain sounds are pleasing of themselves; and are hence, agreeably to views already expressed, termed BEAUTIFUL.-In proceeding, however, to the consideration of beauty as it exists in connection with sounds, it may be proper to recur to the remark, which was made near the commencement of the chapter, that the sources or grounds of beauty, although the emotions they excite within us are all of essentially the same kind, are very various. In view of what was there said, we do not feel at liberty to doubt, as some may be disposed to do, whether there is beauty in sounds, merely because sounds are obviously altogether different from some other objects, which constitute sources of beauty, such as colors or forms. It is not the intention of nature, that the empire of the beautiful shall be limited in this manner. On the contrary, if certain sounds have something within them, which from its very nature is calculated to excite within us pleasing emotions, they are obviously distinguished by this circumstance from other sounds, and furnish a sufficient reason for our regarding them and speaking of them as BEAUTIFUL.

(1) In asserting, however, that there is an original beauty in sounds, we do not wish to be understood as saying, that all sounds, of whatever kind, possess this character. There are some sounds, which, in themselves considered, are justly regarded as indifferent, and others are positively disagreeable. No one would hesitate in pronouncing the discordant creaking of a wheel, the filing of a saw, the braying of the ass, the scream of a peacock, or the hissing of a serpent to be disagreeable. There are other sounds, such as the bleating of the lamb, the lowing of the cow, the call of the goat, and other notes and cries of animals, which appear to be, in themselves, entirely indifferent. We are aware, that they are sometimes spoken of as beautiful ; nor is it necessary to deny, that they are sometimes heard with a high degree of pleasure. But we regard the beauty in this case as rather associated than intrinsic ; the result rather of accessory circumstances than of the thing itself. The happy remarks of Mr. Alison, going to show the nature of the beauty which is ordinarily felt at such times, will be read with interest.

“The bleating of a lamb is beautiful in a fine day in spring: in the depth of winter it is very far from being so. The lowing of a cow at a distance, amid the scenery of a pastoral landscape in summer, is extremely beautiful : in a farmyard it is absolutely disagreeable. The hum of the beetle is beautiful in a fine summer evening, as appearing to suit the stillness and repose of that pleasing season: in the noon of day it is perfectly indifferent. The twitter of the swallow is beautiful in the morning, and seems to be expressive of the cheerfulness of that time : at any other hour it is quite insignificant. Even the song of the nightingale, so wonderfully charming in the twilight, or at night, is altogether disregarded during the day ; in so much so, that it has given rise to the common mistake, that this bird does not sing but at night.”

§. 33. Illustrations of the original beauty of sounds. (II) Other sounds, those which are properly termed musical, have a beauty which is original or intrinsic, and not merely accessory. It is true, that different nations have different casts or styles of music, modified by the situation and habits of the people; but every thing that can properly be called music, whatever occasional or accidental modification it may assume, is in its nature more or less beautiful. Musical sounds, independently of their combinations and expression, are characterized in a way, which distinguishes them from all others; viz, by the circumstance of their possessing certain mathematical proportions in their times of vibration. Such sounds please us originally ; in other words, whenever, in all ordinary circumstances, they are heard, they please naturally and necessarily. We are aware, that attempts have sometimes been made to explain the pleasure, which is received from musical sounds, as well as from those of a different character, on the doctrine of association. But there are various difficulties in this explanation, some of which will now be referred to.

(1) In the first place, we are led to expect from the analogy of things, which we witness in other cases, that we shall find, in the human heart also, an original sensibility to the beautiful, in the matter under consideration. We refer now to what we frequently notice in the lower animals ; and although we do not claim that very much weight should be

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