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nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel, and one King shall be King to them all” (Ezek. xxxvii.); whilst in the meantime Britain is fast growing up as one of the offspring of “The mother of spiritual harlots" (Rev. xvii. 2, 5), and will, as one of the ten kingdoms of the divided Roman Empire, before this age closes, give her power with the others to the Anti-Christian Beast (Rev. xvii. 12-14), of which kingdom it is said that“ The Lamb shall overcome them," their doom being forewritten in Rev. xix. 17, 18.

V. (a) Mr. Wilson asserts that “Israel being designed to be administrators of the word to nations, we may expect to find them in the course of that word, in the highway thereof,” viz., the western part of Europe. Hence he assumes that the epistles of James, Peter, and John “were expressly sent to them." That Anglo-Saxon Israel are the people who have been blessed with the choicest blessings, temporal and spiritual, and that the light of the Reformation dawned on them. (!) This is a sad misconception! These epistles are addressed to Christians, and consequently, like that to Hebrews, addressed to a believing election of grace. But there is something in all this worse than misconception. To establish the ten tribes in Europe in kingly and priestly power; to declare them blessed with choicest temporal and spiritual blessings, is a gross libel on Divine justice, and a premium bestowed on wickedness! The punishment of their exile was because of the anger of Jehovah, who removed them out of His sight" for the heinous sin of idolatry; and are we now to be told that, instead of punishment, their exile was for the purpose of glorifying them “ with the choicest blessings temporal and spiritual ?" God forbid ! No spiritual or any other blessing can be theirs, if Scripture be true, until they are in a condition to say from conviction of sin, “ Blessed is He that cometh in the name of Jehovah ;” or in other words, till at the glorious Advent of the Messiah Redeemer in the clouds of heaven, these “ Tribes of the land shall mourn because of Him as they look on Him who was pierced.” (Matt. xxiii. 89 ; Rev. i. 7.)

(6) So far from being in any eminent position, the prophecies assert exactly the reverse. Still exiles, with bitter experience of their idolatry among idolatrous peoples, they are as yet unregenerate and unreclaimed. Yet they are working out in their banishment from the sight of their God, His most mysterious and most wise purposes. They are, as I may presently be able to show, among just those "nations, kindreds, peoples, and tongues," to whom, when in the kingdom, their period of testimony will have come, they will then be sent to bring good tidings, and publish reconciliation and salvation.” Dr. Leask in his excellent work “ Happy Years at Hand,” in quoting Amos ix. 9, very truly adds that the Israelites “have been mingled with other men over all the nations, but have taken root in none. There they are to this day.Again the same writer says, in alluding to the prophecy of Isa. xxvii. 6, “ To the Israelites is reserved the honour of being Messiah's successful missionaries to all lands of the earth." He then graphically adds, “ What have been our difficulties as miss naries to the heathen ? or, rather, where have we not met with difficulties almost insurmountablein finding the right men, in raising the necessary sums, in the dangers of the passage, in hostile nations, in unhealthy climates, in the prejudices of idolaters, in the terrible difficulty of acquiring the native languages before we could even open our lips

but now look at Israel restored. What a pleasing prospect opens to our view!

Born in every land, they can speak every language, and endure without injury the peculiarities of every climate. Hence the beauty of the prophecy, ' And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory ; they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles.' (Isa. lxvi. 19.) With what burning zeal, like their countryman Paul, will they make haste to tell the nations of their glorious Prince and Saviour! and how soon will the period arrive when · The earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.

To which beautiful prospect Dr. Leask faithfully annexes that “such are some of the blessings of a religious kind which the restoration and conversion of Israel will ultimately secure to the world." I have italicised a few words for the purpose of drawing attention to the prophetic allusion to the yet future fulfilment of these great events. But what truth there is in all that has been extracted, and what a contrast it presents to the vague and unscriptural assumptions of Mr. Wilson and his disciples !

(c) In my next I purpose giving an account, from due authority, of the possible journeyings of the Ten Tribes, their present whereabouts, the places from whence they are foretold as about to return, with the circumstances under which that return will be effected, with the period thereof. Clevedon.

H. GOODWYN.

LIFE IN CHRIST, IN THE LIGHT OF THE EARLIEST

TRANSLATION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. HE weightiest thinkers on the subject of Christian truth have advised

Scriptures from those who have studied them in the first ages of the Christian dispensation. For they perceive that the men who knew the language used by the authors of the New Testament best, and had heard the first preachers of the gospel and those who were trained by them, were in the best place in history for understanding the exact meaning of the leading terms employed by those authors. Now the nearest light on the meaning of these terms, is found, not in any Greek codex, but in the earliest translation of the New Testament into another tongue. Now this is in fact the Peshito or literal translation into the ancient Syriac. Scholars hold that it was made in the early part of the second century at the latest, or even in the latter end of the first century. To this latter view the present writer inclines; and for the following reasons.

First, the capital of the Syrian country was early the brightest centre of Christian teaching (see Acts xiii. 1). Barnabas, Simeon Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen and Saul, are there as prophets and teachers. And from Antioch, Barnabas and Saul were, by special divine appointment, sent out to preach the gospel, in Cyprus, and in

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Pamphylia, and in Pisidia and Iconium, in Lystra and Derbe, and also in Perga, and then they returned to Antioch to tell the brethren of the success God had given them, and to stay with them a long time. After this Antioch had the help of Judas and Silas, who were sent to guard the Gentile converts from entanglement in legal and ritualistic nets, in which the agents of the circumcision sought to entangle them. great saving work was wrought all round this centre, and as the region of Syria was bilingual, many being able to speak Greek; but, as in Wales, many knowing best their native tongue, and many knowing no other, it would soon be felt important that both these latter people should have the thoughts of Christ and his apostles set forth in their native tongue. Now, as in Jerusalem, so in Antioch, the earliest years of gospel preaching were richest in results. The Syrian churches were most prosperous in the latter half of the first century, and the former half of the second century. Now this prosperity would call forth an amount of inquiry after full instruction in all matters of fact and doctrine. And the way to meet the demand would be by gathering together such holy writings as evangelists and apostles had penned for Christian edification and rendering them with all plainness of speech into Syriac.

Second, this was done so early, that they had not yet got together the whole of our present Books of the New Testament. The great bulk of them were then translated, but the rest were added long after.

All the gospels and Paul's epistles, James, 1 Peter, 1 John, and the grand discourse of Silas to the Hebrews, together with the Acts of the Apostles, were included in this first of translations of the Christian Scriptures. The two short letters of John and his Revelation were absent, as also the second epistle of Peter.

Now this last omission is very significant of an early date of translation. Those who made it could not but be interested in the apostolic claims of Paul, nor ignorant of the rebuke he gave to Peter in their own church, so that any concession of the sturdy fisherman to the divinity of Paul's writings would deeply interest them. But the second epistle iii. 15, 16) contains a very fine testimony by the aged Peter covering all Paul's epistles, and if it had come to Antioch in time, the whole epistle would have been translated if only for this testimony. How early then must the work have been done, when Peter's second letter was as yet unwritten or unknown.

When this epistle was added to the Syriac, it admits of proof that it was done by one whose views of the mission of Christ to our world had swerved from those held by the authors of the Peshito. But of this hereafter. Now comes the question,– How did these writers of the first translation of the New Testament understand certain leading Greek words on which the very gist of controversy as to life in Christ turns ? 1, Soter. 2, Soteria. 3, Soterios. 4, Soterion. 5, The verb Sozo.

1. Then let us take the Soter, Saviour. In Luke i. 47, Mary says, “My Spirit rejoices in God, my Life Giver.” The translators look not back to the life in the flesh, which Mary had from birth, but onward to the high life which is to come. In Luke ii. 11, an angel tells the shepherds of a new born Saviour, and here it is translated band breaker, and therefore liberator. It was the usage of the Hebrews and other children of Shem to regard sin and death as tyrant slave owners, just as they looked

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upon a dominant race who had conquered them and put them to tribute. Now Messiah could best be understood by the shepherds as a Liberator, and so the Syrian Translators have rendered it.

In John iv. 42, the neighbours of the woman of Samaria are those who use it, and here too Liberator is nearer their conception of his great mission than Life Giver. These cases of the use of Soter are in time previous to the resurrection and Pentecostal qualification for Christian teaching. After this event Acts v. 31, has Life Giver, “ Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be Head and Life Giver, to give à changed mind to Israel and remission of sins." Here we get the highest

and most spiritual aspect of Christ's mission, hence Life Giver is the best rendering of Soter in this connection. In Acts xiii. 23, we get Jesus a Liberator. Paul is speaking to the Jews in Antioch in Pisidia, with a view to teach them, that in Jesus is to be found remission of sins and acquittal from the condemning sentence of the law. So that Liberator appeared best to suit this connection. But this is not the highest function of the Soter. The highest is found in his being the power of life everlasting to his people. In all Paul's epistles Soter is rendered Life Giver, where it is found more than a dozen times; and Paul's preaching and teaching made a deeper impression on the Syrian mind, that is the Aramean, than that of any other teacher. In 2 Peter, which was not translated into Syriac at the beginning, we never find Soter, which occurs five times translated Life Giver. It is always bond breaker or Liberator. 2 Peter i. 1, we get our Liberator Jesus Christ ; Verse 11, the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Liberator Jesus Christ.

2 Peter ii. 20, it is Liberator ; iii. 2, and iii. 18, use the same word. If the men who made the first translation had had this to do, they would have used Life Giver in all the five cases. Two more cases of the occurrence of Soter remain to be noticed, namely, 1 John iv. 14, and Judo 25. This latter is spoken of the Father. To the only wise God our Liberator. This rendering suits the connection, which treats of keeping from falling and freeing from faults.

Then the other passage is a renewed declaration by the aged apostle of that which Christ appointed the twelve to do, and a report of its actual discharge. We have seen and do testify. We have seen and are bearing witness that the Father has sent the Son to be Liberator of the world. No one felt a deeper interest in the doctrine of the new birth than John, but he is here regarding the world as needing deliverance from sin and woe, and does not in other verses forget the higher aspect of Christ's work. Wo may observe that Life Giver covers all that Liberator does, but not vice versa, for the latter term is narrower and less definite than the former.

2. Soteria = Salvation, is rendered life more than thirty times. It is always so in Paul's epistles, just as Soter was rendered life-giver. In the Hebrews it is seven times rendered life. In Jude once. It never is so rendered in Syriac, either in 2 Peter or the Revelation.

3. Soterios occurs in Titus ii. 11, literally, " For there is revealed the goodness of God giving life to all men." It is the participle-active agreeing with goodness.

4. Soterion is rendered compassion or grace. My eyes have seen Thy

grace (to Israel), Luke ii. 30. But Luke iii. 6, " And all flesh shall see the life that is of God.” Acts xxviii. 28, “ Be this known therefore to you all that the freedom of God is sent to Gentiles, and also that they are willing to hear it.”

5. Sozo the verb rendered by us save. This is generally translated to quicken, that is, give life, either bodily, as often in the gospels, or spiritually, which is most frequent in post pentecostal teaching. Acts ii. 21, "And it shall be that all who call upon the name of the Lord shall live."

Verse 40,“ Keep your life from this hot people.” Verse 47, “ And the Lord added to the church daily those who should live in eternity," or those who had got life for eternity=life everlasting : here the Semitic root Ad=onward, is used in preference to Olam, as more definite. What, then, is the outcome of this inquiry ? That the first Christians held life in Christ with eternal glory to be the gospel. So Paul: “I endure all things for the sake of the elect, that they also may find life which is by Jesus Christ, with glory which will be everlasting” (2 Tim. ii. 10).

JAMES HOLDING.

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A CRUCIAL TEST OF GREAT PYRAMID CHRONOLOGY.

A

DATE of some extraordinary importance appears to be registered

on either side of the grand gallery's walls by a longitudinal groove of 1878.4 units in length.* If that measure is absolutely to be relied upon, and we may reasonably conclude that it is, the date indicated by it is close upon us, and will terminate before the close of the ensuing May. It must not however be forgotten that a difference of one only in the decimal figure would represent considerably over a month of time, I'y of a year in fact. With this proviso, and assuming that the Christian year begins approximately at the date of our Lord's birth, I think we have before us an opportunity for practically testing the value of the Great Pyramid's indications of prophetic chronology. As to the nature or the significance of the event, it is not easy to offer an opinion. It may have a double significance from the fact of its appearing on both walls. It should certainly be an event which should signally affect all Christendom, as the groove extends throughout the entire length of the grand gallery at that point. To any further assertion respecting it, I should hesitate to commit myself. But at the same time, I think it is of the very highest importance that the fact should be noted some time previous to the date indicated.

Tottenham.

Thos. CLARK WESTFIELD.

The third edition, Piazzi Smyth's work, “Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid.”

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