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gilt, and the Gelt Char, each of which was either taken from the lake itself, or else from the little streams that flow into it. One of these, the Chase Salmon, affords a striking instance of extraordinary adherence to local situation. It arrives in the river Brathy, which unites with another, called the Rowthy, about a quarter of a mile from its rise, where they both fall into the lake together. The former, the favourite haunt of the Case-char, or Umbra Minor, flows over a black and rocky bottom; the latter above a clear, bright sand. Into this the Char never enters; the other species confine themselves exclusively to the lake. They remain tranquilly in such parts as are full of springs, where the bed is smooth, and sandy, and the water comparatively warm. The fishermen judge of this circumstance by observing that the water never freezes in situations where the Char have fixed their temporary abode, unless the frost is unusually severe ;. and that even then, the ice is considerably thinner than in other parts of the lake. Here they deposit their eggs, and are taken in great plenty from the end of September to that of the ensuing month, when they almost instantaneously disappear. The same species is also found occasionally in certain lakes of Merionethshire, of Iceland and Scotland; those especially of Loch Inch, and Inchigcelah, in the county of Cork.
One question may possibly have arisen during the perusal of the preceding observations. By what means are the species of the genus Salmo, diffused throughout the Alpine lakes of this, and almost every other northern country? We understand the migration of the finny tribes. They glide through the paths of the great waters without apprehension, and almost without effort; they wander into the beds of rivers, and thence into the lakes and streams which communicate with them ; but how is it possible that a class of animals, without wings, and without feet, should migrate from one inland sheet of water to another ?
We must refer to the Philosophical Transactions as far back as 1666, for the first light thrown on this extraordinary fact. During the course of that year, on the Wednesday before Easter, a field about two acres in extent, near Cransted, a town of Kent, situated at a considerable distance from the sea, and remote from any river, inland lake, or even pond, was suddenly covered with a multitude of young whitings, nearly one inch in length. The field belonged to a yeoman of the name of Ware, who being subpænaed to attend as juryman during the Easter sessions, held at Maidstone, carried several with him in order shew them to his friends, and from thence a specimen was conveyed to London by Mr. Lake, a bencher of the Middle Temple.
The truth of this extraordinary statement was
confirmed by several witnesses. But how were they conveyed to the spot ? Undoubtedly, says Mr. Conwy, by means of a great tempest of rain, of thunder, and lightning, which had recently occurred in the neighbourhood. They were, in consequence, either absorbed from the surface of the ocean by the electric suction of a waterspout, or swept away by the violence of a hurricane.
Nor is this the only instance that can be adduced in favour of the above conclusion.
Similar phenomena have occurred at different periods, and in countries far more inland than the preceding. In the Norwegian seas, especially, shoals of fishes are frequently carried away by a tornado.-Let not my friend object to this digression.—You will have cause to thank me, if it induces you to read with deeper interest the vast volume of creation, which few have ever read without becoming wiser and better men.
The Smelt, another species of the Salmon genus, is exclusively confined to the northern regions of the globe. One of its favourite resorts, is the tranquil Seine; another, the British Mersey; but into this it never wanders, so long as any snow water remains in the river. The rushing Conway is also full of this kind of fish. Their beautiful forms, their colours, and their agile motions, have frequently attracted my attention as I stood, or fancied that I stood, on the very spot whence the bard of Gray is said to have
observed the progress of Edward's army, when descending the shaggy sides of Snowdon.
The Gwyniad is decidedly gregarious. Large shoals approach the British shores, and migrate up the rivers, about the vernal and autumnal equinoxes; visiting in their progress the remotest creeks and bays, and affording a plentiful supply of food to the poor population of the inland counties, as the annual visits of the herring do to those who live upon the coast.
They inhabit the lakes of this, and various other countries, and abound especially in those of Switzerland, Savoy, Norway, Lapland, and Sweden. Camden long since observed that they rarely, or never wander into the Dee, a river that flows into the lake Llytegid, a favourite resort of the common Salmon, and that the Salmon, in like manner, carefully avoid the lake. They know their allotted bounds, and observe the commands of Him who has appointed them.
This interesting species recalls to recollection one of the most eventful periods in English history. It is said to have been introduced into the beautiful lake of Loch Nabon by the ill-fated Mary Stewart, and that in accordance with the general fashion of her court, the name was derived from Vendoise, a Dace, to which it undoubtedly bore a considerable resemblance, from the exquisite whiteness of its
scales. These scales, as well as those of the Black Cyprine, are used in the composition of artificial pearls. For this purpose they are beaten into fine powder; then diluted with clear water, and introduced into a thin glass bubble, which is afterwards filled with wax, The French were the original inventors of this curious art. It is still carried on to a great extent in Paris : Dr. Lester even tells us that a certain artist used in one winter, thirty hampers of the Dace or Cyprine.
Silvery and glittering scales of a similar description were appropriated in ancient times to purposes of decoration, by some of the savage tribes that dwelt along the borders of the northern seas; they stripped such animals as were clothed in the finest furs, and attired themselves with the spoil, having previously spangled them with small fragments taken from the skins of fishes.
The Greyling delights in clear and rapid rivers, in such, especially, as flow through mountainous regions and abound with aquatic beetles, and small fish. They afford to the Laplanders not only a grateful supply of food, but supersede the use of rennet in making cheese from the milk of the rein deer. The construction of the Greyling is admirably adapted to his wandering mode of life; he swims with inconceiveable rapidity, and disappears, like the transient