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LETTER XI.
Dangerous Fish— Different species of the Shark genus-

Ancient English Ballad—Extraordinary manner in
which the excessive rapidity of the Shark is counter-
acted— Useful in the general harmony of Nature-
Poisonous Fishes in the Seas of the Balama, and Sand-
wich Islands-Law in Japan respecting them-Closing
Observations

page 125

LETTER XII.
Salmon Genus—Beautiful Scenery of Bethgellert, and

the Lake of Llynberis, in North Wales- River Trout
abundant in the Temperate and Arctic regions of the
Globe — Sketches of Iceland Scenery, in connexion
with the Migration of the Trout-Char Salmon ; where
most numerous ; extraordinary adherence to local
situation Means by which the Salmon genus are
diffused-Loch Levin-Poetry-Umbra of the Lake
Leman-Sketch of Dovedale, in Derbyshire

- 137

LETTER XIII.
Migrations of the Salmon genus-Salmon Leaps at Ken-

neth, Pont Aberglassin, Leixlep, and Tivy; the last
mentioned by the Poet Drayton, and Camden-Obser-
vations on different Species belonging to the Salmon
genus, with the Places to which they principally resort,
and the benefits they annually confer - Notice of the
brigades which enter the rivers of Kamschatka towards
the autumnal equinox-Peculiarities connected with the
bed of the surrounding Ocean-Islands of Ice-Magni-
ficent Solitudes of Greenland—The Seas and Lakes of
Siberia and Iceland, of Finmark and Sweden, abound
with Fish-Singular Phenomenon on the Lake Wetten 156

LETTER XIV.
Migrations of the Cod Fish-Magnificent Scenery of

Almahalan, in Iceland-Fishing season, Beautiful Phe-
nomenon of the Driving Cascade-Extensive Fishery
on the Coast of Newfoundland Station on the Great
Bank— By whom first discovered-Sebastian Cabot-
Last Moments of that extraordinary Man-Arrival of
vast Shoals of the Cod genus on the shores of the
Feroe, Orkney, and Shetland Islands Appearance of
the Dogger Bank - Haddocks—Peninsula of Kams-
chatka-Closing Remarks

· 177

LETTER XV.
Migrations of the Mackerel – Scenery of Crete-Descrip-

tion of the Mackerel ; where most abundant
Changes continually occurring in the History of Man;
none in the Habits of the Animal Creation- Instances
in the Stork and Mackerel - Arrival of the Cod in
Crete, observed as a Festival - Beauty of the Tunny
Mackerel ; where most numerous — Arrival in the
Mediterranean early in the Spring—Luminous in the
dark-Curious Appearance produced by them as they
proceed from one Island to the other_Stations of the
modern Fishermen, similar to those of the Ancient-
Thoughts arising from a survey of the deserted regions
of Sparta and Crete-Local Tradition— Remarks. page 198

LETTER XVI.
Migrations of the Pilchard to various parts of the World

-One of the most stupendous Gifts of Providence to
the British Isles— Exportation from Towy, Falmouth,
Penzance, and St. Ives—The Sprat Herring uniformly
succeeds the Pilchard-Notice of the Shad, Twaite,
and Anchovy

206

LETTER XVII.
Migrations of the Herring-Sketch of Scenery in the

Shetland Islands–Storm at Doreholm-Arrival of the
Herring Shoals — Places of Resort - Separation into
two divisions, during their Journey from the North
- Destination of each - Sketch of Lochfine - Ani-
mated Scene of the Herring Fishery Closing
remarks, illustrative of the benefits conferred on some
of the most desolate portions of the Globe, by the
annual visits of this genus

212

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CONCLUSION.
General Sketch of the movements of the Finny Tribes,
and the Countries to which they annually resort

229

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To

PASCAL has well observed, that if the heart be rightly disposed, even the feeblest of created beings, are to us a book of knowledge, a living mirror, in which to contemplate the eternal power and beneficence of the Creator. This observation often occurs to my remembrance,

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and may it also occur to yours, my friend, when exploring the green lanes around your quiet dwelling, or when, on the sea-shore at Sidmouth, you observe the little Zoophyte expanding its mimic petals to the sun. I know not any branch of natural history which more strikingly illustrates this remark of Pascal, than the link which thus unites the Vegetable Kingdom to the vast world of animated nature. This link is composed of several extraordinary productions, termed Zoophytes, or animal plants, from the likeness which they bear to different vegetable productions. A considerable number are known by the name of Corals, or Corallines, and resemble shrubs and trees, though evidently separated from them by their hard and calcareous nature ; whilst, in others, the softness of their texture, and plant-like ramifications, caused them to be formerly considered as creeping plants. Among these, the genus Hydra is equally conspicuous for its wonderful construction, and peculiar properties. This interesting genus, was so named by Linnæus, from a fancied similarity to the fabulous Hydra of antiquity. The individuals which compose it are found in small streamlets, and in stagnant water, where they adhere to the floating leaves of aquatic plants, and prey on minute worms and insects of various kinds. These Polypes are remarkably voracious; they seize their victims with the utmost avidity, and swallow them in the same manner as a snake devours any small quadruped. Their arms, or tentaculæ, resemble those of the Sepea, or Cuttle-fish, and they are, moreover, furnished with numerous minute organs, which apparently act as suckers, and enable them to seize and hold any floating insect passing within their reach.

Hydras, like many productions of the vegetable kingdom, may be increased by means of shoots or offsets, and one or more branches frequently proceed from the parent stem; these continually throw up fresh suckers, which, in their turn, give life to others, till at length the parent Polype assumes the appearance of a real geological tree. How wonderful are the operations of Nature! The Hydra of the fens of Lerna is justly considered a chimera of the imagination ; but the Hydra of our streamlets possesses its reproductive powers, and realizes the description of the ancient poet. If one of these extraordinary productions be carefully separated, the upper part will produce a new tail, the lower a head and arms, and the middle, both a head and tail. In short, a Hydra may be divided in every possible way, and the several portions, like those of the fabulous inhabitants of the Lernian marshes, will quickly reproduce the

Leuwenhoek was the first who discovered this remarkable property ; but his researches were not carried to any extent, and he remained in a great

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