Obrazy na stronie

Krummacher is known by his writings throughout Christendom. His books have had a wide circulation in his own country, and have been translated into the English, French, Swedish, and Danish languages. One of these, Elisha the Tishbite, has appeared also in Chinese. His latest contribution to Christian literature is a series of discourses on the suffering and death of Christ, which have been translated, with his sanction, and are published in a neat volume, entitled The Suffering Saviour; or, Meditations on the last Days of Christ. Mr. Samuel Jackson, the translator, has executed his task skillfully, omitting whatever appeared of an extraneous nature, and weaving the whole into a continuous narrative. (Boston: Gould & Lincoln.)

The Heroes of Methodism: containing Sketches of eminent Methodist Ministers, and characteristic Anecdotes of their Personal History. By the Rev. J. B. Wakeley. (New-York: Carlton & Phillips.) With laudible industry, Mr. Wakeley has gleaned, from a great variety of sources, anecdotes and illustrations of the life and character of men to whom not only the Church of which they were ministers, but the world at large, and more especially these United States, are largely indebted. They were the pioneers of Christianity, men of burning zeal and of undaunted perseverance; spending their lives for the welfare of their fellow-men-in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by their own countrymen, in perils in the city, and most especially in perils in the wilderness. With equal truth may it be said also of these heralds of salvation, that they were "In weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness." The perusal of this volume cannot fail to kindle anew the flagging zeal of the successors of these

The Indians. In 1854, a Spanish manuscript was discovered at Guatemala, containing a complete history of the first Indian population of that part of the continent of America, and an account of their religion, laws, and manners. In a recent sitting of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Vienna, Dr. Scherzer read a paper on this manuscript. The author of the manuscript is, it appears, a Dominican monk, named Francisco Ximenes, who was missionary to the Indians about a hundred and thirty years ago; but as he is known to have written on the Indians in the native Guichey language, it is probably only a translation. It is, however,

truly great men.

We have entered into their labors, and it is owing to the blessing of the great Head of the Church upon their toil that we have such a goodly heritage. Mr. Wakeley has executed his task with ability, and his beautifully-printed volume, illustrated with portraits of Asbury, Coke, and M'Kendree, will doubtless have, as it deserves, a wide circulation. By the way, the author is little in error in his hymnological criticisms. Of course we do not object to his agreement with Jacob Gruber, who "did not like the hymn which commences,

not the less the most valuable account of that interesting race which exists, all previous records having been lost or destroyed. It was for many years found that all the writings of Ximenes, which were very voluminous, had been lost also; indeed, it was believed that the religious order to which he belonged had caused them to be burned, because he did not hesitate to blame in them the cruel means which the Dominicans employed to convert the Indians;

"I love to steal a while away
From every cumbring care,
And spend the hours of setting day
In humble, grateful prayer."

Tastes differ. The hymn is found in the standard collections of the Presbyterian, the Dutch Reformed, and the Baptist Churches. In the Methodist collection it is placed in the department entitled The Closet; and it appears to us, that to object to the entire hymn because somebody is said to have made a pause in the middle of the first line, is about as sensible as it would be to find fault with the Apostle Paul, and quote him thus: "Let him that stole steal-” * Mr. Wakeley is grieved, too, by the omission of a favorite stanza in one of Charles Wesley's hymns. "Above all," he says, "I regret the omission of the stanza,

"This languishing head is at rest, Its thinking and aching are o'er; This quiet, immovable breast,

Is heaved by affliction no more."

Literary Record.

Happy man, if he has no greater cause for regret, seeing that the omission exists only in his imagination. The stanza has not been omitted in any edition of the Methodist Hymn Book.


but the manuscript in question was preserved in some convent, and from it was transferred to the University of Guatemala, where it remained until brought to light some eighteen months ago. In the account of the Indian religions it mentions two curious facts: the first, that the Indian notion of the Creator was, that God created eight couples at the same time; the second, that the first of their race in America came from "the East, beyond the seas," (de la otra parte de la mar, del Oriente.)

A German translation has just been published intimate friend of the poet; the translation is of Longfellow's "Hiawatha," by Freiligrath, an said to be very well and carefully done.

The biography of Fox, by M. Villemain, in the "Biographie Universelle" of Michaud, is, as was to be expected, from the eminence of its author, exciting great interest in the literary and political circles of Paris. It is written with that sustained eloquence, and statesmanlike measure and sagacity, which M. Villemain has warranted the public in expecting in all that

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M. de Lamartine has commenced, at Paris, the publication of a new periodical work, under the title" Entretiens." In the first number he makes confessions which will be read with pain by every one who in him admires the poet and respects the man. He exclaims:

"Alas! whoever envies me is greatly in the wrong. I succumb under my labor, and am dying from fatigue! . . . . I have no reason to smile at the past, and still less at the future. died a thousand times the death of Cato if I were of ....I should have the religion of Cato. I defy Cato himself to feel as much as I do disgust at the times. I count one by one the stones of my own dilapidation, but curse none of them. I do not accuse men-that would be unjust or silly-but I accuse Fate. I have found men good, but my lot has been a cruel one."

He complains that the very house in which he lives, and in which he was brought up, is not his own:

"I only sit at a borrowed hearth, which may be overthrown at any moment. And this is why," he adds, "I am condemned to labor beyond my strength. And yet I am often reproached with my constant labor, as if it were only caused by a vain thirst of noise and vanity. But why, O inconsistent men, do you not also reproach the stone-breaker for encumbering the highway? Because you know well that he works to take home at night the wages which maintain his wife, and child, and aged parents!"


In this sad account of the French poet's position, we are strongly reminded of Sir Walter Scott's affecting lamentations at having for the last time in the halls he had built, and walked his last in the woods he had planted."

Since the above was written, we learn that a project has been set on foot here to relieve this illustrious writer from the embarrassments in which his pecuniary sacrifices in the cause of liberty in 1848, and his philanthropic efforts since then, have unfortunately involved him. The consequence has been, that all the profits which M. Lamartine has derived from his literary exertions have been swallowed up, and now, in his old age, the poet finds himself involved heavily in debt, and reduced to almost as great poverty as those for whom he has so generously sacrificed himself. His friends, feeling that this was an occasion on which the sympathy of the people of the United States might be tested in behalf of a man who has all his life disinterestedly devoted himself to the advocacy of the political principles on which their institutions are based, have urged him to consent to the republication in this country of an English version of the work. Having given his consent to it, M. J. B. Desplace, formerly one

569 of the editors of the Courrier de L'Europe, in London, and a devoted personal friend of the arrangements for that purpose, in conjunction poet, has come out here to make the necessary with a committee of some of our leading literary Irving, &c. men, such as Mr. Bancroft, Mr. Washington M. Desplace bears letters of introduction from Lamartine to several of our most

distinguished men, making known his circumstances. To Mr. Bancroft the poet writes:

"I introduce to you one of my best friends, Mr. J. B. Desplace, who, out of pure love for me, goes to America, exclusively for the purpose of forwarding my interests. His success is, with me, a matter of life or death."

Lamartine rises at four o'clock every morning, and continues to write till late in the day. A hard task for a man in his sixty-fifth year.



A Paris literary journal announces a discovery of considerable interest. It is known that Molière published at the head of one of the earliest editions of his famous comedy, Tartuffe, three petitions to Louis XIV., praying for authorization to have the play represented in spite of the vehement opposition of the clergy. In one of these he tells the king that though his majesty himself had declared the piece innocent, "the curé of" had published a work in which he denounced him as a "demon clothed in flesh and dressed as a man,' as a "libertine," as. an "impious wretch," and as many other bad things, for having written it. Some years back, M. Taschereau, author of an esteemed life of Molière, found out, what since the time of the great comic poet had been a perfect mystery, that this "curé of priest of the parish of St. Barthélemy, in Paris, was one Pierre Roullès, or Roullé, a doctor of the Sorbonne, that he was and that the opprobrious language in question figured in a work written by him, called "Le Roy glorieux au Monde." But it was not possible to obtain anywhere a copy of this book, and every trace of one was believed to have enTaschereau, who has been charged to draw up tirely perished. Quite recently, however, M. library in the Rue Richelieu at Paris, found, to a catalogue of the contents of the imperial his delight, in that institution a copy of the identical work, apparently, from the red binding and the royal arms and lilies, the very one which was presented to the king by the author. The exact title of it is, "Le Roy glorieux au Monde, ou Louis XIV. le plus glorieux de tous les Rois du Monde." Not fewer than four pages of it are devoted to a denunciation of Molière and his Tartuffe, and in the course of it are the very words quoted by the poet; all the rest is in the same strain of savage ecclesiastical virulence.

A celebrated Bowyer Bible was sold last month and illustrated with many thousands of enat auction in London. It was folio, morocco, gravings, contained in a richly-carved antique oak cabinet. In the year 1800, Bowyer determined to publish a copy of the Bible, which, for cost and magnificence, should stand unrivaled in the annals of literature. He produced two folio copies one of these was in the British solved to illustrate in a manner far surpassing Museum, in seven volumes; the other he reanything of the kind ever attempted. He was

engaged on the work over twenty-four years, and nearly every chapter was illustrated. There were forty-five volumes, and they contained six thousand engravings, collected from the works of eminent artists from the year 1450 to the time of its completion. The book, therefore, was the work of a life. The cost of the engravings was £3,300; to which there was to be added the printing and binding, and £150 for the oak cabinet, making a total cost of 4,000 guineas. It was knocked down for £530.

A correspondent of one of our exchanges, writing from London, says:

"The penny press is becoming of vast importance, and is eagerly sought after by men who never before bought a paper. We have quite a number of them already, and I see announced that we are to have the Morning Star, and its evening sister. The Morning Chronicle proprietors intend to start the Morning News, for which a circulation of twenty thousand is expected; and the Morning Post, not to be outdone, announces the London Morning Puper. The Evening Express is a bantling of the Daily News. It is sold for twopence, and is a paying concern. I hear of still further changes, to take place immediately; but enough for the present."

Herr Holland, a professor in the University of Tubingen, has just published a work, entitled "Crestien von Troies; or, Literary and Historical Researches," which will be interesting to all lovers of the poetic literature of the middle ages. Crestien de Troies was one of the early French writers whose works served as a model to the Germans of that period.

Official Gazette of Sweden.-One of the oldest newspapers in northern Europe is the Official Gazette of Sweden, the Postoch Inrikes Tidning. It was founded in 1644, during the reign of Queen Christina, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus the Great; and the present year is, without interruption, its two hundred and eleventh anniversary.

Prof. Schlosser, of Heidelberg, the veteran historian, is on the eve of completing his "Weltgeschichte für das Deutsche Volk," a work which he began in 1844, at the advanced age of sixty-eight, and which he now brings to its close as an octogenarian. The hitherto published volumes have found a wide circulation, and there is no doubt but that the work, when finished, will become as popular as the author's other works, his "History of Antiquity," and his 44 History of the Nineteenth Century." Alexander von Humboldt, too, is busy with the completion of "Cosmos." What freshness of mind, and what noble activity for men who are past eighty! If we also mention Professor Arndt, of Bonn, and Baron Hammer-Purgstall, of Vienna, both of them likewise octogenarians, full of mental vigor and productiveness, we may well say that Germany has reason to be proud

of its Nestors of Science.

second part consisted of autographs of the great men of the Reformation, the Thirty Years' War, of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, the Seven Years' War, and the French Revolution, besides perfect collections of many of the lines of princes and statesmen of all times.

The complete works of Galileo have just been edited, for the first time, in fifteen volumes, by Professor Eugenio Alberti, under the title, "Opera de Gallileo Gallilei, prima editione completa, condotta sugli autentice Manoscritte Palatini." The work was commenced in 1842, but a stop was put to its progress by the troubles of 1848; resumed again in 1851. We have now, in the first five volumes, the astronomical works of Galileo; in the next five, his extended correspondence; the four following contain the mathematic-physical treatises; and the concluding one, essays on general literature, including an essay on the "Divina Comedia" of Dante, and the memoir on the "Orlando Furioso," as well as on Tasso's "Gierusalemma Liberata,” with a defense of its authenticity, which has been doubted, by the editor.

The papers of Sir Robert Peel, including part of an autobiography, will shortly appear. Lord Stanhope, one of the literary executors of the great statesman, has had the chief labor of preparing these valuable papers for the press; and

the work could not have been in wiser hands. The first part will contain a vindication of the part taken by Sir Robert Peel in the passing of the Act for Catholic Emancipation.

One thousand copies of the Life of Washington are about to be published in the modern Greek, at Athens.

Biography of American Clergymen.—We learn that the Rev. Dr. Sprague has been for a long time engaged upon a History of American Divines," and that he intends to complete it in about a year from this time.

M. Bussemaker, editor of the works of Aristotle in the "Bibliothèque des Auteurs Grecs," now in course of publication by Messrs Didot, of of the rare collection of Greek manuscripts in Paris, has lately made a minute examination the Royal Library at Madrid, and the result of it is, that he has found that, as stated by Iriarte, in his Catalogue of 1769, it contains a series of unpublished problems by Aristotle. This discovery led him to make researches in the Bibliothèque Imperiale at Paris, and there he brought to light a manuscript older than that at Madrid, containing the greater part of the said problems and some new ones. The consequence is, that his next volume of Aristotle

will contain a new series of two hundred and fourteen problems, taken from Madrid and Paris

manuscripts, and forty-six unpublished problems

A valuable collection of autographs, the property of the late Herr von Falkenstein, librarian to the King of Saxony, was brought to the hammer last month, at the house of Herr Weigel, in Leipsic. The first part of the catalogue contained upward of five thousand lots, including letters of poets, artists, and savants; German, English, French, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Swiss, and American statesmen, are all here represent-likely Aristophanes; and others of Empedocles ed, scarcely a name of note being missing. The and Heraclitus.

taken from the Paris manuscripts. Nor is this all accompanying these precious trouvailles were seven unpublished problems in manuscript, containing problems ascribed to Alexander of Aphrodisum; two other problems in Greek of Aristotle, which hitherto have only been known by a Latin translation; a long and interesting unpublished paper on Optics, by Cassius; an unpublished fragment of some comic poet, most

Arts and Sciences.

Lithotyping is the name of a new invention which bids fair to supersede the ordinary process of stereotyping or electrotyping. It is the discovery of a poor man, a resident of the wilds of Indiana, and is said to be at once economical and elegant in its results. The memoir of Bishop Heber, noticed in our present number, has been lithotyped, and as a specimen of typography is fully equal to anything we have seen recently. All the materials used, we are told, are cheap and abundant, and the process is simple and easily learned.

Exhibition of American Manufactures.-The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association will hold its eighth triennial exhibition of American manufactures and arts in Boston, next September, commencing on the 10th and closing on the 27th of the month. The exhibition will occupy Faneuil Hall, and extend the entire length of Quincy Hall, the two buildings being united by a bridge, thus furnishing peculiar advantages for the display of every variety of industrial art. A board of competent judges will be appointed for each class of manufactures, who will examine and report upon all articles submitted for competition. Medals of gold, silver, and bronze, and a new diploma designed by Billings, now in the hands of the engraver, will be given to those whose contributions merit such awards. The Association invites every mechanic, manufacturer, artist, and inventor, throughout the United States, to offer for competition and premium a specimen of their several works, of whatever nature or kind.

African Exploring Expedition. - The Geographical Society of this city have lately projected an expedition for the exploration of the western section of the broad belt of Central Africa lying to the east of Liberia. It is well known that Liberia is extremely unhealthy for emigrants newly arrived from the United States. All the travelers who have visited Central Africa, Barth, Livingston, Krapf, and others, agree, however, in the opinion that some forty miles east of Liberia commences a tract of country eminently healthy and productive, and admirably adapted for the purposes of settlement, and for the foundation of a most desirable commerce. To procure

a survey of this country, and such reliable information of its resources as would justify the application of means to hasten its settlement, is the purpose of an appeal addressed to the public by a committee of the Geographical Society of this city. For more than a hundred years it has been asserted in high quarters that Central Africa is occupied by an intelligent and industrious race of people;

whether that be true or not will doubtless be settled by this commission.

Cole's Voyage of Life.-The series of engravings by Smillie, from Cole's is now complete, the last of them, which bears "Voyage of Life," the title "Old Age," having been published. This picture has been engraved very successfully, the effect depending rather on the lights



and shadows than upon color. The dark rocks of the shore, the glassy waves of the ocean upon which the boat bearing the aged voyager has just entered, the heavy shadows brooding over sea and land, and curtaining the horizon, are well rendered, and not less so is the glorious light, streaming from above, in which celesin our judgment, one of the most impressive of tial forms are faintly seen. This engraving is, splendid effort of the art of engraving yet made the series, which, taken altogether, are the most in this country. The London Art Journal says of the series, or rather of the three first engravings which compose it:

mind, of one whose inspirations have been nursed on "These compositions afford evidence of a most poetic the banks of the mighty Ohio, and amid the giant forests of the artist's adopted country; the rocks, trees, plants, and flowers, belong to the New World, though many appear of primeval growth; all is essentially American in its vastness and in its grandeur.”

After a description of the engravings, the Art Journal proceeds:

important publication ever attempted in America; the "The series of plates is, we should consider, the most character of the work, no less than the way in which it is produced, must do a great deal toward improving the tastes and elevating the minds of the people for whom it is more especially intended. glad to see American art in so advanced a state; and We are truly must congratulate the reverend gentleman whose name appears on the prints as publisher and proprietaking thus far. The pictures are in his possession, tor, on the successful completion of his costly underand he has caused them to be engraved, far less from any desire to derive pecuniary benefit from the work, than in the hope the engravings will conduce to the intellectual benefit of his fellow-countrymen."

Gustavus Heine, a newspaper editor in Vienna, and brother of Heine the poet, is about to expend ten thousand francs in erecting a monument to him in Paris.

The new cable of the New-York and Newfoundland Telegraph Company will be laid by Mr. London, manufacturers. The first cable weighed Canning, engineer for Messrs. Kuper & Co., wires, each about as thick as a knitting-needle, five tons to the mile, and had three conducting stop the electric current from one end to the and a flaw in either of these was sufficient to other. The new cable will have one conductor made of small-sized copper wires twisted together, is less than half the thickness of the laid with less difficulty. It will be twenty-four three-wire cable, is more pliable, and can be thousand miles long.

gentleman in Philadelphia has invented a process of embossing vencers for any kind of ornamental wood work to represent elaborate carvings on wood, and dispensing with that comparatively slow and expensive process. The veneers are prepared by the inventor's peculiar process, then placed between dies moderately faces of the wood receives the pattern in relief, heated, and submitted to pressure. One of the carving. The depressions caused by the dies and gives it the appearance of elaborated wood on the opposite side of the veneer are filled up dried, the embossed veneer is ready to be glued with a suitable plastic substance. This being


or otherwise attached to furniture. The veneer will neither split nor collapse, and the figures impressed upon it are so solidified by the pressure that they may safely be rubbed and cleaned.

Mechanical Genius. One of the scientific journals says:

"We have seen, lately, as a specimen of rare American mechanical genius, a machine, costing not over $500, invented by a working man, which takes hold of a sheet of brass, copper, or iron, and turns off complete hinges at the rate of a gross in ten minuteshinges, too, neater than are made by any other process; also, a machine that takes hold of an iron rod, and whips it into perfect bit-pointed screws with wonderful rapidity and by a single process. This latter is also the invention of a working man; and both of the machines are superior to anything of the kind in the world."

The Sources of the Nile.-The French count, Escayrac de Lauture, who has already gained a world-wide celebrity by his travels in Central Africa, has been intrusted by the Viceroy of Egypt with the command of an expedition for the discovery of the sources of the Nile.

A patent has been issued to Mr. H. H. Fultz, of Lexington, Mississippi, for an improvement in cotton gins, consisting in giving the cotton to be ginned a spiral motion in the feed box, over the saws, so that the cotton is made to pass from one end of the feed box to the other, to present a fresh surface of it to the action of the saws as it passes along; also to prevent the staples from being cut off by the saws.

The Chemical Journal states that the proper mode of obtaining a preparation of powdered iron, is to heat proto-oxalate of iron in a stream of hydrogen gas to a very low red heat. This salt, so distinct by its lemon color, is very easily procured by precipitating a concentrated solution of proto-sulphate of iron (green vitriol), by means of a hot, saturated solution of free oxalic acid.

The dried salt is reduced, in a stream of hydrogen gas, to a metallic powder in a very short time, and at a heat so moderate that the operation may be accomplished immediately in a glass tube. The heating must, however, be carried up to apparent glowing, lest the iron powder should become pyrophoric. If, when poured out, it is yet warm, it is apt to ignite.

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represents an infant in a kneeling posture. So true to nature is it, and so beautifully executed, that many good judges pronounce it equal, if not superior, to the celebrated "Greek Slave." It is the work of many months, and Mr. Frankenstein has infused into his model a life-like expression that is truly wonderful.

Mozart.-A musical festival is to be given in Salzburg, in September next, in honor of Mozart, to which all the artists of Europe are to be invited. For the Mozart Festival in Berlin, in the hall of the "Sing-Academie," Professor Kiss modeled a colossal bust of the great artist, which, with its pedestal, was fourteen feet high: the time allotted to the work was so short that Kiss was obliged to work night and day at it. The bust, rising from a perfect grove of oleanders, laurels, and other shrubs, produced a beau

tiful effect. A committee has been formed in Vienna to set on foot a subscription for the purpose of purchasing the house Mozart inhab ited on the Kahlenberg. It is almost in ruins, having been used for some time past as a garden-tool house.

A new process for extracting gold has been tried by the Colonial Gold Company, at their works in the east of London. They melt the quartz containing the gold in furnaces; the precious metal falls to the bottom, and is separated in a mass, and the molten rock, when cast in molds, is said to be useful for building purposes.

Railways. A hydraulic railway has been tried near Turin. The rails are laid by the side of a swift canal, in which the paddle-wheel of the locomotive rotates, and so draws the train up

an incline. The inventor thinks it would answer for the passage of Mont Cenis. The Sardinian government talk of piercing a tunnel through Mount St. Bernard, to establish a connection with the railways of Switzerland; and the Greeks are actually making a railway from Athens to the Piræus!


Fossils.—A fossilized jaw has been discovered in Indiana, which Agassiz describes as of a kind heretofore unknown, of peculiar structure, belonging to an extraordinary family of sharks, allied to the sword-fish. He regards the discovery as of as great importance almost, in fossil ichthyology, as was that of the ichthyosaurus and plesiosaurus in fossil erpetology.' A new species of fossil footmarks has been found in the Connecticut Valley, made by an animal not less extraordinary than the newly-discov Professor Hitchcock calls it the ered shark. Giganbipus caudatus-the tailed giant biped. The length of the footmark is sixteen inches, and the distance between the steps thirty-nine or forty inches; and the furrow made by the tail is distinct and unbroken.

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M. Le Verrier, director of the Paris Observatory, has, with the consent of the Academy of Sciences, given the name of Lætitia to the planet (39) discovered by M. Chacornac in that city, on the 8th of February last.

The Marseilles papers announce that, in digging foundations for a new cathedral in that city, the ruins of a temple of Diana have been discovered.

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