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THE ORIGINAL, NATURE, PROPERTIES,
AND USE OF THE LAW.
“ W'herefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and
just, and gooil.” Rom. vii, 12.
1. PERHAPS there are few subjects within the whole compass of Religion, so little understood as this. The reader of this Epistle is usually told, by the Law St. Paul means the Jewish Law; and so apprehending himself to have no concern therewith, passes on without farther thought about it. Indeed some are not satisfied with this account; but observing the Epistle is directed to the Romans, thence infer, that the Apostle in the beginning of this chapter alludes to the old Roman Law. But as they have no more concern with this, than with the ceremonial law of Moses, so they spend not much thought on what they suppose is occasionally mentioned, barely to illustrate another thing.
2. But a careful observer of the Apostle's discourse, will not be content with these slight explications of it. And the more hc weighs the words, the more convinced he will be, that St. Paul by the Law mentioned in this chapter, does not mean cither the ancient law of Rome, or the ceremonial law of Moses. This will clearly appear to all who attentively consider the tenor of his discourse. He begins the chapter, “Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law,) [to them who have been instructed therein from their youth,] that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth ?” (Ilhat the law of Rome only, or the ceremonial law? No surely; but the Moral Law.) “ For,” to give a plain instance, " the woman which hath an husband is bound by the [moral] law to her husband so long as he liveth; But if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband. So then it, while her husband liveth, she be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress: but if her husband be dead, she is free from that law; so that she is no adulteress though she be married to another man.” From this particular instance the Apostle proceeds to draw that general conclusion : “Wherefore, my brethren," by a plain parity of reason, “ye also are become dead to the law,” the whole Mosaic Institution,“ by the body of Christ,” offered for you, and bringing you under a new dispensation : “ That ye should ( without any blame] be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead;” and hath thereby given proof of his authority to make the change; “that we should bring forth fruit unto God.” And this we can do now, whereas before we could not : “For when we were in the flesh,” under the power of the flesh, that is, of corrupt nature, [which was necessarily the case till we knew the power of Christ's resurrection) " the motions of sins, which were by the law,”—which were shown and inflamed by the Mosaic Jaw, not conquered,"did work in our members,"_broke out various ways,-“ to bring forth fruit unto death."
" But now we are delivered from the law;”—from that whole moral, as well as ceremonial economy; " that being dead whereby we were held;”-that entire institution being now as it were dead, and having no more authority over us, than the husband, when dead, hath over bis wife: “That we should serve him," who died for us and rose again, “ in newness of spirit;"_in a new spiritual dispensation; “ and not in the oldness of the letter;"-with a bare outward service, according to the letter of the Mosaic institution. (Ver. 1-6.)
3. The Apostle, having gone thus far in proving that the Christian had set aside the Jewish dispensation, and that the moral law itself, though it could never pass away, yet stood on a different foundation from what it did before,-now stops to propose and answer an objection : “What shall we say then ? Is the law sin?” So soine might infer from a mis.' apprehension of those words, “the motions of sins which were by the law.” “God forbid !” saith the Apostle, that we should say so. Nay, the law is an irreconcilcable enemy to sin; searching it out wherever it is. “I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust," evil desire, to be sin,“ except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.” (Ver. 7.) After opening this farther, in the four following verses, he subjoins this general conclusion, with regard more especially to the moral law, froin which the preceding instance, was VOL. I. No. 10.
taken: “Wherefore, the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.”
4. In order to explain and enforce these deep words, so little regarded, because so little understood, I shall endeavour to show, First, The Original of this Law : Secondly, The Nature thereof: Thirdly, the Properties; that it is holy, and just, and good : and, Fourthly, The Uses of it.
1. 1. I shall First endeavour to show the Original of the Moral Law, often called “The Law,” by way of eminence. Now this is not, as some may havc possibly imagined, of so late an institution as the time of Moses. Noah declared it to men long before that time, and Enoch before him. But we may trace its original higher still, even beyond the foundation of the world, to that period, unknown indeed to men, but doubtless enrolled in the annals of eternity, when “the morning stars [first] sang together,” being newly called into existence. It pleased the great Creator to make these, his firstborn sons, intelligent beings, that they might know Him that created them. For this end he endued them with understanding, to discern truth from falschood, good from evil; and, as a necessary result of this, with liberty, -a capacity of choosing the one and refusing the other. By this they were, likewise, 'enabled to offer him a free and willing service; a service rewardable in itself, as well as most acceptable to their gracious Master.
2. To employ all the faculties which he had given them, particularly their understanding and liberty, he gave them a Law, a complete model of all Truth, so far as is intelligible lo a finite being ; and of all Good, so far as angelic minds were capable of embracing it. It was also the design of their beneficent Governor herein to make way for a continual increase of their happiness; seeing every instance of obedience to that law, would both add to the perfection of their nature, and entitle them to an higher reward, which the righteous Judge would give in its season.
3. In like manner, when God, in his appointed time, had created a new order of intelligent beings, when he had raised man from the dust of the earth, breathed into him the breath of life, and caused him to become a living soul, endued with power to choose good or evil ; he gave to this free, intelligent creature, the same Law as to his first-born children;-not wrote indeed upon tables of stone, or any corruptible substance, but engraven on bis heart by the finger of God; wrote in the inmost spirit both of men and of angels ; to the intent it might never be far off, never hard to be understood, but always at hand, and always shining with clear light, eren as the sun in the midst of heaven,
4. Such was the original of the law of God. With regard to man it was coeval with his nature; but with regard to the elder sons of God, it shone in its full splendour, “ or ever the mountains were brought forth, or the earth and the round world were made.” But it was not long before man rebelled against God, and, by breaking this glorious law, well nigh effaced it out of his heart; the eyes of his understanding being darkened, in the same measure as his soul was “alienated from the life of God.” And yet God did not despise the work of his own hands; but being reconciled to man through the Son of his Love, he, in some measure, 're-inscribed the Law on the heart of his dark, sinful creature. “He [again) showed thee, O man, what is good, (although not as in the beginning,] even to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God.”
5. And this he showed, not only to our first parents, but likewise to all their posterity, by “that true light which enlightens every man that cometh into the world.” But, not. withstanding this light, all fiesh had, in process of time, “ corrupted their way before him ;” till he chose out of mankind a peculiar people, to whom he gave a more perfect knowledge of his law: and the heads of this, because they were slow of understanding, he wrote on two tables of stone; which he commanded the fathers to teach their children, through all succeeding generations.
6. And thus it is, that the law of God is now made known to them that know not God. They hear, with the hearing of the ear, the things that were written aforetime for our instruetion. But this does not suffice : They cannot, by this means, comprehend the height, and depth, and length, and breadth thereof. God alone can reveal this by his Spirit. And so he does to all that truly believe, in consequence of that gracious promise made to all the Israel of God: “ Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel. And this shall be the covenant that I will make; I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.” (Jer. xxxi. 31, &c.) i II. 1. The Nature of that Law which was originally given to angels in heaven and man in paradise, and which God has so mercifully promised to write afresh in the hearts of all true be
lievers, was the Second thing I proposed to show. In order to which I would first observe, that although the “ Law" and the “ Commandment" are sometimes differently taken, (the commandinent meaning but a part of the law,) yet, in the text, they are used as equivalent terms, implying one and the same thing. But we caunot understand here, either by one or the other, the Ceremonial Law. It is not the ceremonial law, whereof the Apostle says, in the words above recited, “ I had not known sin but by the law :" this is too plain to need & proof. Neither is it the ceremonial law which saith, in the words immediately subjoined, “ Thou shalt not covet." Therefore the ceremonial law has no place in the present question.
2. Neither can we understand by the Law mentioned in the text, the Mosaic Dispensation. It is true, the word is sometimes so understood : as when the Apostle says, speaking to the Galatians, (chap. iii. 17,) “ The covenant that was confirmed before ;” namely, with Abraham, the father of the faithful; “the law," i.e. the Mosaic dispensation,-“which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul.” But it cannot be so understood in tlic text; for the Apostle never bestows so high commendations as these upon that imperfect and shadowy dispensation. He no where affirms the Mosaic to be a spiritual law; or, that it is holy, and just, and good. Neither is it true, that God will write that law in the hearts of them whose iniquities he remembers no more. It remains, that the Law, eminently so termcd, is no other than the Moral Law.
3. Now this law is an incorruptible picture of the High and Holy Ose that inhabiteth eternity. It is He, whom, in his essence, no man hath seen or can see, made visible to men and angels. It is the face of God unveiled; God manifested to his creatures as they are able to bear it; manifested to give, and not to destroy life,--that they may see God and live. It is the heart of God disclosed to man. Yea, in some sense, we may apply to this law, what the Apostle says of his Son, it is απαύγασμα της δόξης, και χαρακτηρ της υποτασεως αυτ8,-the streaming forth (or out-beaming] of his glory, the express image of his person.
1. “If virtue," said the ancient licathen, “ could assume such a shape as that we could behold her with our eyes, what wonderful love would she excite in us!" If virtue could do this! It is done already. The law of God is all virtues in one, in sucha shape, as to be beheld with open face, by all those whose