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the produce was removed to the recesses of against cannon and musket shot, they cut the mountains with corresponding celerity. them like caverns into the side of the mounWhen they had finished their labors, there tain. They dug trenches, and made correappeared on the heights above the village of sponding embankinents, seventeen in all, to be Rodoret a French force, with which it was defended one after the other, so that the enemy vain to contend, and the occupants of the would have to gain them in succession before fruitful valley were again wanderers. They being masters of the rock. This was the retreated silently by night, however, and kind of fortification adopted by the early Euromanaged to leave behind them considerable pean nations, as we may distinctly see from field-works, and a general appearance as if the many hill-forts still remaining. They the place was occupied, and likely to be bit- were generally erected on conical, regularterly defended ; a state of circumstances well shaped hills, where there were few inequalicalculated to make all who had had experience ties to enable an enemy to approach under of their obstinacy halt before attacking them. cover ; and the Balsille was of the same charThe Marquis de Parelle was so deliberate in acter, although vastly more lusty and preciphis operations, that they were far away, and itous than the eminences on which such rebeyond all immediate traces, ere he detected mains are generally found. They had storetheir absence. When he approached, grad- rooms for provisions, and an outwork to ually and cautiously, the formidable camp, he protect them in ravaging the country. There found there abundance of provisions, and the was an old mill within their line of defences, vestiges of luxurious living; it looked as if but the under-stone had been removed. One the feasters had just left it, but they were far of them, however, remembered where it was away in storm and darkness.

hidden some years before, and they were thus The long nights bad now set in, and the enabled conveniently to grind their grain. cold of winter was advancing into those lofty The two armies, French and Piedinontese, regions, bringing to the adventurers new perils seem to have early resigned the idea of atand hardships. Their escape from the Valley tacking this fortalice until the ensuing spring ;: of St. Martin was one of the most wonderful and after an inspection and attack on the outin their career. They had to pass in utter posts, they drew off, telling the garrison to darkness through a wild country of precipice, expect them at Easter. The commanders, howtorrent, and snow. Their guides wore a sort ever, were much provoked at finding themof cape of pure white linen, that their motions selves unable to protect their friends from the might be distinguishable in the darkness ; marauding excursions of the holders of the and for a considerable distance, on more than Balsille. These were carried on very sysone occasion, all had to creep on their hands tematically, and were the means of effectually and knees.

victualling the garrison. They made their It was clear that the guerilla warfare arrangements so judicivusly and cautiously, among the rocks and forests could not be that they always alighted where they were carried out in winter, and that the occupation least expected ; and, like the Highland rievers of any of the valleys was hopeless. "How, of old, had the grain or the animals removed then, were the diminished troops - they now to their stronghold before the enemy could amounted to only 400 —- to find quarters ? collect their forces to intercept them. They At an early period of the campaign their attributed it to a providential intervention, vigilant leader had directed his attention to a that an early winter had overtaken the grain post which seems to have been traditionally still in some upland fields; so that when the known as a natural fortification. It was a snow thawed in spring, they found it not utterly conical rocky mountain, called the Balsille, destroyed, and more accessible than if it had standing near the modern fortress of Fenes- been stored away. Besides their arrangetrelle, which guards the approach to Pied- ments for procuring provision, they seem also mont, and is thus near the road to Pignerol to have preserved a well-organized correspondby the Col de Sestriers, sometimes used by ence with their friends. They received travellers between France and Italy. By an many letters, the tendency of which generally admirable feat of generalship, Arnaud concen- was an attempt to convince them of the hopetrated his poor scattered forces on this spot; | lessness of their struggle ; but they had : and through the carelessness of the multitu- trust in their destiny, and would not yield, dinous enemy, this operation, now of vitul though in some of these communications they necessity to the indomitable remnant, was ac- were promised quarter. complished with hardly any casualties.

On the 17th of April, terms of surrender Here they fortified themselves systematical- were proposed to them directly by the Marly and very ingeniously, making such ar- quis de Parelle, and a council of war was rangements as showed it to be evidently their held to deliberate on them. Their answer design to hold out to the last, and die, if was respectful, yet firm. They thanked the needful, at their posts. To make for their marquis for his considerate humanity and winter accommodation dwelling-places proof evident desire to spare them. They stated,

that, as subjects of the Duke of Savoy, they the 500, they assert that not twenty rehad been in possession of their estates in the turned, and that they themselves did not lose valleys from time immemorial, having inherit- a man. Two were made prisoners; and they ed them from remote ancestors. They had been were shot in attempting their escape. They, punctual in paying all the feudal rents and however, seized another and more important taxes ; they had never been turbulent, but, on prisoner, Monsieur de Parat, the leader of the the contrary, had assisted the government in attack, whom they had the rare good sense not the preservation of order. In other respects, to put to death. He was severely wounded, they had been obedient to the laws, and free however, and required the attendance of a from crime. In these circumstances, they surgeon. Now, it happened that the garrison judged it grossly unjust and cruel, that, at also wanted such a person, for they had just the desire of foreigners, they should be driven lost the one they had formerly kidnapped; from their inheritance. That they should and they gave every assistance to De Parat's take arms to recover what they had lost, was efforts. The plan of communication was by but natural; and they said the only way to a letter stuck in a cleft stick in a convenient avoid bloodshed, was to allow them to return place between the two forces. The surgeon to their own in peace. The document was came and was taken possession of like his not at all in the tone of hopeless rebels suing predecessor. The Waldenses in this affair for mercy: it seemed, ind d, to evince a full obtained possession of papers of importance, reliance on their ability to make good their which explained the nature of the operations point; and their opponents had not time to to be conducted against them, and put them recover from the surprise occasioned by its on their guard. But the French troops, asmanner, when a sally was made by a body of tounded by their reception, retired for some the Balsille garrison, who pushed as far as St. time within their own lines, to devise a more Germain, sweeping all before them, and effective system of attack. They were, meanreturning with a valuable booty, after having while, disheartened by a wild storm of snow killed upwards of 100 of the enemy. The which overtook them in the mountains, subgarrison was beginning to suffer from a short jecting them to all the horrors already menallowance; and many of them were reduced tioned as incidents of these Alpine hurrito extreme debility, when this timely raid canes. provided them with abundance of beef and On the 10th of May, however, the wary nourishing soup, and enabled them to recruit garrison argued, from faint but sure symptheir strength. But such an act of course toms, that the enemy were returning to the tended to revive the indignation of the enemy. attack. This time it was not to be an On the last day of April, the acuteness of the assault, but a regular siege. Five different Waldensian commanders enabled them to see camps were formed round the Balsille, while that there was some movement going on great field-works were raised with turf and among the latter.

In fact, they were creep- woolsacks, and planted with heavy cannon. ing slowly round the Balsille, and so cau- All the accessible ground was covered with tiously, that, although they were obliged to marksmen; and it was remarked that one sleep on the snow, they lit no fires, lest their of the garrison could not show his hat above movement should be discovered.

their own works, but it was immediately hit. There was one point from which the Balsille The works were brought so near that the was supposed to be particularly liable to besiegers could address the besieged with a attack; it was a ravine entering deep in its speaking-trumpet. Knowing how desperate side, and capable of affording cover to an they were, and that an officer of importance enemy. There Arnaud had raised his most was in their hands, the French now offered formidable works, consisting in a great the terms, which, in appearance at least, measure of barriers made of felled trees, with were extremely liberal. They were to receive large stones above them, while on either side passports, and each one a gratuity of 500 there were heaps of stones piled on the edge louis. But whether fearing treachery, or of the ravine, to be hurled on an attacking still trusting to their destiny, they refused enemy. Suddenly, but not without the vigi- the terms. Nor were they so completely lant garrison being prepared, 500 dismounted beset but that they were able to accomplish dragoons seemed, as it were, to rise from the some of their characteristic feats. They earth, and make for the barriers. They marked the manner in which provisions were reached only the extremity of the first, and in sent to the besiegers; and one day, making a vain attempted to pull it down. They were rush on the convoy, they cut it to pieces, and thus at one extremity of the trees, laid length- secured the provisions. Still, however, it was wise, while the garrison were at the other. clear, to all human appearance, that the These, almost completely protected, opened a devoted garrison were coming daily nearer to murderous fire on the assailants; and when their doom. Cannon had been planted so as they were thus thrown into confusion, made a to command the ravine where the abortive desperate sally, and swept them away. Of lattempt had been made, and the 14th of May

CCCCLXXV.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. I.

50

was fixed for a general and conclusive at- tion from the higher spot where the refugees tack.

stood. On that day the battery was opened on Next morning a successful attack was made the defences, and the mounds so industriously on the fortifications of the Balsille, all broken raised speedily powdered down under the as they were by cannon ; but the birds had effect of a cannonade. The Waldenses had flown, and the nest was found deserted and to abandon the lower, and pass to the higher cold. Looking from the height they had delences. In this passage, their enemies ex- gained, some far-sighted soldier of the French pected that the hot fire playing on the Balsille force pointed out the string of dark figures, would exterminate them. But here took several miles off, cutting steps for themselves place one of those events which made the on the frozen snow of the Guignerert. Though refugees deem themselves the selected objects they had weathered the winter in their fortof divine intervention. They were shielded ress, and spring had revisited them, yet it in their retreat by a fog which hid them was impossible that this bandful of men from the enemy. It prompts a smile to could resist the fate of externination from the find that they give up their claim to sagacity large Piedmontese and still larger French in seizing the moment of the fog for accom- force. A pursuit was immediately complishing their retreat, and would rather have menced ; but they had gained some distance, it thought that the fog was specially sent to and were rapid in their motions. On the 17th, aid it. They were now hard-pressed, and their track was found; they were overtaken they showed that fatalist ferocity which over- in the direction of Angrogna by a small detakes men of their kind in such circumstances, tachment, which attacked thein somewhat by putting their wounded prisoner, De Parat, rashly, and was defeated with slaughter. This, to death. Thus did they seem, in what however, was only a provocation to more sigmight be counted their last act of power, to nal vengeance. l'he occurrence took place on give a precedent for their own fate.

Saturday. Next day they might perhaps Looking from the height to which they had expect to be let alone; but on Monday their now ascended, over the preparations of the doom was sealed. So, at least, would byenemy, they saw a chain of watchfires that standers have deemed; but there was at seemed to surround their fortified mountain, hand a deliverance for them of the most and make a daylight all round its base. One strange and unexpected character. of the captains of the Waldenses, however, On Sunday the outposts of the Waldenses whose name was Paulat, intimately acquainted found approaching their camp, in peaceful with the ground, said there was still a clest security, two Piedunontese gentlemen named of the rock left unguarded, except by its own Parander and Bertin. They announced the precipitous and dangerous nature, through astounding intelligence, that the Duke of which he declared he could pass undetected, Savoy was now the enemy of France, having along with any good cragsmen who would run joined the allies, and that he desired the aid the risk. The project was at once adopted by of the faithful and valorous Waldenses in his the whole garrison, for the night had come on armies. They were now on their own ground, in a gloom suitable for its fulfilment, and the under the command of their own monarch ; whole period from the beginning of darkness and the French force was an invading army, to the dawn was before them. I'hey took off which they were to assist in driving forth. It their shoes, and were silently guided by Pau- has been thought, indeed, that the reason why lat, sometimes having to climb and descend Louis XIV. sent so many troops against this walls of rock, at other times sliding down handful of Waldenses was, that, doubting the steep smooth banks. They passed so near the faith of the Duke of Saroy, he desired to have enemy's pickets, that the slightest blunder a considerable force in that prince's territories ; would have sacrificed them. A petty incident, and perhaps, if this was his object, be might indeed, showed them in a formidable shape not be so eager to accomplish the avowed prothe extremity of their danger. One of them ject which formed an excuse for their being had in his possession a kettle; why he should there – the suppression of the Waldenses have been so burdened, it is difficult to im- as their historian may have supposed. agine. Falling from his grasp, as he scrambled After some little delay and anxiety, everyon hands and knees, it fell over the edge of a thing was arranged. Arnaud received instrucprecipice into the gull below with a clattering tions to garrison, with his faithful followers, sound, which kettles are wont to make. Å Bobi and Villar, and the captives taken from sentinel, put instantly on the alert, gave his them and confined in the Piedmontese prisons qui vive, to which the kettle made no answer. were restored. In the contest which cosued, Endeavors to hear or see anything in the the Waldensian troops bore a gallant part ; quarter whence the sound came, gave him no and once when, in the reverses of war, the indication of human presence there, and in- duke had to flee before an advancing enemy, deed the incident seems to have diverted atten-, he found refuge among those faithful inhabit

ants of the valleys whom he had so sternly penses ; but it appears that the sum awarded pursued.

by him fell far short of what was necessary, The writer of a romance would stop where and again the wanderers were thrown on the his heroes are brought to the good fortune untiring kindness of their friends in Geneva they so well merit; but historical truth must and the Protestant cantons, among whom they add another fact, showing that the behests of sojourned during the winter of 1698. In the Providence had not shaped for the wanderers mean time Arnaud, with some other delegates, the romantic conclusion to their adventures went to arrange for their reception in Würwhich they themselves believed to be their temberg. They did not now go forth, as bedestiny. Year after year, from the warlike fore, hopeless, unknown exiles. They had services they performed, and the deference made, by their ralor, a diplomatic position paid to them by the King of Britain, and among European nations. Arnaud spoke in other Protestant powers, the position of the the powerful name of the courts of England Waldenses was becoming consolidated, and and Holland, from which he had obtained for their privileges enlarged. Numbers of their his people considerable pecuniary assistance. body, who had long been dispersed in distant They were received at last into the principalregions, found their

way back to the homes ity, having assigned to them certain waste of their ancestors. Nay, further, French lands in the baili wicks of Maulbronn and Protestants intermarried with them, and be- Leonberg, with special privileges and imcame citizens of their Protestant communities, munities. Within four years afterwards, a 80 that they were ever becoming more numer- large body again moved off from Piedmont tu ous and powerful.

join their friends. These consisted chiefly of But this apparent consolidation of strength those descendants of the old Waldenses who was but a preparation for subsequent misfor- most tenaciously adhered to their native countunes. In July, 1696, the Duke of Savoy de- try, and were only driven from it by feeling tached himself from his allies, and rejoined the insuperable character of the pressure France. This was the immediate commence- brought against them. They were received ment of operations, professedly for keeping the in the district of Heilbronn, near that occuWaldenses from propagating their principles pied by the previous colony, but more Italian throughout the French dominions. In the in its character, being more clear of forest, treaty there was a provision to this effect : and affording better growth to the vine and “ Ilis royal highness (the Duke of Savoy) shall mulberry. This second colony named their prohibit, under pain of corporal punishment, new valleys after those they had left; and the inhabitants of the Valley of Luzern, known their Italian character, far more distinct than under the name of Vaudois, from having any in the mixed colony which preceded them, is religious communication with the subjects of said to be noticeable at the present day. his most Christian majesty ; nor shall his royal The great difficulty in properly settling these highness permit, henceforth, the subjects of immigrants, appears to have arisen from a the King of France to establish themselves in notion that their religion was exceptional any manner in the said valleys; nor allow any from that of the great Protestant communions ; preacher subject to him to set foot on the and much pains appear to have been taken to French territory; nor permit the worship satisfy the authorities that they were virtually calling itself Reformed, in the territories which Calvinists. Among the special privileges have been ceded to him." These territories, conceded to them, however, there was one spoken of as ceded, embraced, indeed, part of which sounds strange, as a condition dethe country inhabited by the Waldenses ; 80 manded by Protestants. It was, that their that, while they had to dismies all their lately- pastors and deacons should be exempt from enrolled brethren who had come from France, disclosing in courts of justice secrets comand to avoid all communication with that mitted to them under the seal of confession, country, they were compelled to narrow the unless when involving high treason. limits of their territory. An edict was issued But the reader asks : What has become of on the lst of July, 1698, for carrying out the the priestly general of the glorious return ? treaty. It required all French Protestants to His subsequent history is a brief one. Arquit the Piedmontese dominions in two naud had tempting offers of military coinmand months, under pain of death. It shows how made to him by King William, and from sevextensively these communities had been sup- eral other quarters ; but he preferred the serplied by iinmigrants from France, that of their vice of that Master whose kingdom is not of thirteen pastors in 1698, seven required, under this world, and went with his Hock. He offi this edict, to remove from the country. ciated for them as pastor in a small ruds

About 2000 persons found themselves more church in the town of Schömberg, where he or less affected by these restrictions, and made died in 1721. There the fane in which he up their minds to emigrace. They set off in served, and a monument to his memory, aro seven bands, under their pastors. The Duke still piously preserved by the descendants of of Savoy professed to pay their travelling ex- his people.

From the British Quarterly Review. out of the way, nothing can be clearer than

that the two forms of despotisin would divide EUROPE, POPERY, AMERICA.

Christendom between thein. l'he hour of darkness for Europe has not passed away. Might is still in the place of

DANCE OF DEATH. — Aqua-ardiente and dulces right. The Juggernaut of despotism moves on as heretofore, and its victims - its involun- were handed round; while all, men and women

the dancers excepted — smoked their cigaril. tary victims are crushed and destroyed be

los. But the most remarkable thing in the neath its wheels by hundreds and by thou- room seemed to nie a large kind of scaffold, which sands, day by day, as heretofore.

occupied the other corner opposite the bed, conBut times make men, and men are made sisting of a light framework, ornamented all over for times. The genius — the military and with artificial flowers, little pictures of saints, political genius - to wield the forces now and a quantity of small lighted wax-candles. everywhere waiting for it, will come. This On the top of it, a most extraordinary well-made is the great want, and what an age wants, it wax-figure of a little child was seated on a low comes in its time to possess. Providence has wooden chair, dressed in a snow-white little its analogies, and its analogies are-laws.

frock ; the eyes were closed, the pale cheeks In the mean while, our English statesmen tinged by a soft rosy hue, and the whole have their Aatteries to dispense to the op- deceptive, that when I drew near at first, I

figure perfectly strewn with flowers. It was so pressors, and their libels to fling at the op; thought it a real child, while a young woman pressed — are ashamed that refugees should below it, pale, and with tears in her eyes, might show themselves patriots, not ashamed that very well have been the mother. But that was their persecutors should show themselves ty- most certainly a mistake ; for at this moment rants — can frown on the madness which one of the men stepped up to her, and invited breaks forth under the endurance of wrong, her to the dance, and a few minutes afterwards and then turn, full of sroiles, towards the she was one of the merriest in the crowd. But power which generates the madness, by in- it must really be a child — no sculptor could dicting the wrong.

have formed that little face so exquisitely ; and The words of the leader of our Lower House, now one light went out, close to the little head, to a certain priest-ridden duke, were manly and the cheek lost its rosy hue. My neighbors and hopeful. But the spirit which gave Eng- at last remarked the attention with which I land her freedom, is not the spirit of our

looked upon the figure or child, whichever it cabinets or senates. It is in our people, it is Was; and the nearest one informed me, as far as rarely found in those who should be their there was really the child of the woman with leaders — least of all in that class of our the pale fice, who was dancing just then so traffickers, who, to “get gain,” can descend merrily; the whole festivity taking place, in to play the sycophant in the presence of arbi- fact, only on account of that little angel. I trary power, however perjured or bloodstained; shook my head doubtfully ; and my neighbor, and can congratulate a nation, in the sight of to convince me, took my arm and led me to the all Europe, on the good condition of its mar- frame, where I had to step upon the chair and kets, as realized at no greater cost than the nearest table, and touch the cheek and hand of loss of its liberties.

the child. It was a corpse! And the mother,

seeing I had doubted it, but was now conThe season of despotic rule is naturally the vinced, came up to me, and smilingly told

me it had been her child, and was now a little season of papal encroachment. Had the recent angel in heaven. The guitars and cacaes comaggression in this country taken place under menced wildly again, and she had to return to our Plantagenets, the tools of the Foreign the dance. I left the house as in a dream, but Priest engaged in it would have been liable to afterwards heard the explanation of this ceremony. imprisonment, confiscation, and exile. Had If a little child — I believe up to four years of age the papal letter addressed to the French clergy -dies in Chili, it is thought to go straight to within the last few weeks, been addressed to heaven, and become a little angel; the mother that body a hundred years ago, the Bourbon being prouder of that -- before the eyes of the would instantly have suppressed it, as an in- world at least — than if she had reared her vasion of the prerogatives of the crown, and child to happy man or womanhood. The little of the liberties of the Gallican church. While corpse is exhibited then, as I had seen it ; and the present league between the sword and the they often continue dancing and singing around crosier shall last, no man can say what may mother, whatever the feelings of her heart may

it till it displays signs of putrefaction. But the not be attempted, nor what may not be sub- be, must laugh, and sing, and dance ; she dare mitted to. The worst things ever professed not give way to any selfish wishes, for is not are now professed again; and we see not why the happiness of her child secured ? Poor the worst things ever done may not be done mother! - Gerstaecker's Journey Round the again. If England and America could be put World.

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