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striving to see God in everything ; but its / is only the Mosaic symbol for a geognostic vision, when philosophical, was all for things Time. in the idea, not in the concrete instance, the Then it is simply impossible that a nobler very reverse being the protestant English turn or a homelier, (nay, or another!) symbolical of mind. They were imaginative and poetic ; expression for the idea intended' could have we are the lovers of matter-of-fact, and the been found or invented. The sevensomeness conquerors of common nature. Their spirit of the luminous or of the musical octave, for of inquiry took the way towards philosophy; example, is of another species; and, in fact, ours has cut itself a road into inductive the only Seven in man's common world of science. They were born-idealists ; we are sense, which has to do with time, is that of sensationists born and bred, the seekers and the division of the lunar month by two, as the finders of whole treasuries of natural fact. measured by the waxing and the waning of Above all, it was their way to be continually the moon, and then by two again, giving her putting the idea into some suitable symbol; quarters. This is the only symbol in the it is ours to consider everything as the symbol world for the idea ; for a symbol must parof some idea or law, and to be forever hunting take of the very nature of what is symbolized, it up. Their whole manner of speech was as the etymology of the word plainly beans symbolical and round; ours is literal, and upon it yet. In truth, it is the characteris deals in strait lines. Noticing, then, their tic of the greater Scripture symbols that they characteristic, and following the bent of our are the very symbols wanted, and the only own, the very first question it becomes us to symbols to be found. They are not arbitrary, ask in the present instance is, What is the not fanciful, not capricious; they are accordidea put by that true Seer into this symbol of ing to law. Hence the significance of the these seven days, and what was a cosmical days of the succeeding weeks of the moon, day to him? Thus interrogated, Science, the and the sanctity of the sevenths, to Moses seeker of ideas and the discoverer of laws, and his people, and to all such as have drunk answers with modest decision, One of our into their spirit, Jew or Gentile ; and, whai geological Epochas ; adding with astonish- is far more astonishing, hence their sacred ment, In other particulars the Scripture is a ness in the eye of almost every Pagan my marvel, for we have found it all out again in thology! No wonder, then, that we find so our own way!
many indications that the Patriarchs, rich In conclusion of this short discussion of a with the remainders of the lore of Paradise, long question, it must not be forgotten that ended and rested from the work which they those to whom the book of Genesis was and had done during the six creating and workis addressed (exceptions going for nothing in ing 'days of their week, and blessed the history) could not have understood, and can- seventh day, and sanctified it—or set it not understand, a discourse on geology. A weekly apart. But it was on Moses that the geogenetic era would have been, to the Jews idea of this symbolical (if not literal) & stumbling-block, to the Greeks foolishness; seventh, considered as a day of cessation from and, in brief, it would have been a senseless creating and making, seized with such divine sound in all Hebrew and Christian ears, force as eventually to move the greater part until these present days; nay, to the over- of the whole world to the thought. By him whelming majority even now, and for many a at length the blessed law of the Sabbath was long age to come. The Bible was not written formally announced, cut into stone, and pub for us overwise and ridiculously few ex- lished to the hosts of Israel at the foot of ceptionals, but for the whole world, bond and Mount Sinai ; and thence it has already free; and even more especially for the poor spread over Christendom, and all Moslem and otherwise unlettered. And as for the too; being sure to reach the uttermost parts knowing and critical favorites of science, in of the earth in the long run. REMEMBER THE the mean time, we have endeavored (though SABBATH-DAY, TO KEEP IT HOLY. only by a bint) to show them how easily Jesus of Nazareth, that greater than Motheir geology may be taken in, assimilated, ses, did not come to destroy the law, but to and glorified by their faith ; and, if the time fulál it. He never abolished this patriarchal ever come when sanitary amelioration, social and Mosaic institution. On the contrary, reform, improved policy, ecclesiastical ref- the Church of Christ, though not founded on ormation, theology made free by obedience, this rock, has been built, not in a little Becular and religious education, and what proportion, with stones fetched from no other soover other good spirit is in the world, shall quarry. It never appears that the early have not only brought out the life of God in Jewish Christians (whether at Jerusalem, the soul of every son of man upon the earth, but also made all men familiar with the
rich plays in Music has unfortunately to be suppressed
* An exposition of the part that Number Seven results of science—why, then, the whole world for sheer want of space. The musical reader will be shall easily comprehend how a genetic Day able to supply the want perhaps.
about the towns and country-sides of Judea, expediency are surely argument enough for 10 or in foreign parts) forgot the Sabbath-day ceremonial a change as the mere day of the of their countrymen, while they did not for- week for the observance of the rest and holy sake the assembling of themselves together on convocation of the Jewish Sabbath. That the Sunday or first day of the succeeding primitive church, in fact, was shut up to the week, as the day of their Lord and Master's adoption of the Sunday - until it became es arising. The example of fidelity to the old tablished and supreme, when it was too late ways, of loyalty to Moses and the prophets, to make another alteration ; and it was no of the tenderest patriotism in unison with irreverent nor undelightful thing to adopt it, charities so wide as to overflow the earth, inasmuch as the first day of the week was shown by Jesus himself, might almost make their own high-day at any rate ; so that their one sure that they did not. Certainly the compliance and civility were rewarded by the tenor of Paul's epistle to the Hebrews, and redoubled sanctity of their quiet festival. indeed of all the Pauline writings, was Perhaps the Patriarchal and Hebrew Sabbath against any such self-assertion and insolence, needed this added charın to draw all the if not impiety, as so divisive a course would manifold nationalities, idiosŷncrasies of race, have thrust upon the angry eye of those who and climatic temperaments of the vast and did not believe their report ; — and assuredly various heathen-world, to the love and obedithey would not be the worse of a true ence of it; and certainly the time-honored and whole Day of Rest and Old Testament Sunday of our own forefathers is as good a reading, followed by ever so partial and Sabbath, just as it is as good a Seventh, as broken a day of New-Testament exercises. any other. Nor is it an easy thing to choose At the same time, the apostle of the other exclusively betwixt the two venerable names ; nations of the world always sternly insisted for, while SABBATH is laden with the sweetest on the Jewish tests not being forced upon ideas of peace and repose and antiquity older them; and a noble piece of charity and wis- than antiquity, Sunday is doubly glorious, indomn it was. They were to remain free, not asmuch as it speaks of the arising of the Sun only of all other particulars of the Mosaic of Righteousness as well as of the Sun of comceremonial, but also of the particular day mon fight. Both these arisings were the be appointed by that authoritative lawgiver as ginnings of new divine epochs; both the openthe Seventh; - and the particularity of ings of new creations ; and they were both the days elected, it must be evident, was Feiled, though effective, and hasting duly to the only thing that was purely ceremo- be altogether revealed on the fourth days of nial in the Fourth Cominandment. It was Time. The latter was natural and symbolitherefore among those foreign converts, first cal; the former is spiritual and real ; but the called Christians at Antioch, that the conse- imagination marries and makes them one, cration of the Christian, not Sabaoth or rest, and the new name of their union is Sunday; but Sabbath-day arose. Like all the disci- as dear to the conquering heart of England, ples, Jew as well as Gentile, they came to- as is its Sabbath-day to Scottish constancy and gether on their Lord's day (not having awe. rested the day before, however, like their Thus, then, we stand before the patent and Hebrew brethren); but that very day was unavoidable, and really most curious fact, the Sunday of their heathen neighbors and that at least all Christendom has for hundreds respective countrymen, and patriotism gladly of years ended its work on the seventh day, united with expediency in making it at once and rested on the seventh day from its work, their Lord's day and their Sabbath. Wher- and blessed the seventh day, and sanctified ever Christianity appeared and triumphed it! Come it whence and how it may, that is and grew strong, accordingly, there the Day the fact; and this were the proper place to of the Sun became transformed, yea, trans- inquire whether anything can be said configured into the Christian Sabbath-day; and, cerning the rational ground, on which this if our Cambridge Hebraist and his divines be institution of an ever-recurring day of rest right in their computation, that the Sabbath has been erected, before going into the actual of the patriarchal dispensation was on one position of the institution, and state of the and the same day with the wild Solar holiday Sabbath-question, in our own age and country. of all pagan times (the latter having, in If this question were to be answered in full, reality, descended and degenerated from the the reasonableness of the Biblical day of rest former) then the restoration of the heaven-would be expounded as threefold. Its natural descended resting-day of Paradise, of Enoch, or scientific, its ideal or philosophical, its and of Abraham, was as beautiful as it was spiritual or religious reasonableness, in the natural and easy. On the other hand, if this strongest sense of that term, would be dia speculation be but a chapel in the air, and cussed in succession and together ; but it if the authority of the Church is to be ig- would be ridiculous to try the reaping of so nored altogether by Protestants, there is no broad and thick (and also so white) a harvest matter; because opportunity and common within the time of a Quarterly reviewer. As
to the last of these heads, indeed, it is better | denominates, an analogon of demonstration ; to keep away from it altogether, than not to and therefore we refuse to deal with a person express one's whole mind in a roomy and who will not acknowledge it, as being an unleisurely manner; the religious part of the reasonable fellow. Such precisely is the kind subject having been sorely vexed, almost ever of service which science may one day be able since the Reformation. The Roman Catholics to render to the cause of the weekly Sabbath, find this element in the authority of the and that in full measure, heaped and running Church: The Grecians and the majority of over; yet hitherto this great power has conProtestants, in the authority of Moses in the tributed only a few half-hewn and unplaced moral law; and a large minority of Protes- stones to the work. Unlike the religious and tants, in the authority of Christian expediency philosophical processes, this of science is a and experience : - not to divide divided Chris- cumulative task, now fairly begun, necessarily tendom too much at present. For ourselves slow, always to be going on; and every passwe cannot but think that the Fourth Com- ing laborer may do his share of it, as he mandment as standing in the moral law of passes ;-until some master-builder and his an inspired lawgiver like Moses, the lifelong workmen take it all upon themselves, as in practice of the Church, and that Church's ex- other departments. Revelation is like a comperimental knowledge of the benefits of coming of light; philosophical demonstration at pliance with the Mosaic idea and of keeping least goes in a straight line; but the path of up the old day, make a threefold cord, to gird science, with its observations and inductions, the week withal, which shall never be easily is devious and very slow ; and we have nothbroken ; but we also profess it our opinion, ing better than a handful of uncut pebbles, that all the three strands are necessary to its fetched from no foreign brook, for our present integrity, and that on account of the change offering. from Saturday to Sunday. Such, in brief, is I. The multifarious sevensomeness that is pretty nearly our notion of the Christian-re- so striking in the bodily life of man and in his ligious reasonableness of this service ; and it immediate world, as has been shown above, is obvious that the natural-religious reason of should come in here as the van of the arguits fitpess, from the nature of the case, must ment a posteriori; but it is needless to repeat spring out of the stem of philosophy and the illustrations. Nor must too much weight science, tree and bark, like a fruit: - else it be laid upon them. Taken altogether, and inis non-extant altogether. The ideal, philo- creased by as many more instances as science sophical, or truly rational ground of the ne- may know, they do no more than furnish a cessity of every seventh day being given to broad and reiterated hint, to the effect that waking rest, in addition to the nightly sleep the periodicity of seven is deeply natural of every whole day, has never been opened up to the movements of the human being. This and demonstrated ; and our own demonstra- pointed indication is only a preliminary busition is too little elaborated, and therefore too ness, though a thing that may well mean more long, for insertion here. The topic is merely than meets the eye ; but it has no scientific mentioned in this connexion, partly to stimu-|(that is, intelligible) connection with the last late this high kind of investigation by the hint or first day of the hebdomadal seven being of deep-lying treasures, and partly to sound a spent in rest. All that science has yet done note of defiance against all should-be philo- in this direction is probably summed up in sophical sneerers at our hebdomadal pause. the evidence of physiology and physicians,
The natural or scientific argument (for ar- averring that the powers of the body need regument it is, and nothing more) is greatly pose ; that the bow of vitality must be unbent more accessible ; and it has very often been every now and then, if it is to keep its spring; drawn upon, though by no means exhausted that in these days of overtension during the at any of its streams. Like the argument of six days the rest of the seventh has grown design, and all purely scientific arguments, it indispensable, in addition to the successive goes up from the facts to the conclusion of the nights ; and so forth. Now all this is undecase, not down from principles to details. niable, and the materialist will perhaps be the Like those arguments it is cumulative and a foremost to urge it home in his own way; but thing of increasing probability, not direct and it is general, and cannot possibly condescend matter of demonstration. The greater the upon the proportion of time necessary or denumerical and qualitative strength of the sirable for the kind of Sabbath it inculcates. probability, the nearer to the nature of cer- When coupled with the Christian reason for tainty ; until the amount of probability be- the weekly rest, indeed, it is of much value ; come so large as to be tantamount to demon- and it has been put before a parliamentary stration. The Copernicun astronomy, even as committee in that connexion. But when it stands now, is raised on an immeasurable this general opinion of science, regarding the mountainous foundation of mere probability; want of a daytime of rest now and then, is not on logical demonstration, but only on 80 ingenuously viewed with the medium of the huge a sum of probability as is, what Kant/unfailing tendency to periodicity in the Con
stitution of man, the presumption is strong is what nobody doubts; and it does not apthat such daytime should recur at regular pear that the historical world was ever better, intervals; and then that particular seven- either here or anywhere else. Yet there is a someness in human affairs, which has just natural indolence in him too, whereby he been animadverted on, puts in its claim for saves one part of himself to overstrain another ; the hebdomadal period as being at least pecu- and the lazy trick preserves him from headliarly human, if not the best for the purpose. long ruin: the boxer does not use his brain, At all events, the combination of these three the student leaves his muscular system unscientific considerations must be held to con- taxed ; and so things are kept as near the stitute a powerful moving barrier against all straight line as such an awkward squad can would-be rational encroachments on our keep. Taking this variegated and extravagant sacred institute, not easily resistible when ag- creature all in all, however, considering eight gressive and not to be broken down when hours as the average time he spends in sleep, honorably assailed.
and allowing him two for his meals and little II. It has already been suggested that, when unbent occasions, the poor fellow gets only anything has to be said by science concern- ten hours of retributive quiet instead of twelve. ing man, it is man in the genus, or rather In fact, fourteen hours of activity in the kingdom, not in the individual, the city, the twenty-four is on all hands, in Parliament and nation, or the race: a broad average must be out of it, counted a just average distribution struck of the ways of man in all times, climes, of the daily life of man, at least in Great and other circumstances. This cannot be Britain and Ireland. It is true and sad, indone to perfection by the limited survey of deed, that multitudes do not and cannot sefallen, and still growing and therefore boy- cure more than eight of rest; but doubtless like, humanity as it now is ; but a nearer there are just as many who take their whole approximation must be always being aimed at twelve, and unprofitable servants they are : in researches of this sort. It is accordingly and if not a few of us scarcely make out our impossible to tell with accuracy, by induction, six, there are not a few who deftly manage to how many of the twenty-four hours should be suck up eighteen, not knowing what to do! spent in the state of rest by the normal or But even human legislation, to say nothing ideal man; nor yet how many have been and of divine lawgiving, hethinks itself of nations, are passed in rest by the average or actual colonies, and planted continents of men and men of history. We say Rest advisedly, for women; and the true average there is only this period needs not be altogether spent in ten hours of repose instead of twelve. Now sleep or the completed trance of animal re- the defect of two hours a day for six days of pose, any more than the waking period ever labor is exactly made up, to the comprehenis passed in absolute wakefulness and erection sion of an infant-girl lisping her first Sundayof the whole being : neither any more, nor hymn, by the twelve of a weekly Sabbath dayany less ; and this observation is important time. It is, of course, understood that the in the sequel. But it has here to be observed whole twelve hours of the seventh night time that the all-pervading law of dualism, which are also sacred to rest; and this is the strong has been explained already, at once insinuates point of those Sabbatarians, who have been the hint that twelve hours are for work and pleading with their countrymen, besieging twelve for rest, say rather, twelve for activity corporations, and praying the legislature, for and the same for repose, for, of course, many no canonical holiday, but for an undiminished modes of activity are neither creating nor rest and festival of the soul. In the meanmaking. Action and reäction are equal, ex- time, however, it is but too clear, take it how cept when free-will disturbs the balance. It one will, that in this overwakeful century, the is only in man and by him, that the law of stimulants and overaction have it all their own equilibrium is broken. He is the sole sad way; and hence—what do we see? Men not occasion of either scale ever kicking the beam. living half their days ; men not reaching their Now, that in the present age, with his over- legitimate fulness of development, in body or late and over-early hours ; his coffees, teas, in being; men too fragmentary, too feverous, tobaccos, hops, alcohols, and opiums; his too one-sided, too busy and little-minded, exriotous eating of flesh on one side, and living cited but not strong, lively but not long-lived: on husks on the other; his frivolities and his and if men, then nations. Surely the sweet toils ; his unresting competitions, of the field, and solemn Sabbath-rest of yore were a true the workshop, the market, the theatre, the cordial, and the beginning of many subsidiary college, the forum, the church, the state, and calmatives, for this chronic and outwearing even the drawing-room ; his ambitions and fever of the world. fears ; his grandiose anxieties and lowlived IIT. But is the Sabbath then, it will percares : in one word, that now, with his legion haps be retorted here, to be a day of sheer of follies and sins, not uncompanioned by animal repose ? Is it set apart for sluggish noble though exaggerated aims, man does not quiet? Must great Christendom imitate the (or cannot) allow himself daily rest enough, frugality of the maid of all work, and spend
her weekly holiday in sleep? By no means. above his fellows does not absolve him from In the first place, 'excessive as is the activity the unescapable necessity, imposed on every of some one or more parts of the nature of man of woman born, of living two lives, an almost all men during the week, the whole outer and an inner, a lower and a higher (or nature of almost none is ever awake an hour else a lower still) — it is never to be doubted on end, from the beginning to the close of life. but that the sight and companionship of wife We are sleepy and conservative, as well as and children, the soft extension of his allowwild and wasteful, though not wisely. What able couch, the quiet, unattended meal, the is wanted, then, in a physiologically con- high bible-reading, the serenity and depth of ceived Sabbath is the going to sleep of the the public service, the canticle sung at home weekday propensities, sentiments, and facul- to the music of Handel, and the early hours ties; and the awaking, rather, of such as are of a Mosaic day of rest, might well be more too latent from busy day to day: and hence than half the battle on the side of God and & natural right of each individual to the choice the Right; and England, with all her lands, of his Sabbath occupations and enjoyments, would rise up and call him blessed. always within proper social or sacred limits. Such is the sort of change or rest, not only Yet are there two principal things, common prescribed by the commandment, and praa to nearly the whole race: firstly, the poor tised during at least two dispensations in the body, in one part of its organism or another, church, but deducible from the latest concepis overworked'; and secondly, it is with secu- tions of physiological science ; - not, indeed, lar things and forms of thought that men are that science would by this time have discoroverbusied during the week. Thence the two ered the natural necessity of a seventh day of plain indications of bodily rest, on one hand, such rest, and drawn out its formula as a and the conversation of the mind with the rule of life, but that the thing being almost bigher order of ideas within the reach of man's as old as time, science comes into the world apprehension, on the other, as the natural and sees that it is good, and can honestly avocations of the seventh day of the week. _It plead for its conservation and extension. At is change of occupation that is true rest. For the same time, we are disposed to go further the laborious artisan, for example, what a than some of our Sabbatarian friends in berestful alternation to be sweetly attired, to sit half of the first element of the world-old Sab at home, to open the family-classic leisurely bath, namely, bodily rest, intending that of morning and evening, to sing the inmortal brain and nerve, as well as that of bone and songs of King David and the other inspired muscle ; and this is the element with which psalmists with all his neighbors in church or the state has to do, intent upon refreshed and chapel, to send his aspirations to heaven healthy citizens against the day of need. The winged by his brethren's prayers, to caress body has far less to do with the manifestation and teach his Sunday-dressed children, to pray of humanity than the phrenologist supposes, down the blessed Spirit of God into his lowly but far more than anybody else suspects. It home, and, this low life almost forgotten, to is mentioned with lyrical emphasis that, when take the sleep of the beloved in an unwearied Israel went forth of Egypt," there was not bed this one dear night of the week! The one feeble person among their tribes."* The student, too, possessed by the one thought of wild Sunday of the great Pagan nations of his work day after day, chased by it through antiquity was no Sabbath, and they are gone ; his fitful day-sleep, pursued by it all the night, the Jews were always disobedient, idolatrous, never without its image before him or ready and Sabbath-breaking, though singularly per and eager to come forward in a trice, his brain sistent too, being a living contradiction, and and nerves thrilling all over with it, rules of they are scattered; the gay and turbuleni health given to the winds, many natural move- Sabbath of continental Christendom is liker ments of the heart bidden away, a rush into the Pagan Sunday than the quiet feast of society of an evening, his one unwilling and Christian people, and they are the prey of tarely pleasing change, were surely a whole despotism, that many-headed vulture. Ia world the better of the pause, the altered cir- short and urgent fact, the nations want a cumstance, the sociality, the homeliness, the genuine day of rest, else they perish ; and we common joys, the blessed associations, the Britons need it more now than ever, being the church thoughts and feelings, the pure air, advance-guard of humanity in Europe ; and the moony evening peace, the less turbid sleep, that almost alone now, needing all our self the swift low-voiced parenthesis, of his and possession and well-rested strength. The whole all men's predestined Sabbath-day. Or could physiology of the country craves repose; and the great minister of state forget his great that man is no faithful keeper of the Sabun ness, and his burdens, and his dread respon- bath-day, who expends it in an excess of even sibilities, and his cares almost too heavy for a bible-studies, passionate communings in the man to endure and live, commending them closet, church-services and sermons, prayerheartily to God for a day, as reinembering that the beneficent elevation to which he is raised
* Ps. cv. 37.