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an opinion on the truth of this most ingenious head, which phrenology is or may well beand fruitful speculation. But suppose it come. From the measurements of a more to be proved (and the extra-judicial mind will experienced and accurate craniometer than perhaps find it difficult to resist) then it fol- any predecessor, Mr. Straton, it comes out fows that the Saviour arose, not on the first day that, while the general figure and bulk of the of any but the Jewish, temporary, and pur- brain is finished within the first seven years posely misdated week, but on the old, new, of life, yet, in a large porportion of men, the and seinpiternal Sabbath of the world, as our thing swells and fills up in a measurable divine observes.
enough degree, and in the few it actually To come down from those more solemn alti- grows and alters its shape, till the end of the tudes, and take up the numerical thread forty-ninth annual revolution, a period of again : It might be charming, especially to seven sevens, and the real completion of a such as are never afraid to inquire too curi- man.* It is not only allowed, however, but ously, to find out why Five follows Three with strongly affirmed by this observer, that the so much pertinacity everywhere; why it lays expansion taking place (even in a Napoleon hold on us every time we shake hands ; why or, let it be supposed, a Shakspeare or a it answers our eye from so many high places; Newton) betwixt seven and forty-nine is what its ideal significance is; what it means; small, in comparison with not only the growth - in one word, what its rational ground can from zero to seven, but even with what occurs be; but Terminus forbids. It was both desir- between one end and the other of any of the able and in keeping to bring out the secret of first seven years. To continue ; — the boy or the tri-unity of all things and all thoughts, at girl ceases, and the man or woman begins to the beginning of this criticism, and that be- appear, upon the close of the fourteenth or cause of its symbolical relation to the Divine second seventh year. Adolescence is done by Trinity ; but these notes and queries about the end of twenty-one, the third seventh; the natural and ideal Pentad or quincunx (to manhood and womanhood are brought to persteal an illustration from the landscape-går- fection (as such) by the twenty-eighth or dener) are intended partly to deepen the sense fourth seventh year; and so forth : – but it is of numerical periodicity in the affairs of the always to be understood that these periods and constitution of man, and partly to serve as a figures are deduced from a generalization bridge from the cosmical Triad to that pecu- taken, not only from all climates, but also liarly human cipher, number Seven, which is from both sexes; for if woman is earlier, man the proper object of Christian and civilized is later, and the balance must be struck solicitude in this the nineteenth century. between them for undivided humanity. If
the hand is analyzed, you have seven pieces According to the popular thought, finding - five fingers, metacarpus, and carpus ; the its voice in poetry, the life of Man has seven foot-five toes, tarsus, and metatarsus : and ages. It is certain that his average æon, or when the arm is examined niore curiously, proper period, is now threescore years and than in that first glance which divides it into ten, being ten times seven years; and the five, it yields you seven parts -- the shoulderdimacteric periods of his length of days in blade and collar-bone (composing the shoulany case, according to broad and general der), the humerus, the ulna or ell-long bone observation, are so many multiples of the of the forearm, the fibala or brooch-pin bone same number. In the language of science, of the same (and the reason these are counted though not that of the nursery, the time of two is obvious - the latter is planetary to the infancy lasts seven years. Then the first former, it revolves round it, it has a purpose teeth have come laboriously out, during the of its own, it and its muscular systein turn six years ; and had their little day of rest, in the wrist on the ell-bone, which alone is the the seventh. Then the volume of the brain true forearm), the carpal system or wrist, the (not the head) is completed ; at least, by the metacarpal or palm, and, seventhly, the consent of the overwhelming majority of phys- digital one or bunch of fingers. In short, iologists ; and the fact, as it stands, has been just as the first look at man divides him into heaved as a conclusive battering-ram against 'threes, and the second into fives, he falls into phrenology, by no less great a philosopher sevens at the third analysis ; and pages than Sir William Hamilton. Yet the propo- might be filled with its results, but it is better sition appears to be true only in a manner; to refrain from anatomical detail
. It has to and that a manner not incompatible with be observed, however, that the pious mediasome actual or possible physiognomy of the val transcendalists were 80 pungently im
Having thus eliminated the Ego from the Nos, pressed by the sevensomeness of the microthe distinction shall occasionally be kept in view cosm, as they denominated man, that, having during the progress of the present discussion, in or
descried seven planets, they thought there der to save Our Majesty from the consequences of any opinion which may be deemed too personal and * Researches in Cerebral Development, &c. By limited.
James Straton. London, 1851.
could not possibly be any more, and therefore to give it echo, nor yet the fingers without they made no more discoveries in that direc- skill to fetch its antitype out of reeds and tion. They did the very same by their seven pipes and strings. Music, that catholic and poor metals : and they associated these bright published tongue, that speech of cherubim and bodies, both in name and in the idea of mys- seraphim, that poetry taken wing, that science tical correspondence, with the days of the passed into ecstasy, that transfiguration of the week and the planets, gold with Sunday and common state of man (whether in the body, the Sun (for Sol was dethroned in the days of or out of the body, one cannot tell) is also a the Ptolemaic Astronoiny, and degraded to system of sevens. Enough, in short, might the planetary estate), silver with Monday be advanced to show that anatomy, physand the moon; and so forth throughout the iology, optics, astronomy, and the science of triple series. One can only say that the new music (which are surely not superstitious, nor Astronomy and Chemistry have exploded all mystical, nor transcendental, nor credulous of this cunningly devised superstructure ; but ancient authority) are all familiar with the the number of the planets is not yet deter- peculiarly human number Seven," as we have inined, far less that of the metals, and therefore ventured to define it ;-and that not only bethere is no saying what multiples of seven cause the body of man (that organization and may come out in the long run. It is just summary of the known powers of nature) is possible, then, that the antique planetary and figured all over, without and within, with metallic Seven may turn out to be something Seven, but also because his thought has more than fantastical jargon :- although it is (sometimes instinctively, sometimes rationcertainly impossible not to laugh at the con- ally, sometimes in superstition) embraced and ceit of one of the latest ornaments of those sanctified it in all ages and lands, and likeold schools, who argued, against the earlier wise because it is the astronomical ratio of Copernicans, that it is beyond Omnipotence the sub-system to which his world belongs, there should be more than seven planets, namely, that of the earth-and-moon. It is a because there are only seven metals, and only number which his spirit knows, which his Beven holes in the head - two eyes, two ears, soul loves, which his body like an illuminated two nostrils, and one mouth!
missal shows forth; and it is the very numThe majority of our readers, and all our ber of his house in the heavens ; an irresisti: ritics (since even critics and critics' critics ble fact, which carries the mind right into the have critics, like the dogs' man's man's man heart of the proper topic of this various, but of my Lord Harkaway's kennel) will think not unproportioned, dissertation. this all moonshine ; yet your positive, scepti It is certain that the division of man's timo cal, and contemptuous Modern Science is not, into octaves, that is, into weeks of seven days dares not, and cannot be ashamed of Seven ; cach (the octave of one, being the first of the for moonshine itself is a web of seven-twisted next week) is coextensive with history and thread, and the moon (that Penelope, who tradition, and also coëxtensive with the weaves the ever-vanishing fabric) goes on her world, except in those places where feeble way, and does all her stints of work, to the races have gone prematurely down into music of the saine homely number, whereby dotage; and such division has always been the very sea, " and the dead that are in it, associated with the more or less serious conare rocked in their great cradle to the self-secration of one day, in the seven, as peculiar same tune. No sooner is a pencil of light and supreme. Secular historians have never made to pass through a prism, than it blabs been slow to admit the fact ; the fathers of its secret, and shows itself seven-twined and the church were forward to proclaim it; and beautiful. It is to no purpose that the more modern divines have not neglected to keep is refining optician avers, that there are only forward. The day distinguished as festival, three primary colors. Possibly, nay cer- holiday, or high day of some sort, has invaritainly, there are ; but there are seven colors ably been that of the sun, the symbol of the of the rainbow, for all that. It is here as creative energy of the invisible Godhead ; or elsewhere, in fact ; for the first analysis gives at least the saine day, with a corresponding three, the second five, and the third seven ; name and significance. In truth, Dupuis, in the first, third, and fifth constituting the his famous Origine de tous les Cultes (which natural chord of this painted scale. Ever presents an infamously shallow theory of since God did set his bow in the cloud, that human worship, however) insisted that the rested on
the mountains of Ararat, over system of chronology, the mythologies of against Noah and his household, on the occa- Egypt, India, old Greece, and even the mysion of that first family-worship after the thology (as he considered it) of Christendom, food, the children of Light have been saying, have all sprung out of an elaborate scheme of We too are Seven, with speechful look, if not Sun-worship and its Sundays; and the book with still small voice. "But if the eye is is so full of curious and important things, silent, the ear is not deaf to the seven-toned that the student of these matters might wel rhythm of the universe, nor the mouth dumb study it with advantage, appropriate its
treasures, and then laugh at its presumption standing in the midst of his planets and their in trying to explain a deeper phenomenon by satellites, but no ray of light had yet reached means of one lying nearer the surface—as if a the face of our deep, either because the sun great brass handle could unlock the gates of had not yet grown luminous, or more likely beSt. Paul's in London city without a key! cause the vaporous darkness, that brooded over When the sevensome analysis of Time began, our waters, was still too thick. But at last history cannot tell, inductive science cannot it came, though not in sudden and full enough find out, and no conjectural Dupuis or Volney blaze to show the figures of either sun or of them all can divine. Not only as a writer moon ; and a sunless gray morning arose in a Christian Review ; nor yet as one who upon the earth, to be followed by a moonless inakes bold to claim the honorable style of evening ; for “ God divided the light from the a Christian,” after the manner of Sir Thomas darkness ;” and “the morning and the evenBrowne in his preamble to his account of the ing," namely, the day and the night, Religion of a Physician ; but also as the the first day;" the day of the coming of humblest of the disciples of an older philoso- light, therefore of necessity the first; the day phy, drawn from profounder sources than of the first glad tidings of the sun ; the Sunthat of Helvetius and the Encyclopedia, I day of the awakening week of time. have not a doubt upon the point. I believe II. Under the impulse of this new-come that man knew this, and many a far deeper accession of inuffled solar radiance, the waters secret, in Paradise, during the true pre-his- divided ; part arose, namely, the horrid mist, toric epoch of human story ;* and that, after and fashioned itself into a spheral and unthe fall from the intuitive and holy life of broken cloud; part remained below, as it Eden, these things could not be forgotten in a was, namely, the liquid element; and the day. Such is the idea set forth in the open- atmospheric or skyey firmament stood being of the Book of Genesis ; and since it is tween them. The day and night of this impossible to argue so great a proposition world-wide sublimation « were the second within these limits, it is better just to alight day.” One might well conjecture that the at once on the plain fact, be its interpretation air was so far cleared in the course of the what it may, that the oldest written record in day-time of this day, that even the reflected the world not only claims a pre-historic and light of the moon might penetrate, though all-conceiving epoch or angelic infancy for the still too faintly to reveal her form ; and in life of humanity, but at once announces the that most impossible case, it has been apineasure of earthly time by Seven, and that propriately invested with the name of Monfrom the divine side of the thing. Before day. going a step further then, let us look into this III. The next process was the standing out iniraculous account of the creation. It is a of the dry land or earth, and the gathering strange story, and every well-bred child in of the water into seas; followed by the Christendom knows it by heart ; but few springing of tender grass,” or those seedless bearded men can agree about it, although no plants called acotyledons; of “the berb one is willing to give it up, it is so strange yielding seed,” or the monocotyledons ; and and true.
of the fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind, IN THE BEGINNING (how high and awful an whose seed is in itself, upon the earth,” the archway into the scene !)-IN THE BEGINNING crowning, class or dicotyledons, capable of God (not found out by arguments of design, propagation by grafts and cuts, their seed nor deduced from first principles, but known being in themselves upon the earth. This without a doubt, as the father is known to his was the third epoch ; that of the coming forth children) CREATED
THE of continents and islands, and their getting In the beginning (wherein was the covered with the three kinds of plant, in their Word) the city of God had been founded ; the right order of succession ; first, with stony solar system and our world had been set in lichens, muddy funguses, tender mosses, ferns, motion ; but “the earth was without form, and the like; then, with reeds, grasses, and void ; and darkness was upon the face of palms, and all manner of herbs yielding seed, the deep,” which covered it round. But but whose seed is not in themselves; and, " the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the thirdly, with the completed vegetable, whose waters' once more ; and then began that prep- British type is the oak with its acorns. This aration of the world for the inhabitation of is the Tuesday of our week; the day of the man, which is commonly called the Creation; manifestation of vegetable organization and bat, in reality, the earth had been made un- irritability, call it Life who will; sacred in known æons before, even in the beginning." that Scandinavian forin of the old Pagan mga I. For unknown æons the sun had been thology, which cannot but be deur to the
Truly pre-historic, because not progressive, being imagination of men who use the English fall. History wants struggle, development, rise, tongue, to Tyr or Tuesco, the god of battle or advancement, as its objects.A'narrative of innocent condict, the divine symbol of effort yet in days among the perfect is not History.
IV. While vegetation ran riot over the nearer to the Creator himself: and so, it is dripping earth (and that under a leaden sky, written in the Scripture for us to read, - God still unbroken by a streak of blue, or even blessed them." traversed by a blood-red beamless orb) nature VI. Next came the grand day of•work. In could not unfold her ulterior resources; but the morning, the animal kingdom was carried that vast exuberance of every kind of plant to completion ; the unapparent Maker seeing swiftly appropriated and solidified enormous it to be good. But all those fish of the sea, volumes of the atmospheric moisture; and it and fowl of the air, and cattle upon the dry is just possible that they also sucked in and ground, and even all the creeping things that assimilated opaque vapors or gases now not creep upon the earth, were unfinished till the known so as to clear the way for the true coming of a greater than they. No order of arising of the sun on the morning of the things is complete till it have passed into fourth day, to be duly followed in the evening union with a higher, any more than the hy the apparition of the moon and stars ; the seventh sound of an octave is complete till the irradiations of the solar heat, as well as eighth or first of a higher scale have struck. other obvious powers, having meanwhile been The atomic order is incomplete until embodied working towards the same magnificent result in the mineral, the mineral till taken up into Such was the splendid work of the palæonto the vegetable, the vegetable till lifted into the logical Wednesday; now symbolized and animal; and therefore all those goodly figures known to us as the day of Woden, the Valorous that rested in the coverts, and leaped upon Person of the multipersonal godhead of our the plains and mountain-sides of the foreNorse forefathers, corresponding with the world, were but an uncrowned rabble (not Hercules of the Egyptian-Greek theosophy. even definable as the animal kingdom) until Hercules, going through his twelve labors, their nature should have passed into incorwas the sun, going through the signs of the poration and unity with a nobler, that is to Zodiac; so that our familiar name is a good say, until the coming of their Lord. " So God one for this the day of the sun, moon, and created man in his own image : in the image stars.
of God created he him; male and female V. The Thursday or fifth of this marvellous created he them. And God blessed them : octave was made memorable by a new and and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and mulstrange display of creative power, more than tiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; worthy of our ancestral conception of Thor the And God saw everything that he had Thunderer, or god of sheer might. It was made, and, behold, it was very good. And then that animal life began to appear. The the evening and the morning were the sixth waters brought forth abundantly the moving day.” It is almost frivolous, after so sublime creature that hath life or soul, and that up to a quotation as this, to remark that the prime the level of the great whales of those pre- feature of the day, in so far as man and woman adamic seas : while every winged fowl, also, are concerned, is the divine command to be was let fly above the earth in the open firma- fruitful, or the extension of the law of animal ment of heaven. The cetacea or water-mam- propagation to man, notwithstanding that he mals (quadruple-hearted, lungsed, red-blooded, is intinitely more than an animal (precisely viviparous, breasted creatures) were the high- as an animal is much more than a plant), est manifestations of this amazing period; and having been made in the image of God. It they belong to the noblest class of all, even is doubtless on that account that the day of that in wbich the animal body of Man him- our week, corresponding with this creative self is included. It is a touching thing, in sixth, is dedicated to Frigga or Freya, the the Mosaic narrative, that God is not repre- Scandinavian Venus, or goddess of love and sented as having even “ seen that it was generation. Be that as it may, certainly good,” when he had said, “Let there be light, every Friday of the year, but Good Friday and there was light;" nor yet on the con- above all, must be dear to the Christian who summation of the purely separative work of is not overmuch afraid of the formalism of second causes, which occurred during the days and years, when he bethinks himself of second day: but when the Earth burst into the Crucifision of his God manifest in Flesh, unrestrainable vegetation, during the progress and of the mother who stood near the cross :of the Tuesday or third age, " God saw that
Stabat mater dolorosa it was good;" and likewise, when the Sun
Juxta crucem lacbrymosa, had fashed for the frst time upon the forest
Dum pendebat filius. green and ocean-blue of the world, and the mnoon had reechoed the Memnon-tone of his VII. On the seventh day God ended his ray in the evening, and the stars had joined work which he had made : not that the althe chorus at night, again “ God saw that it Inighty will ever cease from working, since was good.” But now living things sported the sustaining of the universe is a standing in the waters and in the open firmament; and perpetual miracle ; but that this particuhappy creatures, akin to Man, and therefore lar series of operations, namely, what geolo
gists call the palæontology of the world, or and of geological series, brought out by the the preparation of its surface for the appearing very latest science, in a single instance. That of Man in the image of God, was done. That narrative must, therefore, have been written which the penman of this wondrous scroll set down from the traditions of the unfallen, allhimself to describe was finished. The house naming state of man or its reminiscences ; or was thoroughly furnished unto every good and else from direct insight, that is, from immeperfect work, the man and his mate had cohe, diate beholding of the idea and the law; and and it now behoved their life to begin. “ And that is, in either case, from inspiration, meGod blessed the seventh day and sanctified it; diate or else undiminished by the traditionary because that in it he had rested from all his medium, Adamic or Mosaic. work which God created and made." How It must already be evident, from some of daring a poetic license, yet what a touch of the phrases used above, that we follow those nature, to speak of our never-weary God rest- new and doubly protestant divines who confess ing, when the morning of the seventh terres- themselves compelled, by the great results of trial æon had arisen on the darling, for whom geology, to acknowledge the days of this bis Fatherhood had been creating and making miraculous writing to be the symbolical repreduring the six week-days of the world! What sentatives of mighty ages ; and it therefore a sweet and altogether human, yet godlike appears to us that we are now in the morning thought, to bless the day as though it were a of the seventh day, the Sabaoth of the Lord, living thing—for no blessing was pronounced the day of the life of man, but not determined by the Word upon the dayspring from on or constituted a day (philosophically speaking) high, nor on the dividing waters, nor on the until the sounding of its octave, that is to say, seas and the earth with its leafy cover, nor till the arising of an eighth morning, the first yet on the sun and moon, but only upon the of a second week and higher scale of things; animal kingdom and its King! * And God wherefore we do and must look for a new blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it." heavens and a new earth. These things we
Such is the genesis of the present order of bold, without the discomfort of a doubt, but things in the world ; told from the divine side likewise with perfect respect for those who of the phenomenon ;--for it was the manner cherish the old opinion. "It is not necessary of patriarchal thought, not to look into nature to go with us in this, in order to accompany for the godhead, but to behold both nature and us with cordiality in our further argument. man in God. Such was the Mosaic Cosmog- It is only desirable to adınit that it is a quesony, or Moses' express idea of how this planet tionable point, which faith and science may was got in readiness, and brought to the con- settle betwixt them some other day; and dition in which it now continues for a time. surely, when one considers the laboriousness Next to its surpassing beauty is its philosoph- and the rigor of geology, the thing deserves ical accuracy, and next to that is its geological the compliment of an honest pause. Let the truth for our especial wonder ; its sublimity mere English reader of the Bible also remembeing a thing apart, and yet arising out of all ber that he is reading a translation from an those particulars of its literary character. antique, oriental tongue, into a modern, westYet it was not written as a poem to delight ern, and quite unrelated language. the world ; it was not elaborated as a specu But aside from all this there still remains a lation on the ideal triad; and still less was it fact of immense importance in favor of our raised on the basis of observation among view; and that fact consists in the difference stratums and ignigenous rocks. On the one between the spiritual and intellectual attitudes hand, it was not a logical deduction ; on the of the writer and intended first readers of other, not a geological, botanical, zoological Genesis, on one hand, and of us peeping induction of multitudinous instances. Above literal quidpuncs, English and Scottish, in the all, the day of the victorious observation of last three centuries of Christianity after a nature had not even dawned. Roger and thousand years of popish corruption. The Francis Bacon were yet afar off
, the predes- difference between the psychological attitudes tined sons of a new dispensation, which was of Moses and the like of Liebig or Murchison, not to begin till that of Moses and the prophets to speak the truth, is almost as great as if the should be ended; Hutton and Werner were former had stood on his feet like a man, with invisible in the distance, athwart a long and his eye heavenward, and the latter had learned dreary Middle Age of Christian time, our to stand and run about on his hands, with vast geologists could not possibly have existed in agility and the advantage of finding out a any other age than this, for the growings of thousand terrestrial secrets, counterbalanced science are according to law, and the prelim- by the costly damage of only remembering, inary sciences were not ready for the success is not forgetting, instead of ever anew beholdof their labors till the approach of the current ing things celestial. The patriarchal and procentury. Yet the narrative in Genesis, though phetic spirit not only saw everything in God, making many exquisite distinctions, does not as has already been remarked, the pious violate the ideas of causation, of classification, modern soul (even Shakspeare himself) rather