Obrazy na stronie

tending and impressing us, and that they are for a few years on this subject, may be conpermitted to do so? Since the spirit-world sidered as now at an end. On the authority of is a world of " everlasting progression,” the Mr. William B. Reed's reprint of his grandconclusion is to his mind perfectly rational father's letters from Washington, certain critics, and philosophical. It will be seen, then, that known and unknown, attacked Mr. Sparks. the senator is fairly in for the rappings. He 1. For altering the text of Washington, in his does not cease now from his investigations, edition. but promises if hereafter the preponderance

2. For attempting to conceal opinions of Washof evidence shall incline to the other side, ington, to announce that result as readily. Such a

3. For varying from Judge Marshall's rule

about document as these letters constitute, would

passages omitted. once have been deemed astonishing ; but now Mr. Sparks has replied on general grounds they only strike us as additional evidences of before. The publication now of an exact tranthe lamentable depths to which credulity will script of Mr. Reed's MSS. enables him to show cast down the strongest ininds when circum- further, in a pamphlet just published, stances favor the fall. As to the mental ques 1. That Mr. Reed's own edition of those MSS. tioning and the characteristic answers, we

was less accurate than his. have ali seen children amusing themselves

2. That the most important passage of the with putting questions to their dolls — their alleged concealment, where “ Connecticut” was inediums — to which perfectly characteristic printed by Mr. Sparks instead of “ Continental," answers never failed to respond; but we were

was Mr. Sparks' accuracy, and Mr. Reed's inaccuracy.

- That “ Cobweb Scheme", one of not wont to fancy that the spirits of dead babes answered for the little waxen images, original, and omitted by Mr. Reed.

was in the

Mr. Sparks' supposed additions nor that their baby talk should be quoted iò

3. That Judge Marshall’s habit in making eridence of a spiritual theory. When men omissions was exactly the same as Mr. Sparks'. who have been busy with the world, who

The curious reader finds also, in some hundred have spent years in grappling its stern act- instances, specimens of the sort of variations beualities, retire to their closets and encourage tween the letter books” – Mr. Sparks' chief their lively imaginations to go out on ex- authority and the letters sent by Washington. ploring expeditions, they are not often desti- But the instances above spoken of, on which so tute of very fanciful reports from the dream- much of the controversy has hinged, are from land of their ramblings. We opine moreover MSS. not copied in the letter books. that the old nursery rule would not work Mr. Sparks' last pamphlet has been called badly for the intelligence of this generation, forth by Mr. William B. Reed's reprint of the which required that the dreamer should keep original letters from Washington to Joseph Reed. his dream to himself, as telling it bred á It is a very thorough demolition of the whole case wilder one for the succeeding night. The against him; his single authority being the chief ridiculers of the spiritual nonsense, some- witness called by his critics. Duily Advertiser. tiines by courtesy called philosophy, have given great weight to the fact that every age has its share of charlatans, mountebanks and D. D. Boston: for sale by Burnham & Brothers.

A History of England. By Jobn Lingard, deceivers. They have almost taken it for

Volume one of this standard work is just out. granted that those who plunged first into this The whole, reprinted from the last revised Lonstream that gushed out of Rochester were don copy, will be embraced in thirteen volumes. imposters. They might have been so, indeed. Dr. Lingard is noted as the Catholic historian of But, of these later converts, no sane man can | England. He was always a conscientious menentertain such a thought. There is no im- ber of the Romish church, although he never bad posture possible in them. They are men of any concern with its dignities or government. integrity. We know them to be honest. To some portions of English history, of course, They believe what they say. They think he gives a different coloring from that of the they see the visions they tell us of. They other celebrated historians. His work, therefore, think they hear the voices that resound only is valuable as presenting one side of certain to their own ears. Alas! the more 's the mooted questions, while it is generally held to he pity! When men come to start at sounds eminently reliable wherever religious prejudices

had no chance to intervene. The present edition never uttered to smile rapturously at sights not vouchsafed to others' eyes — pity is the but the general appearance is quite neat.

a cheap one — the paper and type are poor,

Post. only emotion we experience. In their superior knowledge, we cannot envythem. Their more transcendent enjoyments we cannot coax ourselves to covet.

LITTLE AND BAD. — Lord Campbell has intimated that the civic parasites of Louis Napoleon have been guilty of high treason. Considering

the littleness of the whole affair, we think petty THE WASHINGTON AND REED LETTERS. - The treason would be the more appropriate name little literary drama, which has been in progress for it. — Punch.

From IIousehold Words. mitted to prison for disturbances in ill-conHOME FOR HOMELESS WOMEN.

ducted workhouses, poor girls from Ragged

Schools, destitute girls who have applied at Five years and a half ago certain ladies, police offices for relief, young women from grieved to think that numbers of their own the streets ; young women of the same class sex were wandering about the streets in deg- taken from the prisons after undergoing punradation, passing through and through the ishment there as disorderly characters, or for prisons all their lives, or hopelessly perishing shoplifting, or for thefts from the person ; doin other ways, resolved to try the experiment mestic servants who have been seduced, and on a limited scale of a Home for the reclama- two young wonen held to bail for attempting tion and emigration of women. As it was clear suicide. No class has been favored more than to them that there could be little or no hope another; and misfortune and distress are a in this country for the greater part of those sufficient introduction. It is not usual to rewho might become the objects of their charity, ceive women of more than five or six-andthey determined to receive into their Home, twenty; the average age in the fifty-six cases only those who distinctly accepted this con- would probably be about twenty.' In some dition : That they came there to be ultimately instances there have been great personal atsent abroad (whither, was at the discretion tractions; in others, the girls have been very of the ladies); and that they also came there, homely and plain. The reception has been to remain for such length of time as might, wholly irrespective of such sources of interest. according to the circumstances of each indi- Nearly all have been extremely ignorant. vidual case, be considered necessary as a term Of these fifty-six cases, seven went away of probation, and for instruction in the means by their own desire during their probation; of obtaining an honest livelihood. The ob- ten were sent away for misconduct in the ject of the Home was two-fold. First, to re- Home ; seven ran away; three emigrated and place young women who had already lost relapsed on the passage out; thirty (of whom their characters and lapsed into guilt, in a seven are now inarried) on their arrival in situation of hope. Secondly, to save other Australia or elsewhere, entered into good seryoung women who were in danger of falling vice, acquired a good character, and have done into the like condition, and give them an op- so well ever since as to establish a strong preportunity of flying from crime when they and possession in favor of others sent out from the it stood face to face.

same quarter. It will be seen from these The projectors of this establishment, in un- figures that the failures are generally disdertaking it, were sustained by nothing but the covered in the Home itself, and that the high object of making some unhappy women amount of misconduct after the training and a blessing to themselves and others instead of emigration, is remarkably small. And it is a curse, and raising up among the solitudes to be taken into consideration that many of a new world some virtuous homes, much cases are admitted into the Home, of which needed there, from the sorrow and ruin of the there is, in the outset, very little hope, but old. They had no romantic visions or extrava- which it is not deemed right to exclude from gant expectations. They were prepared for the experiment. many failures and disappointments, and to The Home is managed by two Superintendconsider their enterprise rewarded, if they in ents. The second in order acts under the time succeeded with one third or one half the first, who has from day to day the supreme cases they received.

direction of the family. On the cheerfulness, As the experience of this small Institution, quickness, good-temper, firmness and vigilance even under the many disadvantages of a of these ladies, and on their never bickering, beginning may be useful and interesting, the successful working of the establishment this paper will contain an exact account of in a great degree depends. Their position is its progress and results.

one of high trust and responsibility, and reIt was (and is) established in a detached quires not only an always accumulating exhouse with a garden. The house was never perience, but an accurate observation of every designed for any such purpose, and is only character about them. The ladies who estabadapted to it, in being retired and not im- lished the Home, hold little confidential commediately overlooked. It is capable of con- munication with the inmates, thinking the taining thirteen inmates besides two Super- system better adıninistered when it is undisintendents. Excluding from consideration ten turbed by individuals. A committee, comyoung women now in the house, there have posed of a few gentlemen of experience, meets been received in all, since November eighteen once a month to audit the accounts, receive hundred and forty-seven, fifty-six inmates. the principal Superintendent's reports, invesThey have belonged to no particular class, tigate any unusual occurrence, and see all the bút have been starving needlewomen of good inmates separately. None but the committee character, poor needlewomen who have robbed are present as they enter one by one, in order their furnished lodgings, violent girls com- that they may be under no restraint in any. CCCCLXXII,

VOL. I. 40


thing they wish to say. A complaint from evening, they sit all together at needlework, any of them is exceedingly uncommon. The and some one reads aloud. The books are history of every inmate, taken down from her carefully chosen, but are always interesting. own mouth — usually after she has been some Saturday is devoted to an extraordinary little time in the Home – is preserved in a cleaning up and polishing of the whole estabbook. She is shown that what she relates of lishment, and to the distribution of clean herself she relates in confidence, and does not clothes ; every inmate arranging and preeven communicate to the Superintendents. paring her own. Each girl also takes a bath She is particularly admonished by no means on Saturday. to communicate her history to any of the On Sundays they go to church in the neighother inmates; all of whom have in their borhood, some to morning service, some to turns received a similar admonition. And afternoon service, some to both. They are she is encouraged to tell the truth, by having invariably accompanied by one of the Superit explained to her that nothing in her story intendents. Wearing no uniform and not but falsehood can possibly affect her position being dressed alike, they attract little notice in the Home after she has been once admitted. out of doors. Their attire is that of respect

The work of the Home is thus divided. able plain servants. On Sunday evenings They rise, both in summer and winter, at they receive religious instruction from the six o'clock. Morning prayers and Scripture principal Superintendent. They also receive reading take place at a quarter before eight. regular religious instruction from a clergyman Breakfast is had immediately afterwards. on one day in every week, and on two days in Dinner at one. Tea at six. Evening prayers every alternate week. They are constantly are said at half-past eight. The hour of employed, and always overlooked. going to bed is nine. Supposing the Home They are allowed to be visited under the to be full, ten are employed upon the house- following restrictions ; if by their parents, hold work; two in the bed-rooms ; two in once in a month ; if by other relatives or the general living roon; two in the Superin- friends, once in three months. The principal tendents' rooms; two in the kitchen (who Superintendent is present at all such intercook); two in the scullery ; three at needle- views, and hears the conversation. It is not work. Straw-plaiting has been occasionally often found that the girls and their friends taught besides. Op washing-days, five are have much to say to one another; any display omployed in the laundry, throo of whom are of feeling on these occasions is rare. It is taken from the needle-work, and two are told generally observed that the innates seem off froin the household-work. The nature rather relieved than otherwise when the inand order of each girl's work is changed every terviews are over. week, so that she inay become practically ac They can write to relatives, or old teachers, quainted with the whole routine of household or persons known to have been kind to them, duties. They take it in turns to bake the bread once a month oñ application to the committee. which is eaten in the house. In every room, It seldom happens that a girl who has any every Monday morning, there is hung up, person in the world to correspond with fails framed and glazed, the names of the girls who to take advantage of this opportunity. All are in charge there for the week, and who are, letters despatched from the Ilome are read and consequently, responsible for its neat condition posted by the principal Superintendent. All and the proper execution of the work belong- letters received are likewise read by the Suing to it. l'his is found to inspire them with perintendent; but she does not open them. a greater pride in good housewifery, and a Every such letter is opened by the girl to greater sense of shaine in the reverse. whom it is addressed, who reads it first, in

The book-education is of a very plain kind, the Superintendent's presence. It never hap as they have generally much to learn in the pens that they wish to reserve the contents: commonest domestic duties, and are often they are always anxious to impart them to her singularly inexpert in acquiring them. They immediately. This seems to be one of their read and write, and cipher. School is held chief pleasures in receiving letters. every morning at hall-past ten (Saturday They make and mend their own clothes, excepted) for two hours. The Superintend- but do not keep them. In many cases they ents are the teachers. The times for recrea- are not for some time to be trusted with such tion are half an hour between school time and a charge ; in other cases, when temper is dinner, and an hour after dinner; half an awakened, the possession of a shawl and bobhour before tea, and an hour after tea. In net would often lead to an abrupt departure, the winter, these intervals are usually em- which the unfortunate creature would erer ployed in light fancy work, the making of afterwards regret. To distinguish between little presents for their friends, &c. In the these cases and others of a more promising fine suinmer weather they are passed in the nature, would be to make insidious distine garden, where they take exercise, and have tions, than which nothing could be mora their little lower-beds. In the afternoon and prejudicial to the Ilome, as the objects of its

care are invariably sensitive and jealous. For girl are withheld until she emigrates, in order these various reasons their clothes are kept to form a little fund for her first subsistence under lock and key in a wardrobe room. on her disembarkation. The inmates are They have a great pride in the state of their found without an exception to value their clothes, and the neatness of their persons. marks highly. A bad mark is very infreThose who have no such pride on their admis- quent, and occasions great distress in the sion, are sure to acquire it.

recipient and great excitement in the comForinerly, when a girl accepted for admis- munity. In case of dismissal or prematura sion had clothes of her own to wear, she was departure from the Home, all the previous allowed to be admitted in them, and they gain in marks is forfeited. If a girl be ill were put by for her; though within the In- through no fault of her own, she is marked, stitution she always wore the clothing it pro- during her illness, according to her average rides. It was found, however, that a girl anarking. But if she is ill through her own with a hankering after old companions rather act (as in a recent case, where a girl set relied on these reserved clothes, and that she herself on fire, through carelessness and a put them on with an air, if she went away or violation of the rules of the house) she is were dismissed. They now invariably come, credited with no marks until she is again ia therefore, in clothes belonging to the Home, a condition to earn them. The usual earnings and bring no other clothing with them. A in a year are about equal to the average suit of the commonest apparel has been pro- wages of the commoner class of domestic vided for the next inmate who may leave servant. during her probation, or be sent away; and They are usually brought to the Home by it is thought that the sight of a girl departing the principal Superintendent in a coach. From so disgraced, will have a good effect on those wheresoever they come, they generally weep who remain. Cases of dismissal or departure on the road, and are silent and depressed. are becoming more rare, however, as the The average term of probation is about a Home increases in experience, and no occasion year; longer when the girl is very slow to for making the experiment has yet arisen. learn what she is taught. When the time of

When the Home had been opened for some her emigration arrives, the same lady accom. time, it was resolved to adopt a inodification panies her on board ship. They usually go of Captain Macconnochie's inurk system ; so out, three or four together, with a letter of arranging the mark-table as to render it diffi- recommendation to some influential person at cult for å girl to lose marks under any one of their destination ; sometimes they are placed its heads, without also losing under nearly all under the charge of a respectable family of the others. The mark-table is divided into emigrants ; sometimes they act as nurses or as the nine following heads. Truthfulness, In- servants to individual ladies with children, on dustry, Temper, Propriety of Conduct and board. In these capacities they have given Conversation, Temperance, Order, Punctual- great satisfaction. Their grief at parting ity, Economy, Cleanliness. The word Tem- from the Superintendent is always strong, perance is not used in the modern slang ac- and frequently of a heart-rending kind. They ceptation, but in its enlarged meaning as are also exceedingly affected by their sepadefined by Johnson, from the English of ration from the Home ; usually going round Spenser : Moderation, patience, calmness, se- and round the garden first, as if they clung to dateness, moderation of pussion.” A sepa- every tree and shrub in it. Nevertheless, rate account for every day is kept with cvery indičidual attachments among them are rare, girl as to each of these items. If her con- though strong affections have arison when duct be without objection, she is marked in they have afterwards encountered in distant each column, three excepting the truthful solitudes. Some touching circumstances have ness and temperance columns in which, saving occurred, where unexpected recognitions of under extraordinary circumstances, she is only this kind have taken place on Sundays in marked two: the temptation to err in those lonely churches to which the various members particulars, being considered low under the of the little congregations have repaired from circumstances of the life she leads in the great distances. Some of the girls now mar. Home. If she be particularly deserving under ried have chosen old companions thus encounany of the other heads, she is marked the tered for their bridesmaids, and in their highest number - four. If her deserts be letters have described their delight very palow, she is marked only one, or not parked at thetically, all.' If her conduct under any head have A considerable part of the needle-work been, daring the day, particularly objection- done in the Home is necessary to its own. able, she receives a bad mark (marked in red internal neatness, and the preparation of out ink, to distinguish it at a glance from the 6ts for the emigrants ; especially as many of others) which destroys forty good marks. The the inmates know little or nothing of sualt value of the good marks is six shillings and work, and have it all to learn. But, as thøy sixpence por thousand; the carnings of each | become more dexterous, plain work is talour

ip, and the proceeds are applied as a fund to that they can get the better of the managedefray the cost of outfits. The outfits are ment. Judicious commendation, when it is always of the simplest kind. Nothing is deserved, has a very salutary influence. It is allowed to be wasted or thrown away in the also found that a serious and urgent entreaty Home. From the bones, and remnants of to a girl, to exercise her self-restraint on sonie food, the girls are taught to make soup for point (generally temper) on which her markthe poor and sick. This at once extends their table shows her to be deficient, often has an domestic knowledge, and preserves their sym- excellent effect when it is accompanied with pathy for the distressed.

such encouragement as, “You know how Some of the experiences, not already men- changed you are since you have been here ; tioned, that have been acquired in the man- you know we have began to entertain great agement of the Home are curious, and hopes of you. For God's sake consider ! Do perhaps deserving of consideration in prisons not throw away this great chance of your and other institutions. It has been observed, life, by making yourself and everybody in taking the bistories -- especially of the around you unhappy – which will oblige us more artful cases — that nothing is so likely send you away — but conquer this. Now, to elicit the truth as a perfectly imperturb- try hard for a month, and pray let us hare no able face, and an avoidance of any leading fault to find with you at the end of that question or expression of opinion. Give the time.” Many will make great and successful narrator the least idea what tone will make efforts to control themselves, after such reher an object of interest, and she will take it monstrance. In all cases, the fewest and directly. Give her none, and she will be plainest words are the best. When new to driven on the truth, and in most cases will the place, they are found to break and spoil tell it. For similar reasons it is found desir- through great carelessness. Patience, and the able always to repress stock religious profes- strictest attention to order and punctuality, sions and religious phrases ; to discourage will in most cases overcome these discourageshows of sentiment, and to make their lives ments. Nothing else will. They are often practical and active. “Don't talk about it rather disposed to quarrel among themselves,

- do it!" is the motto of the place. The particularly in bad weather when their lives inmates find everywhere about them the same are necessarily monotonous and confined ; kind discriminating firmness, and the same but, on the whole, allowing for their different determination to have no favorite subjects, breeding, they perhaps quarrel less than the or favorite objects, of interest. Girls from arerage of passengers in the state cabin on a Ragged Schools are not generally so in- voyage out to India. pressible as reduced girls who have failed to As some of the inmates of the Home hare support themselves by hard work, or as women to be saved and guarded from themselves from the streets — probably, because they more than from any other people, they can have suffered less. The poorest of the Ragged scarcely be defended by too many precautions. School condition, who are odious to approach These precautions are not obtruded upon them, when first picked up, invariably affect after- but are strictly observed. Keys are never wards that their friends are " well off.” This left about. The garden gate is always kept psychological curiosity is considered inexpli- locked ; but the girls take it in turn to act cable. Most of the inmates are depressed at as porteress, overlooked by the second superfirst. At holiday times the more doubtful intendent. They are proud of this trust. part of the usually become restless and Any inmate missing from her usual place for uncertain ; there would also appear to be, ten minutes would be looked after. Any sususually, a time of considerable restlessness picious circumstance would be quickly and after six or eight months. In any little diffi- quietly investigated. As no girl makes her culty, the general feeling is invariably with own bed, no girl has the opportunity of safely the establishment and never with the offender. hiding any secret correspondence, or anything When a girl is discharged for misconduct, else, in it. Each inmate has a separate bed, she is generally in deep distress, and goes but there are several beds in a roon. The away miserable.

The rest will sometimes occupants of each room are always arranged intercede for her with tears ; but it is found with a reference to their several characters that firmness on this and every point, when a and counteracting influences. A girl declardecision is once taken, is the most humane ing that she wishes to leave, is not allowed to course, as having a wholesome influence un do 80 hastily, but is locked in a chamber by the greatest number For this reason, a herself, to consider of it until next day mere threat of discharge is never on any when, if she still persist, she is formally disaccount resorted to. Two points of manage charged. It has never once happened that a ment are extremely important; the first, to girl, however excited, has refused to submit refer very eparingly to the past; the second, to this restraint. never to treat the inmates as children. They One of the most remarkable effects of the must never be allowed to suppose it possible Home, even in many of the cases where it does

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