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From Chambers' Journal.
WRITTEN FOR THE ZOOLOGICAL
rejeet such evidence. It is a kind of testiON A REMARKABLE CHANGE IN THE mony we cannot dispense with in many cases ; CHARACTER OF THE FEMALE OF THE fully examined and collated, and accepted
and my impression decidedly is, that, if careHUMAN SPECIES.
only when it is found perfectly self-consistent, and in harmony with the usual tone of men who aim at speaking the truth, we may make
a certain limited use of it, even for scientific Tue changes which from time to time take purposes. place in the external forms and characters of So much being premised, I proceed to reanimals are an interesting department of the mark on the great improvement which apscience of the philosophical naturalist, for pears, from this evidence, to have taken place they serve to illustrate the principle of a certain in the general affections of the human female definite subserviency of organized creatures since the middle of the eighteenth century. to the conditions in which they live. It is The creature, whom we all know to be now but following out this principle a little further, yielding, gentle, and kind, to a remarkable and still keeping, as we think, within the degree, is described in the writings of those proper range of that science, to examine and irregular naturalists, as I may call them, as r port upon those moral changes which take one of exceedingly barbarous and unrelenting place in the highest of animated species character. From some of the poetical reserthrough the effect of the conditions of social ences in question, a literal interpreter might life. It is fully admitted that the variability imagine that there were even some organic of humanity -- if we may use such an expres- differences of a notable kind between the sion is very great; and of this truth no one women of those days and the present. Wo can doubt, who considers the difference be- hear, for instance, of eyes which had a killtween the cruel and treacherous savage and ing power like those attributed by mediæval the highly-educated man of civilization. We zoologists to the basilisk ; likewise of bosoms do not need, however, to take these extreme of a marble-like coldness, as if the female of ends of the history and condition of a people. our species had not then been developed, in Even in a single century, or, say, three gen- the circulating organization at least, beyond erations, such improvements take place in na. the reptilian stage. I must consider these tional characters, as it would perhaps be diffi- allusions, however, as most probably only cult to believe, if we had not the best evidence metaphorical ; for we can scarcely iinagine of the fact.
that even such early naturalists as Aristotle I wish to call attention, on the present even- and Pliny would have fuiled to record such ing, to a remarkable change which has taken singular peculiarities, if they had had a posiplace, within about a hundred years, or a tive existence. I come at once to the moral little more, in the character of the female of characteristics of which they may be accepted our own species. I must first, however, apol- as part of the evidence. ogize for the nature of the evidence which I It fully appears, then, that the human fehave to bring forward. It unfortunately male, down to the time we are speaking of, happens that the human female at all was a very cruel creature. While addressed times an almost hopeless mystery to the nat- by individuals of the opposite sex with a deuralist, indeed to men of science generally gree of deference and adulation now totally was very little studied by zoologists in the days unknown, she beheld them all with an unbendof Seba and Buffun. I am not aware of a ing sererity and disdain equally unexampled single observation on the subject in that age, in our days. The memorials are so abundant, which can be said to have been set down with that the difficulty is to make a selection. scientific accuracy. This is very unfortunate, Turning up, however, a single volume of Ritbut it cannot be remedied. It happens, how- son's collection of English Songs, we find such ever, that another set of observers – namely, passages as the following: the poets — paid a good deal of attention to
But oh ! her colder heart denies the ladies, and have left an immense number
The thoughts her looks inspire ; of references to them scattered throughout
And while in ice that frozen lies, their writings. Now, I am far from saying
Her eyes dart only fire. that the poets can be accepted as, in thein Between extremes I am undone, selves, singly, good witnesses, because it is
Like plants too northward set ; well known that they decline swearing to the
Burnt by too violent a sun, truth of what they advance. Yet, when we
Or starved for want of heat. consider that we could not attempt to write The whole book, indeed, seems to be a series the history of Greece, or trace its ancient of preachments on this one test. What Aaron manners, without making use of the writings Will says in one page of its poets, it will, I trust, appear as a thing
Chill, as mountain snow, her bosom, utterly preposterous, that we should altogether
Though I tender language use,
'Tis by cold indifference frozen, may, indeed, admit of some doubt, whether the
To my arms and to my muse — very large mortality of the former as compared Is echoed by Henry Carey on another — with the present times, was not owing rather
more to this cause than to inferior sanitary Must I, ye gods, forever love ? Must she forever cruel prove ?
conditions, the virulence of small-pox, and Must all my torments, all my grief,
other circumstances, to which it has been Meet no compassion, no relief? usually ascribed.
It will be acknowledged as something quite It appears that even towards a patient reduced beyond our province to speculate on the teleto the last stage of bodily distress and weak- ological aspects of the question, and attempt pess, no sort of pity was shown by this merci- to define the design which Providence had in less being
view in permitting so much evil to exist. When drooping on the bed of pain,
But it is our grateful privilege, as merely I looked on every hope as vain ;
observers of the facts of nature, to remark that, When pitying friends stood weeping by, with that mercy which shines through the And Death's pale shade seomod hovering nigh; universal plan, it had been so arranged that No terror could my flame remove, Or steal a thought from her I love.
the savage tendencies of the female breast
were limited to a particular period of life. The mischiefs wrought by some specimens in The power and the disposition to treat men their dealings with other mortals, were occa- cruelly appears seldom to have appeared besionally of the direst kind. One gentleman fore the age of seventeen; and the instances solemnly says of a particular nymph he had in which it lasted beyond twenty-five are rare. had the misfortune to rank among his ac- After that period of life, if marriage had not quaintance :
intervened, the female heart was usually
observed to relent; and I have not been able Who sees her must love her, who loves her must to discover a single well-authenticated case of die.
cruelty recorded against an unwedded woman Seeing a woman and suffering extinction of above thirty-five. Thus it appears to have life being thus syllogistically connected, we put on very much the aspect of a kind of calmay imagine the wretched consequences to enture; and we are left to believe that many a society. The most piteous appeals, such woman, who had acted as a perfect tigress in
early life, was converted in due time into one
of those winning old maids, or one of those - look to yon celestial sphere, Where souls with rapture glow,
benign widows, who are also the themes of so And dread to need that pity there,
many allusions in our by-gone literature. In Which you denied below
this respect, physiologically, the whole sub
ject assumes a very curious character. We seem to have been presented in vain. Myra, find the hot head still applicable to the young Lesbia, Clorinda, or by whatever other sobri- man, avarice to the old; all the great characquet these poor swains might designate the en- teristics assigned to particular epochs of malo chantresses who little deserved such delicacy life by our old writers, still remain as they at their hands, are invariably described as were. Ilow singular that the sanguinary keeping up their savage cruelty to the very character attributed to the female between last. Some of the victims describe their feel- eighteen and twenty-five, should alone have ings when approaching the only end which undergone a revolution ! griefs like theirs could have
That the revolution is a complete one, need Grim king of the ghosts, be true,
not, I presume, be largely insisted on, as the And hurry me hence away ;
Society must be well aware, from their own My languishing life to you
observation and experience, that coldness and A tribute I freely pay :
rigor towards the opposite sex no longer mark To th’ Elysian shades I post,
the demeanor of womankind at any period of In hopes to be freed from care, Where many a bleeding ghost
life. A poetical complaint against Myra or Is hovering in the air.
Clorinda is never heard ; and Mr. Farr can at
once make clear, beyond dispute, that deaths We have not, indeed, any means of knowing from either the lightnings of female eyes, or the amount of destruction produced by those the coldness of female bosoms, are not the subpitiless creatures, there having, unfortunately, ject of any return. At evening-parties, the been no register of mortality, giving, in a waltz and polka demonstrate the amicable reliable manner, the causes of death, till footing on which the two sexes live. Instead some time after the female character had of holding out that she is to be sighed for by begun to undergo a favorable change; but many, and will, at the utmost, take one, and from the prevalence in literature of the allu- kill of the rest, the young lady, with that sions to such tragic results, we cannot doubt submissiveness and courtesy which mark a that the evil was of very serious amount. It high civilization, and which was doubtless
designed to be the highest development of her borne all these evils and disappointments in nature, does not now object that the question deepest ignorance of the Chemistry of Silk, should rather be : Who is going to take her? and perhaps believing that “ Where ignorance Since Woman has thus been put into her is bliss, 't is fully to be wise.” He alone, of proper social attitude, we see how much all the workers, has neglected to seek the sweetness has been infused into those assem- friendly aid of the chemist. blies where the two sexes meet; barring, Possibly it is this indifference to science, indeed, certain competitions which occasion which has left the silk manufacturer so far ally take place amongst the ladies themselves behind every other son of industry. It is with regard to particular swains, and the lit- notorious that, whilst our cotton, linen, and tle jealousies which will thence arise - a woollen manufactories have been multiplied trivial incidental drawback from a great good. ten-fold during the last score of years, those
of silk goods have made scarcely any progress. From Ilousehold Words. The manufacturers are themselves perfectly SILKEN CHEMISTRY.
aware of this startling fact, and it was but a
few months since that a memorial was preMost persons are familiar with analyses of sented from them to the legislature, praying various minerals and vegetables, made with a that all remaining protection on their goods view of ascertaining and determining their rel- might be removed, as the only hope of giving ative degrees of purity: But a method by a new vitality to their slumbering trade.
, more of being assayed ; of being put through a fire keenly alive to the value of science in connecand water ordeal, Alung into a crucible, and tion with manufacture than ourselves. Whilst brought out free from all impurities, is a our silk manufacturers have gone on upon the novelty of a rather startling nature ; for who old, well-beaten track, those of France have ever dreamt that silk is adulterated ? enlisted in their behalf the services of the
Silk is, from its nature, more susceptible chemist, who has brought their raw material of absorbing moisture than any other fibrous as completely under his analytical control as article. In fact, it approaches in this respect subtle gas or ponderous ore. He has demonto the quality of sponge : well-dried silk, strated to a nicety that its relative purity, its when placed in a damp situation, will very strength, its elásticity, its durability, its rapidly absorb five or six per cent. of moist- structure, the very size and weight of each ure ; and, being very dear and being always separate fibre, may be shown and registered sold by weight, this property gives large op- with precision and certainty. He tells the portunity for fraud ; yet it is not the only manufacturer the actual amount of latent channel for mal-practices. Silk, as spun by moisture contained in a pound of silk; be the silk-worm, contains amongst its fibres, in shows him how much natural gum, resin, and very minute portions, a quantity of resin, sugar, every bale comprises ; he points out sugar, salt, &c., to the extent generally of how much lighter his thread should be after twenty-four per cent. of the entire weight. the processes of spinning and dyeing; and,
This peculiarity leads to the fraudulent ad- more valuable still, he indicates the most mixture of further quantities of gụm, sugar, profitable use to which every bale of raw silk and even of fatty substances, to give weight is applicable: that whilst one parcel is best to the article ; consequently, when a dealer or adapted for the manufacture of satin, another manufacturer sends a quantity of raw silk to may be better employed for plain silk, another a throwster, to be spun into silk thread, it is for velvet, and so on to the end. no unusual thing to find it heavily charged In France, Italy, and other parts of contiwith adulterate matters. When he sends that nental Europe, the assaying, or, as it is there silk to be dyed he will find out the loss, pro- technically termed, the ** conditioning of vided the dyer does not follow up the system silk,” is carried on under the sanction of the by further adulteration.
municipal authorities, in establishments called The presence of foreign substances in the Conditioning Houses. The quantity thus silk is fatal to proper dyeing ; hence the assayed is published weekly for the informadyer proceeds to get rid of them by means of tion of the trade with as much regularity as boiling the silk in sonp and water. As silk a Price Current. In this way we may find thread becomes charged with foreign matters it publicly notified that, in the Conditioning to various degrees, given weights of several House at Lyons there were during last year samples will contain very different lengths. five millions, thirty-seven thousand, six hunIn this way manufacturers are often deceived dred and twenty-eight pounds of silk assayed; in the produce of various parcels of thrown at Milan, three millions, four hundred and silks after coming from the loom.
sixty-six thousand, six hundred and ninetyIn our own country, great as have been the one pounds, and other large quantities at St. strides made by most branches of manufac- Etienne, Turin, Zurich, Elberfeld, and other ture, the silk-spinner or weaver has quietly I places.
Of so much importance has this process the lighter will these four hundred yards be. been deemed in France that, in 1841, a royal But as this gossamer fibre is liable to break, ordonnance was passed, setting forth the ascer- a beautiful contrivance exists for instantly tained weight which silk loses by the con- arresting the reel on which it is being wound ditioning process, and which is eleven per off, in order that it may be joined and the cent. This eleven per cent., added to the reeling continued. Another means exists for weight of the silk after the ordeal it has gone stopping the reel immediately the four hunthrough, makes up what is terined its iner-dred yards are obtained. chantable weight.
The degree of elasticity is shown by a delThe French have brought to our doors the icate apparatus which stretches one thread means of accomplishing what they have prac- of the silk until it breaks, a tell-tale dial and tised, during the last twenty years, with so hand marking the point of fracture. Equally much advantage. These means are no fur- ingenious and precise is the apparatus for ther removed from us than Broad Street testing what is termed the "spin" of the Buildings, in the city, in premises lately oc- silk ; its capability of being twisted round cupied by one of the many colonial bubble with great velocity without in any way being companies which have so multiplied during damaged in tenacity or strength." the past half century. Science has estab The last process is also purely mechanical. lished herself where humbug so recently sat A hank of the silk, on its removal from the enthroned.
boiling-off cistern, is placed upon a hook ; We have paid a visit to these premises. and, by means of a smooth round stick passed The first operation we beheld was that of de- through it, a rapid jerking motion is given to termining the humidity of silk. Eleven per it, which, after some little time, throws up a cent. is the natural quantity in all silk, but certain degree of glossy brightness. This from various causes this is nearly always power of testing its lustre is employed to much exceeded. Several samples of the arti- ascertain its suitability for particular purcles having been taken from a bale, they are poses. Should it come up very brilliantly, weighed in scales, capable of being turned the article will be pronounced adapted for a by half a grain. Two of these samples are fine satin ; with less lustre upon it, it may then placed in other scales, equally delicate be set aside for gros de Naples, or velvet, and and true ; one end of which, containing the in this way the manufacturer can determine sample, being immersed in a copper cylinder beforehand to what purpose he shall apply his heated by steam to two hundred and thirty silk, and so avoid frequent disappointment degrees of Fahrenheit, the other, with the and loss. In short, instead of working in the weights, being enclosed within a glass case. dark and by chance, he works by chemical The effect of this hot-air bath is rapidly seen; rules of undeviating correctness. the silk soon throws off its moisture, becomes After each of the above assays, or condilighter, and the scale with the weights begins tionings, the owner of the silk is supplied to sink. In this condition it is kept until no for a small fee with an authenticated certififurther loss of weight is perceived ; - the cate of its various qualities. weight which the silk is found to have lost heing the exact degree of its humidity. The natural eleven per cent. of humidity being allowed for, any loss beyond that shows the A Treatise on the Law and Practice relating degree of artificial moisture which the silk to Letters Patent for Inventions. By John Pax. contains.
ton Norman, Esq., M. A., of the Inner Temple, To determine the amount of foreign matters
Barrister-at-law. contained in a sample of silk, the parcels — The changes effected by the late act on the imafter a most mathematical weighing , -- are portant subject of patents render a fresh account boiled in soap and water, for several hours. of the law desirable ; and Mr. Norman's treatise They are then conveyed to the hot-air cham- is a book that may be safely recommended. Clear bers, subjected to two hundred and thirty and well-arranged, comprehensive in its leading degrees of heat, and finally weighed. It will principles, yet terse in their expression, it is perbe found now that silk of the greatest purity vaded by a spirit of good sense, without which has lost not only its eleven per cent. of moist-science of any kind becomes a dry husk, and law ure, but a further twenty-four per cent. in especially a mere bundle of arbitrary dicta. It the various foreign matters boiled out of it. will be understood that this is really a treatise But should the article have been in any way digested, from the statutes and decisions, ex
on the law of patents, in which principles are tampered with, the loss is not unusually as pressed in a terse and scholarly manner, and not much as thirty or thirty-two per cent.
a mere commentary on a leading act of ParliaThe assaying the lengths of silk is done by ment ; though perhaps the volume would have ruling off four hundred yards of the fibre, and been improved by the addition of the last statute. weighing that quantity; the finer the silk, · Spectator.
From Eliza Cook's Journal. “God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb,"; THE SCULPTOR'S CAREER. it is said, and truly. You had but to watch
the sparkle of that boy's bright eye, and the 1. — BEGINNINGS.
blush that mantled his cheek, when some We are about to relate in the following object of beauty, embodying a fine action or a pages the true story of an artist — one of the noble idea, was placed before him ; or when very greatest that England has yet produced. he took up the book which lay by his side
The first scene lies in a shop, in New Street, and thereupon endeavored to design with his Covent Garden -- a very small shop, full of chalk the actions therein narrated; or when plaster casts, by selling which the worthy some chance visitor, interested in the poetio but humble proprietor managed to maintain little invalid, talked to him of great poets, himself, his wife, and his two boys. Arranged sculptors, and heroes - you had but to ob on the shelves around the shop and in the serve the rapt interest and enthusiasm of the window were casts from the antique, which boy on such occasions to be persuaded that, appealed to the classical tastes — casts of the suffering and feeble though he was in body, Niobe, of the far-famed Venus de Medicis — his mind was quick to feel beauty in all its
aspects, and that he revelled in intellectual The bending statue that enchants the world
delights of the rarest sort. Moreover, the of Hercules, Ajax, Achilles, and many more ; boy was always cheerful, though grave in his but these were for the few, and art in Eng- manner; he was patient and uncomplaining, land was then but in its infancy. For the though he ofttimes regretted that he could less refined and more ordinary tastes there not go out to feel and enjoy the sun and the were casts of George II., then king; of Lord sight of the green trees in the parks like other Howe, and Admiral Hawke, then in the boys. heights of their fame - the naval darlings of The soul of our cripple invalid was the soul England ; of the brave General Wolfe, who of a true genius, and behind that shop-counter had gloriously fallen during that year (we it obtained its first impulse towards art. are now speaking of the year 1759) on the These casts from the antique and stucco medalheights of Quebec, and with the praises of lions which surrounded the boy, and preached whose gallantry all England was then ring- beauty to him from the mean shelves — coming; and there were also to be observed a few paratively worthless though to many they busts of the prominent-featured William Pitt, might appear — were the source of many then a young man, but already a recognized beautifal and noble inspirations, which gerorator in the English Commons. Such were minated in noble works in the boy's after life. the mute humanities of the shop shelves; and It has been said that the soul of every man from them we turn to the living inmates. of genius is a mirror which he carries about
The master of the place might be observed, with him wherever he goes; and it is only by through a glass door which separated the tracing the artist from his infancy that we little back room from the front shop, busily discover the circumstances to which he owes engaged in moulding a figure of one of the in maturer years his genius and his success. new popular men of the day - Admiral A customer entered the little shop one day. Boscawen, who had recently sprung into fame He was an elderly man, mild, benevolent, by reason of a victory he had gained over the and gentle-looking -- seeming by his dress to French fleet off Cape Lagos. In the front be a clergyman. No sooner had the bell hung shop, waiting for customers, we find a woman, at the back of the front shop-door, which was and a boy -- indeed, we might almost say a closed to keep out the cold from the little inmere child. The woman is hanging anxiously valid — no sooner had it sounded and intiover some lines the child is busily engaged mated the approach of a customer, than the in drawing with black chalk upon the paper master of the shop emerged from the back before him. He has books on either side of apartment, and approached, cap in hand, to him, which he takes up and reads from time wait upon the gentleman. to time, when fatigued by stooping over his “ Good day, John," said the visitor ; *! drawing. The little fellow is propped up in have brought with me a small figure for you a high chair, so that he can overlook the to mend. My servant, in dusting this Helene,' counter, on which bis drawing and reading has had the misfortune to chip off an arm, materials are laid. The chair is stuffed round you see." with cushions, so that the poor little fellow may “And a beautiful thing it is, Mr. Mathews," bit soft upon his day-long seat. Poor, pale, said the man; “ beautiful indeed - a rery placid little boy; deharred by disease and de- gem. Yes, I will mend it while you stay: bility from taking any share in the amuse- Plaster of Paris hardens in no time ; and ments of his age, and doomed to sit there you may take it with you, unless you would from day to day under his patient and watch- prefer that I send it by a messenger." ful mother's eye, who springs to do his every "No, I will wait," said Mr. Mathews; little bidding
and thereupon the image-maker retired into