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In Wales, on the contrary, several parishes the Church. But this is only one of many thought it the cheapest method to let the examples where the piety of the children is structure tumble down* altogether; and the paying the debts of their fathers, in the matnegligence of ecclesiastical authorities actually ter of church-building. By the most strenuconnived at this breach of law. But such ous efforts, the Church is striving to keep slovenly profaneness was not confined to se- pace with the increase of population in the questered villages; it extended even to Epis- manufacturing districts. During the last copal residences and Cathedral foundations. three years ten additional churches, and nearThe palaces at Llandaff and St. David's were ly twice that number of clergy, have been proabandoned to the moles and bats. The pre- vided, to meet, in soine degree, the most bendaries of Brecon suffered their Collegiate pressing wants of that vast tide of population Minster to fall into decay. But the ruin of which has deluged the counties of Monmouth Llandaff Cathedral was the worst example, and Glamorgan; and this work has been acand most characteristically illustrates the age complished mainly by the labors of the present in which it occurred. The bishop had long bishop. Similar efforts have been made to ceased to reside ; the prebendaries had fol- supply the needs of the Flintshire coal-fields, lowed his example; the daily service had been and the Carnarvon stone-quarries. And even discontinued ; the very organ had been broken in the rural districts, many parish churches up, and Willis the antiquary (who visited the have shaken off the slovenly squalidity which Cathedral before its fall) tells us that he so long disgraced them, and are restored to found the pipes scattered about the organ- decency, if not to beauty. loft. The building itself was suffered to re But the true edifice of the Church is built, main utterly without repair, although the not of stones, but of men; and therefore we Chapter had repeated warnings of its dan- hail with greater pleasure than any of thes, gerous condition. At last, it was literally external reforms, the proofs furnished by the blown down by a great storm in 1722. The last few years, that the Welsh clergy, as a nave and towers were left in ruins; the choir body, are beginning to take a zealous and underwent a more degrading fate, for it was effectual interest in the education of the peopatched up in the worst style of a Baptist ple. Of this, the Minutes of the Committee ineeting-house ; the noble arches being filled of Council furnish the most decisive evidence. up with brickwork, bull's-eye windows being Not only do we find a most excellent training added for ornament, and a white-washed ceil- college for the Principality, established under ing to make all snug. Such was the fate of the eye of the bishop of Št

. David's, but dioa cathedral which had been the seat of a cesan boards of education have sprung up in Christian bishopric while the Saxons were yet every diocese, organizing masters have been idolators, and when Canterbury was still a engaged in visiting and remodelling the pagan city. In this disgraceful condition the Church schools throughout the country, and fabric remained for 140 years, typifying, by Her Majesty's Inspectors report more and its appearance, the state of the Church to more favorably of these schools every year. which it belonged ; a Church whereof two But the most infallible test of their improvethirds exhibited the spectacle of an ancient ment is the rapid increase of Pupil-teachers and venerable institution fallen into useless- paid by government; because they are only ness and decay; and the only portion which assigned to schools in a state of thorough eftistill served any religious purpose, was trans- ciency, and are themselves subjected to a formed into the semblance of the conventicle. severe annual examination before they can Let us hope that as its ruin was thus emblemat- receive their salary. In the schools under ical of the past, so its restoration may be sig. the superintendence of the Welsh clergy, the nificant of the future. At allerents, its present number of these pupil-teachers in the year condition shows that the sordid economy of a 1849 was 90, in the year 1850 was 125, and former age has been superseded by a very in 1851 was 182.* The Minutes of Council different spirit. Thanks to the conscientious for 1852 are not yet published; but we bezeal of the late and present deans, it is fast lieve they will show a still greater increase. rising from its ruins, in all its original beauty. The Gothic arches have emerged from their

* See Minutes of Council for 1849-50, 1850-51, plaster covering ; the conventicular abomina- and 1851–52. In one of the Inspectors' reports we tion has utterly disappeared ; and the grace three great centres of the manufacturing districts.

find the following gratifying statement concerning ful clerestory and lofty roof once more raise “The incumbents of Merthyr, Dowlais, and Aberthe heart heavenwards.

dare, three gentlemen of rare courage and zeal Thus a flagrant instance of ecclesiastical .. have opened evening schools for adults . breach of trust has been atoned for, and a in which a large corps of volunteors, chosen from foul blot wiped out from the escutcheon of among the tradesmon, &c., perform the gratuitous

functions of teachers, by monthly and weekly

rotation ... The clergy are always present in * Instances are given at Rep. ii., p. 163, and these evening schools. (Minutes for 1819-50, other parts of the Reports.

p. 212.) CCCCLXXI, LIVING AGE.

34

VOL. I.

In England, the improvement of the moun- of Llandaff. This prelate held his see for tain clergy has, perhaps, been less marked thirty-four years. During all that time he than in Wales; but still it has been consider- never resided in his diocese, and seldom came able. It was itself a great step in advance, near it. During the last twenty years we when the Grammar schools were superseded believe he never visited it. Including his by St. Bees' College ; although it is to be re- bishopric, he held nine places of perferment, gretted that the poverty of that establishment and actually contrived to reside on none of does not allow of the erection of proper col- them. He settled in Westmoreland as a legiate buildings ; so that the students, in- country gentleman, and there employed himstead of being under the moral control and self (we use his own words) "principally in superintendence which they would enjoy if building farm-houses, blasting rocks, inclosing they resided under the same roof with their wastes, and planting larches."* During all teachers, are left to their own guidance in these years, he compelled the starving curates private lodgings. This may, perhaps, ac- of his diocese to travel from South Wales to count for the fact, that the clergy supplied by Westmoreland for ordination; a journey St. Bees are less satisfactory than those trained which, in those days, must have cost them a at the new University of Durham, the founda- year's salary. And yet, at the close of a tion of which has been the greatest boon con- long life, he looks back upon his career with ferred upon these poor mountaineers. The the most undoubting self-complacency, and number of such Durham graduates is increas- evidently considers himself a model of Epising among the clergy, though not so rapidly copal merit. And what is still more singular, as could be wished; but no doubt the leaven he was so considered by others, and was of their example will in time spread through- generally regarded as an ornament of the out the mass. Already drunkenness (once so bench. So low was the standard of opinion, common) is considered discreditable ; and fifty years ago. By such men irrevocable though not extinct, is very much less preva- harm was done, yet they escaped with no lent than it was. The iin moral clergy (for- censure. And now the sins of the fathers are merly a considerable class in these districts) most unjustly visited, not on their children, have disappeared. And an increasing interest but on their successors. This has been is manifested in the education of the people, especially the case in Wales, where a small and in other good works.

but active knot of agitators tries to gain a The reforms which we have described have miserable popularity by rousing the dormant been mainly effected, both in England and jealousy of race, and stirring up the passions Wales, during the last quarter of a century. of Celt against Saxon. This party makes The bishops (with scarcely an exception) have the appointment of “Saxon bishops". taken a leading part in these improvements, special grievance, and the abuse of existing which they have frequently themselves origi- Welsh bishops a profitable part of their nated, and always encouraged by their co-political capital. The Bishop of St. David's operation. We are ansious to make this ac- has been made the chief mark for their knowledgment distinctly, because we have shafts ; † and we honor him for the manly spoken strongly of the mischief done by the frankness with which he has turned round bishops of a former generation; and we on his assailants, and exposed the motives desire not to be misunderstood as if we con- by which they are actuated. We fully agree founded the present with the past. It would with him, that it is important that the English he difficult, indeed, to condemn too harshly public and English statesmen should be the corrupt negligence and interested laxity made aware of the meaning of that clamor of those prelates who misgoverned the Church for Welsh bishops which sounds at first so during the last century. The Welsh bishops plausible. If these agitators contended only found it even easier than their English that a Welsh bishop is the better for under brethren to turn their office into a sinecure. standing the Welsh tongue, we should quite They could despise the censures of a remote and barbarous province, while they spent * We cannot quote this autobiography without their time agreeably in the social pleasures recommending it to our readers as one of the most of Bath, or the political intrigues of London. amusing books ever published. The picture of Thus sometimes they passed many years Cambridge as it was in the middle of the last cenwithout once visiting the flock to which they of continuation to the period of Bentley and Midhad sworn to devote their lives. We have dleton. seen how they disposed of their patronage, + The character of these attacks may be inand how faithfully their neglect of duty was agined from the popular superstitions to whied copied by their inferiors. But we may form they have given rise. Thus it is said to be beu better notion of what they were, from the licved in Cardiganshire that the bishop is ereryautobiography of the man who was one of trained ta knw and bite a curate. We have no doubt

where accompanied by a favorite dog, which is the last, and was generally considered the that this belief has saved his lordship from many best of them, the celebrated Bishop Watson ! troublesome applications.

agree with them. But they are not satisfied a higher education for the mountain clergy, with this. The two bishops of South Wales the course of improvement already begun already preach in Welsh. The very prelate should be farther carried out. Proper buildwhom they chiefly assail, acquired the lan- ings should be provided for the College of St. guage so perfectly as to use it in public Bees', that its students might be brought within a year of his appointment. And any under moral and social, as well as intellectual, intelligent Englishman might do the same, discipline. The college itself might be inunless he were made a bishop so late in life corporated into the University of Durham, on as to have lost the faculty of learning a new the same principle as so many colleges are language, which would make his appointment affiliated to the University of London. Thus objectionable on other grounds. But the its students would gain the advantages of Dim Saesoneg party tell us that they will stricter examinations and academic degrees. have no bishops but those whose mother- In Wales, the College of Lampeter should tongue is Welsh. The clergy who fulfil this (as Sir T. Phillips advises) be transformed condition we have already described. At any into the University of St. David's. Its staff rate, the number of Welsh-speaking clergy of professors should be increased, and its colotherwise qualified for the episcopal office, is legiate buildings should be rendered adequate too narrow to afford a proper field for selec- to accommodate a sufficient number of future tion; and we leave our readers to judge clergy to supply the demand of the princiwhether the main body would supply desirable pality. Exhibitions and scholarships ought rulers for the Church.

also to be founded for the support of the We repeat, then, that the existing bishops poorer theological students; a good work, are not responsible for the evils which we which (as we have mentioned) has been huve mentioned. On the contrary, they have already begun at Lampeter. The funds done, and are doing, their best to reform necessary for these educational purposes can what is amiss. So far as the executive gov- scarcely be now expected from the State ; ernment of the Church can amend its defects, although it would have granted them willingly their amendment is secured. But in truth thirty years ago, had the rulers of the Church the changes needed are beyond the power, not been at that tiine alive to her wants. But it only of any individual bishop, but of all the would not, perhaps, be too much to hope that bishops collectively. The reforms required Parliament might advance to the Ecclesiastiare not administrative but legislative reforms. cal Commissioners what was requisite to renThe thing wanted is a better educated and der the existing institutions efficient; such more respected body of clergy; and this loan to be repaid by instalments out of the cannot be obtained (speaking generally) with income at the disposal of the commissioners, out an ampler provision for their education which is increasing annually. and maintenance. Here, then, are two desid Much aid might also be given to the educaerata ; less poverty and more instruction. tion of the poorer clergy, if Mr. Lingen's sugA third, is a stricter discipline, to repress gestions concerning endowed grammar schools scandalous offences. A fourth, more perfect Rep. i., p. 41) could be carried out. lle organization, to make the Church in reality proposes that the free nominations in those what it is in idea, the dispenser of the schools should be thrown open to competition, greatest possible good to the greatest possible and bestowed upon the more distinguished number. How are those four wants to be scholars of the primary schools ; by which supplied

means a supply of the fittest material would First, the income of every parochial clergy- be continually drawn upwards from below. man throughout the Welsh and English The same advantage will no doubt result from inountains should be raised to not less than the creation of the pupil-teacher system ; the 2001. per annum. This is not the place for greatest educational reform which has ever discussing the details of such a reform ; but been made in this country. • We believe that the revenues to be vested in As to the third desideratum, stricter discithe Ecclesiastical Commissioners will afford pline, it has been long generally acknowledged the means for effecting it. In these revenues that some legislative interference is required ; will ultimately be included the appropriate yet it has been found very difficult to frame tithes (i.e., those alienated to ecclesiastical any satisfactory measure on the subject. bodies), which amount in Wales to a quarter When a clergyman is notoriously guilty of of the whole tithe rent-charge. However the some flagrant offence, such as drunkenness or augmentation of small livings is effected, it immorality, the bishop is often inconsiderately ought to take place gradually; the benefices blamed for allowing him to escape with imbeing augmented as they successively fall punity by those who know not how small is vacant. Thus a superior class of men would the power of a bishop over an incumbent. In be induced to educate their sons for the min- such a case the bishop must prosecute the istry of the Church.

offender at his own expense in the ecclesiastiAs to the second desideratum, of securing I cal courts ; and, from some defect of evidence,

or some technical mistake, he may fail at last before her. She must live as a community, in obtaining a conviction, after baving spent and not only in the lives of isolated individuals

. several thousand pounds in vain. Yet we do At present she is like those lower orders of not blame the law, while the organization of animals which are divided into a number of the Church remains what it now is, for so separate centres of nervous action, with ne jealously limiting the exercise of episcopal pervading will to give unity to the whole. authority. So long as any power is irrespon- She must rise to that higher scale of animated sible and arbitrary, it ought to be nar- being in which the central volition is diffused rowly watched and fenced in with restrictions. by a spontaneous action through all the memNor would it suffice to surround the bishop bers; "the whole body being fitly joined with a council of presbyters, as some propose, together, and compacted by that which every although that would undoubtedly give greater joint supplieth, according to the effectual workweight to his decisions. For the laity will ing in the measure of every part.”. always entertain a just jealousy of power To accomplish this there would be no need wielded only by the clergy, even though it be of revolutionary changes. It would be no over a member of their own order. What difficult matter to give a recognized existence sort of justice would Mr. Gorham have received and ecclesiastical functions to the communihad he been tried by a jury of Exeter clergy- cants of every parish; to unite the clergy of men? A tribunal consisting exclusively of each rural deanery, with lay representatives professional men must necessarily be unfitted from their several parishes, into a ruri-defor trying a member of their own profession. canal presbytery; to entrust such presbyteries They know too much about him beforehand; with the election of a diocesan convention ; and they are unconsciously swayed by class and to assign to each of these bodies their prejudice or party antipathies. This does not proper work, under the superintendence of apply peculiarly to the clergy. A jury of the bishop. The times are ripe for such a barristers would be a very bad tribunal for the reform as this ; and till it is effected, the trial of an unpopular advocate. The verdict Church must remain mutilated. If it were of a court-martial is notoriously often swayed accomplished, it would probably soon be fulby considerations extraneous to the justice of lowed by all and more than all the changes the case ; though in this instance an excep- which we have represented as desirable. One tional judicature is tolerated by the law, from consequence to be expected from it would be the absolute necessity for immediate action in the reabsorption into the Church of those military affairs. But ecclesiastical causes great bodies of dissenters who agree in her may be conducted more deliberately; and the doctrines, and object not to her forms. The laity have shown that they will rather endure natural position of the followers both of Whitemany flagrant scandals than allow of any field and Wesley, is the position which they approximation to priestly tyranny. retained for so many years in spite of perse

The third desideratum, therefore, cannot be cution, that of Religious Orders affiliated to supplied without the fourth ; better discipline the Church of England, and superadding to is impossible without better organization. In her system an internal discipline stricter than order that the Church may be enabled even to it is possible, or would be desirable, to enforce repress the offences of her own officers — much universally in a National Church. Who can more, that she may become the channel of doubt that these communities would return to social regeneration to the people - she must the post which they quitted so reluctantly, if comprehend in her practical administration, the lay element were duly represented in the not only her ministers, but her members. In councils of the Establishment? Then, and the words of M. Bunsen, she must cease to be not till then, the Church would include almost a "clergy church.” Her laity must find a the whole population in her pale, and that place in her system ; and that a post, not strength which is now wasted in intestina merely of passive obedience, but of active co- warfare would be directed against mora operation. As things now are, a layman may evil. pass through life without being once called to Many of the clergy complain that for a perform any ecclesiastical function. In other century and a half the Church of England Protestant Churches and sects, the religious has been left without a government. They layman is as much an office-bearer as the say that, had Convocation been suffered to clergyman; he has a function to discharge, sit during this period, the abuses which we a work to do. The whole ecclesiastical com- have enumerated would have been impossible. munity is thus pervaded by a common life, Non-resident bishops (for example) would and all coöperate, with a personal interest, in have been shamed into at least an outward promoting the ends of the body corporate. show of decency, if a representative assembly So it must be with the Church of England of the Church had annually met, in which - before she can win that triumph over abuses their default of duty might have been disinherited from the past, and difficulties devel- cussed. We may admit this, and yet mainoped by the present, which, we trust, is still tain that greater evils would have been caused

than cured, by committing the government of daily becoming more and more of one mind the Church to the Convocation as it is at upon this question. And we are convinced present constituted. The laity of England that when those who thus agree come at last are firmly determined never to entrust the to learn their strength, and their unanimity, Church of England to the sway of a clerical they will find all obstacles disappear before assembly. As a well-known dignitary wittily them. observed the other day, the fate of the Church must not be risked on the battle-field of Stenyclerus.* But the feeling would be different, if THE COPPER COINAGE AND A DECIMAL COINrepresentatives of the laity, in due proportion, AGE. - It is understood the government has enwere joined with the representatives of the tered into a contract with Messrs. Heaton and clergy, as in the Convention of the Episcopal Son, of Birmingham, for the manufacture of 500 Church of America, or the Assembly of the tons of copper coin, at prices applicable to pence, Kirk of Scotland. No fear could then be en

half-pence, farthings, half-farthings, and quartertained lest the powers necessary for disci- ter-furthings. This course has been resorted to pline and efficiency should be abused to the under the pressing demand for gold and silver

in consequence of the impossibility of the Mint, promotion of sacerdotal interests. We have coin, to devote any part of its establishment to the concurrent testimony of two very different copper coinage ; and the inconvenience arising authorities — Lord Shaftesbury, and the Edi- from a deficient supply of copper being too great - tor of the “ Spectator,''t - to the practical to admit of any further delay. advantages which would be derived from the

It is, however, necessary to say that we are existence of such a body. Indeed, it must be informed on good authority that the means admitted to be an anomaly, that while we taken to obtain this supply has no reference have the Horse Guards to regulate the army, whatever either to the rejection or adoption of a and the Admiralty to watch over the navy, decimal coinage. Whatever is done in relation we have provided no instrumentality what- to that subject, which we understand is receiving ever to superintend a department of the public a careful consideration at the hands of the govservice surely not less important. If muskets ernment, the present supply of copper coin and uniforms require occasional alteration, so large portion of which is required for the different also do sees and parishes. If regiments have circumstances, have been postponed. Nor will

colonies and for Ireland - could not, under any been sometimes misgoverned, so have dioceses. the existing copper coins interfere materially with Our coast defences may need repair to keep the adoption of the decimal coinage, should it ever out the Pope, as well as to keep out the be determined to resort to it. In that case we French. Imagine the condition in which may consider it certain that the pound will be both army and navy would now be, had they the unit of the system ; and that a farthing been left for a hundred and fifty years to the would be the thousandth part of a pound ; direct administration of Parliament, with no at present it is the nine hundred and sixtieth intermediate machinery provided for adapting part of a pound. The lowest coin, therefore, in them, from time to time, to the changing cir- a decimal coinage, would be but 4 per cent. less cumstances of the age.

in value than the present farthing ; and as the We do not believe that Parliament would margin between the intrinsic value and the nomiresist any well-considered measures for giving difference of four per cent. would be unimpor

nal value of our copper coins is very great, the the Church a machinery which should enable her to work efficiently. For if the State had tant, so that probably, with little difficulty, the

change might be made with our present copper ceased to believe in the principle of an Estab- coinage without any alteration. At all events lishment-if it were convinced that the relig- we are assured that the present coinage of this ious instruction of the people would be more copper must not be considered as an indication wisely entrusted to the Voluntary System that the government has come to any decision in it would carry out this conviction by disestab- respect to the adoption of a decimal coinage. lisbing the Church. That is, it would appro- Examiner. priate (with due respect to vested interests) the ecclesiastical revenues to civil purposes. But to this course the Legislature has never

The Medication of the Larynx and Trachea. yet shown the slightest inclination. It could not therefore consistently, while maintaining By S. Scott Alison, M. D., &c.

Dr. Horace Green of America applied 'nitrato an Establishment, refuse to it that govern- of silver to the interior of the larynx and trachea, ment wbich might be held, after mature con- and Dr. Scott Alison has extended the praetice sideration, most conducive to the ends for by other medicines, as olive oil, in various diswhich, and for which alone, the Church has eases of the air-passages. Relief of symptoms, been established. We believe that the great rather than cure, which must be sought by other body of the Church, both lay and clerical, are means, is the object of the practice ; but the ease

of the patient doubtless facilitates the adoption * See Herodotus, ix., 64.

of other remedies. The account is clear, and not † Spectator of November 20, 1852.

strained. - Spectator.

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