Obrazy na stronie

all the electricity of a thunder-cloud to the imposing array of them ; but when told, in earth, it will pass along it quietly and barm- answer to our inquiries, that they were full lessly. Hence we raise a little above the of nothing more than hogs' bristles, the story highest point of a building a rod of copper, of much cry and little wool passed across our and continue it to the lowest point, connecting memory, and, unbending into a smile, we reit with the moist earth. In our ships we carry marked to our friend, that hoge' bristles were a band of the same metal from the topmast probably not a very valuable commodity. to the copper sheeting beneath the water,"Oh! Bo, 80,” replied he ; “ we are not and thus all is rendered secure.

very full at present; you do not see before There has been a popular error that light- you more than some fifty or sixty thousand ning conductors may become lightning attract- pounds? worth.” Fifty or sixty thousand ors. There are no such thing as attractors of pounds' worth of hogs' bristles! That seemed electricity; it strikes a tall tree or church fabulous; and it was only by slow degrees, spire, because such objects offer the easiest and after much cross-questioning, we arrived road for it to return to the earth and restore at the conviction, that the small

article which the electric equilibrium. The lightning cop- serves as a jacket to the hog, as a needle to per conductor bears precisely the same relation Crispin, and the subject of our paper, is in to the atmospheric electricity, that the pipes itself important enough to give the dealers in which we place from the roofs of our houses, it a high rank among the merchant-princes and continue to the earth, do to the rain of London. which falls from a condensing cloud. Neither How many who daily use an assemblage the rain nor the electricity seeks the channels, of brustles or bristles, named, from these mabut they are provided, and through these they terials, brush, -whether hair-brush, toothflow.

brush, nail-brush, clothes-brush, hat-brush, or By a good system of lightning conductors, scrubbing-brush, - give a single thought as to any extent of country might be protected from its origin, or suffer the thought, if enterthunder-storms ; indeed, science proves that it tained, to go beyond the truism, that the is within the power of man to establish such hair comes off the hog's back? Even the channels of coinmunication between the solid gentleman to whom we were indebted for a earth and the ambient air as to maintain a sight of his stores, frankly confessed that constant balance in the electrical conditions his knowledge of a hog's bristle was much of both, and thus prevent the development more complete with regard to its quality and of the thunder-storm.

value, than to its production and physiology. The vineyards of the south of France for- We may mention, however, that, unlike hair, merly suffered severely from devastating hail- wool, and other analogous animal coverings, storms, produced by the sudden congelation of it has two capillary vessels instead of one. the water of the rain-cloud by its being robbed It differs, also, in having (technically) a of its latent heat through a sudden electric "Alag," or a separation of the end into several discharge. Experience has taught the vine- parts. The rough projections on the surface growers that, by raising lightning conductors of other kinds of hair, revealed to the eye by over their gardens, they quietly discharge the the microscope, and to the touch by drawing surplus electricity in the air, prevent the con- them between the thumb and finger, are absent gelation of the water, and consequently re- in the bristle. With the cobbler, the flag move the cause of injury. The paragrailles, as serves to interweave and fasten his threads, they are called, are the safeguards to the vine-while he sews with the root-end ; just as if á grower, and where they are plentifully distrib- tailor were to thread his needle at the point, uted, severe hail-storms are now rarely known. and work with the eye. All this we intro

Thus it is that, by investigating soine of the duce parenthetically, just to show the reader most minute and apparently uninstructive that we are "well up" in the subject, and phenomena, we arrive at great truths. The that he may rely upon our learning, attractive power of amber, first observed by One would imagine that so common a thing Thales, has led to the solution of the mystery as a bristle, identified with the morning-exof the thunder-storm; has instructed us how perience of the man who shaves, and of the to disarm it of its terrors; and there are yet maid who scours the floor, would have its other points of interest, to which we shall re- history narrated in every book of reference turn, showing the advantages which man has upon our shelves. Just so thought we when derived from studying the flies in amber. we shook our friend by the hand, and started

off to verify what he had told us, and to add From Chambers' Journal. to the stock of knowledge already amassed. A WORD ON BRISTLES.

Our Britannicas, Metropolitanas, and Jury Re

ports, however, were searched in vain for We went one day to call upon a mercantile additional lore. So unimportant in its details friend, and found him in his store. The place is the subject considered, that it figures in was greatly choked up with casks - quite ad books only as an item among other things,

and, by means of books, can be traced back swine to make their habitation beneath. to the chief place of export — no further. Germany exports the greater quantity next to But there it forms a something worth observ- Russia. The notoriety of Westphalia hams, ing.

generally accredited bear hams, is our guarWe had been through a friend's warehouse, antee for the prevalence of hogs in that as we have said, and had been astonished country. Included in the supplies is much over and over again, as we peeped into a tub, that is gathered in the provinces of Austria, and were told that the bristles it contained particularly in the south countries and the were valued at from one to two hundrea mountains of Transylvania. Forests abound pounds. Having passed a small dark count- in these parts, and the wild boar is common ; ing-house, whose aspect hardly testified to the about one third is forest-land, and food for the real extent of bristle transactions, we were hog is profuse. Oak-apples to the extent of initiated into the chief arcana of the craft. 200,000 bushels are thence exported annually. Craft is the proper word; a bristle has to The fact will serve as a clue to the boars' undergo so many processes before it reaches means for nourishment; for where there are the hand of the brushmaker, that it becomes oak-apples, there will also be mast — the roally a manufactured ware. Arranged on a favorite food. France and Belgium provide a series of shelves were many bundles, not few fine sorts, which overmatch in delicacy striking in their appearance, yet very striking but do not approach in quantity the amount as an exemplification of the unthought-of from other sources. A small box upon the value of familiar things. These bundles rep-merchant's bench say, three feet by one, rosented a goodly number of Russian. rubles. and one foot deep – as beautifully packed They were of various sizes, tied up very neatly, with small pencils of hair as a case of perand, in appearance, like corpulent dusting- fumery or chemicals, all as beautifully white brushes without handles. Some of them as bleached bristles can be made, illustrated were as they had left their own shores, others well the characteristic délicatesse of the French. had undergone a good many operations Of late years, some have also arrived from washing, cleansing, combing, bleaching, dye- America, chiefly from Cincinnati, but in ing. They come over occasionally just as they parcels so small, that they hardly form an have been pulled out of the hog's back item in the trade. It is rather remarkable, dirty, mixed with wool, and saturated with a that the huge continent, covered as it is with disagreeable dust; the last a thing which mighty forests, where countless hogs run often draws worse than blessings from the wild, is not more prolific in bristles. Its godressers, who, to the great prejudice of health, ahead inhabitants have assuredly found out necessarily breathe it into their lungs. Hogs their value, for what involving a profit cannot in Siberia, and in other parts where the they espy? Pig-meat is at a discount, and climate is cold, have an under-coat of woolly only eaten, as a rule, by the poorest; yet hair, of little value in trade, although some-bristles are purchased by America, and in times it is curled, and serves to stuff cushioned larger parcels than by any other country, next furniture. It has to be combed from the to England, which possesses almost a monop bristle either here or abroad ; but as the oly of the trade. I'he Russian and British wool adds materially to the weight, and markets are linked together, and have very allowing it to remain saves a good deal of little connection with any other in this article. trouble, the folks abroad often remember to So far as Russia is concerned, the same might forget this part of the manipulation.

be said, indeed, for the whole commerce of Bristles are of various colors - black, white, the empire. The balance of dealing with and intermediate tints. Upon the color the any other country almost invariably goes value in some degree depends. White is through an English banker. most valuable, and yellow second; black and Not many years ago, the bristles which gray are inferior. The color of the light va- now come over so nicely prepared, arrived in rieties is improved by bleaching, and defect- a higgledy-piggledy state. “All lengths and ive colors are dyed black. Incidentally, we qualities were tied together with a garter — wonder that old-fashioned sulphur is still we fall back on our friend's experience used as a bleaching agent, and that the more piece of rag, hide, tow, matting, or any effective power of the modern chlorides has other rude band. The difference is at present not been applied. Is it that the trade, in so great, that the brushmaker now seeks to its manipulations, pursues the even tenor of emulate him who was once his pupil. The its way just as in its closeness as a craft? Russians have little claim to originality, but Nearly all the bristles come from Russia. It they can copy so well what they see done, is commonly said, that a squirrel might leap that they often excel their preceptors in from tree to tree between St. Petersburg and skill. The value of a bristle is materially Moscow and not touch the ground. The increased by the dressing it undergoes. From same trees whose branches form tenements time to time, & perceptible difference shows for the squirrel, tempt innumerable herds of itself in all Russian merchandise, as the

dealers gain information about the subsequent (near the Salgans, or tallow-houses of Russia ; processes and uses of the articles. The fac- buildings used for boiling down fat oxen, which tories of the country are very freely open to are so numerous as to be slaughtered for their the inspection of foreign merchants, for, as hides and tallow. In the inelting season, our friend remarked, they have everything to many herds of swine are farmed by the progain and nothing to lose from the intercourse. prietors, and fed upon the refuse. A month or

Some of the bundles shown to us, not the two will soake them so sleek and greasy, largest, had a circumference of two feet. All that they are driven off to the steppe, and the bristles were placed in one direction, and given a few feeds of corn, to refine their favor. tied round the base with cord made of twisted They are so fat, that it is easy to conjecture bark. The roots of the bristle remained, the hair to have no very tenacious root. With clearly showing that the porcine race are the owners of these animals, the bristle harvest subjected to being plucked, just like a goose takes a place analogous to shearing in Engof the fens, or a young collegian. It puzzled land ; but, as we remarked, it is only in the us a good deal to know how so large a quan- aggregate we know much about the matter. tity could be made up in one bundle. When Bristles, in their history, have escaped the a bundle was opened, however, it puzzled us notice alike of travellers, authors, and merstill more, for the mass consisted of several chants. An author, however, states from hearvarieties kept quite distinct. The centre- say, that a large number of the creatures plug of a bundle was of one quality and color, being driven into a confined spot, the atmoswhile round it was a casing of another kind, phere is heated to a degree that irritates the which, again and again, had a concentric band skin and makes it soft; and when in this of other hues.

condition, the crop is gathered, and the aniWe incidentally mentioned that the bristles mal set free. are brought over in casks. Arranged in our Every peasant, from the Baltic to Kamtfriend's capacious rooms were half a thousand schatka, knows that bristles are available for of them, weighing four or five hundredweight trade. Agents traverse the continent, and each - a stock about enough, we remarked in gather in the results of cottage economy in our simplicity, to supply every awl with wax- the bristles that have been laid aside. These, end bairs for life, and the whole world, in- with other rural produce, are then transferred cluding savages, with brushes. Yet this was to the great fairs of Russia, and disposed of not a large stock. The trade had been brisk on a gigantic scale. In our own country, throughout the season, and had reduced it; where trade is dispersed, we can have no propwhile an early winter in the north had frozen er idea of the business done at these fairs ; at in the fresh consignments, and prevented the that of Novgorod, it is said that sales are replenishment of the stores. Some of those we transacted to the extent of 7,000,0001. stersaw were strong horny spines, seven inches ling. Purchased by merchants principally at long. Some even reached ten inches; but these fairs, bristles form an important article what they gained in length they lost in of export from Russia. In 1852 the quantity wiriness - a great desideratum. The best exported from St. Petersburg alone amounted bristles vary from five and a half to seven to 2,187,516 lbs. Think of nearly 3,000,000 inches.

poundweights of hogs' bristles leaving one port The English pig, which is domesticated for of one country in one year! its flesh, supplies no bristle worth preserving, Russian trade, however, depends upon the it is the semi-tame herds in the vicinity of frost; even hogs' bristles are at its mercy. WinSt. Petersburg, and in the interior of Russia, ter sometimes approaches so rapidly, that the which provide the bulk of the bristles; the calculations of the merchants are at fault. The strongest come from the wild boar, and are breaking up of winter is equally peculiar, one used by the shoemaker for his thread, and by day serving to crumble into Aoating mountains the shearman in the brush with which he what was the day before a continent of ice. lays the nap after shearing cloth for the last Last season, the winter set in so severely, and time. The names distinguishing the various so early, that many merchantmen were qualities, even of the produce of Germany, are caught and locked in the ice ; and our friend Russian. After the fashion that obtains in himself has at present a store of bristles icezoological collections, a twofold nomenclature bound. It will serve to show the magnitude is used. The first name refers to the merchant of this extraordinary trade, when we say, or place, the second to the quality. Here is that the project was seriously entertained of a specimen. “Mesdrikoff's Okatkas" are high- cutting out the ship, rather than suffer a est on the list; then follow successively, delay of six months in the consignment. “ Moscatineff's first sort ;" " Kooschinikoff's What is more, the project would actually Sachoi ;” “ Siberian or Veliko Looki, second have been carried out if the frost had not been sort ;"'" Mettschoffsky's Brack or Riflings" too sharp upon the enterprising projectors. that is, refuse.

Altogether, 3000 poods, or 108,000 lbs., have The half-wild animals referred to are bred been thus kept back at the depot by the frost.



Soon half the height is gained, but still Rears up its head that fatal hill,

As if their hopes to blast ; But yet, with proud, unconquered will,

He goes secure and fast.

The wondering crowd that gaze below
With pitying eyes as he doth go,

Behold him on his way ;
Some watch his path in silent woe,

Some Heaven's succor pray.

The strongest man the country round Would not, to reach that lofty ground,

So burdened, strength preserve :They little know how love is found

The heart it fills to nerve.

They see her wipe his heated brow; They see her kiss his forehead now ;

Then hold her arms on high To aid his strength, and lighten so

The toils that on him lie.

Still on he goes, the top is near —
When, with a sudden thrill of fear,

They see him stagger wide ;
His strength is failing fast; - oh! where

Shall succor be supplied !

But even yet he totters on ;
And see, the highest point is won ;

He falls, and she beside him :
His tender love to be his own

No more shall be denied him.

A NOBLE maid in olden time,
When lowly love was deemed a crime,

Looked with a gracious eye
On one, whose soul with thoughts sublime,

And ardent hopes, beat high.
Yet was his birth beneath her state,
For her proud sire could boast a great

And royal ancestry,
While his were poor; and ruthless fate

Denied nobility.
Yet worthy of her love, as well
His deeds in arms and arts might tell,

Though but in youthful prime ;
And he was known to much excel

In lore of that old time.
Her modest heart to him denied
A secret love ; though, with the pride

That turned her sire from worth,
She might not hope to be a bride

To one of lowly birth.
The father, as the tale was told,
Trembled with rage, as calm and bold

He spoke his tender love;
And bade him, ere the day grew old,

Such fond devotion prove.
“ Carry the girl to yon hill-top-
And, if you neither faint nor stop,

Yon lady is your own ;
But fail — and banish every hope

That mercy shall be shown.
The forfeit then shall be thy life,
And thou shalt wed another wife,

The cold and cheerless grave !"
He dares the chance, and woos the strife,

His hope and love to save.
At once the trial must begin :
And anxious crowds are grouped within

A space the hill beneath;
But small their hope that he may win

So sweet release from death.
The hill was high and steep ; the road,
That seldom was by traveller trod,

Was rough, and all o'ergrown
With weeds that grew in slippery sod,

Among the clay and stone.
The lady trembling stood, her hand
Locked in his own ; around them stand

The crowd with pitying mien ;
The haughty father gives command

To end the anxious scene.
She lies within his proud embrace,
And, sweetly blushing, hides her face,

Some secret tears to shed;
While he to mount the rugged place

Begins with careful tread.
With joyful looks, as though it were
Reward enough his love to bear,

He braves the steep ascent ;
And seeks his eager strength to spare,

Lest it be early spent.

Up to the hill the people speed,
And bid them rise ; – they take no heed,

So close and still they lie :-
They've won each other for their meed,

But 't is beyond the sky!



WOULD you remember me, take for a token

A flower from the garden, a rose from the tree, And when the blossom lies scentless and broken,

Withered and dead — 't will remind you of me. Would you remember me, walk by the ocean

When the rich sunset falls over the sea ; The weeds at your feet, cast ashore by its motion, The sport of the waves — they 'n remind you

of me. Would you remember me — should it be only

Where in the summer I wandered with thee ;Then, if you feel in the world you are lonely,

Check not the tear – 't will remind you of me.

[blocks in formation]

From the New Monthly Magazine. tation of the leeward bank prevented our taking

the wind of the water-fowl.

This became apparent, when a couple of matchThe pæan of the Falcons is being sung lock balls whizzing through the air, and the loud again. "An amusement originally derived report ringing upon the surface of the Jheel, from the East, where the “ Grand Seignior” tions. Those that caught sight of the hawks ied once boasted of a retinue of 6000 falconers, shrieking down the wind towards another pond, and still almost universally practised in coun- in a straight line, so that pursuit would have tries where people are too indolent for the inevitably entailed the loss of a Bashah. Others, more active sports of the field, is about to be with instinctive cunning, wheeled round and brought back from the same country, and is round the crystal floor, never passing its limits, again spoken of as a most poble and gentle till fear allowed them to settle again. A few, pursuit-fit for • knight and ladye fair;" a but so few, exposed themselves to danger, that source of healthy and innocent enjoyment, we lost nearly two hours in “ bagging” half a and, above all, “ a pageant of past glory." dozen snipe and teal.

Knox, in his pretty little treatise on . Game Presently we left the marsh. Our Bazdar had Birds and Wild Fowl,” has given a graphic remarked, with many curses, a huge“ tiger of account of this exhilarating sport ; Mr. w. the air," an Ukab towering in his " pride of B. Barker, who has had much experience of the place,”, high above the dense vapors and the art as practised in the Levant, has devoted reflected heat of the plains. He was apparently two interesting chapters to the subject in his shifted our position, he followed us from Jheel

determined to dine on a Bashah, for, fast as we work on “Cilicia ;" and we have now before to Jheel, and ended by triumphantly ejecting us us a still more graphic and amusing sketch of from his hunting-grounds. Oriental falconry, in Mr. Burton's " Falconry in the Valley of the Indus."*

The Ukab, or Scinde vulture, alluded to in It would be inore difficult

, indeed, to imag- this extract, is a mortal enemy to every species ine scenes for sport of any description more of hawk; witness the following example, reprolific or more gorgeous than are presented lated to Mr. Burton, by the Ameer Ibrahim by the long Valley of the Indus.

Khan Talpur :It was a heart-gladdening spectacle for a

“Well, Sahib," continued the Ameer, speaksportsman. The pure blue sheet of water, lined ing by jerks, as his breathlessness allowed him; . with a fringe of vivid green, was literally covered one day. I flew my beautiful Bahri after a little with feathered life. The king-curlew with his heron, which we all expected to see killed in a ruby crown, and the common curlew so cele- moment. They took the air well together, when, brated, despite his homely garb, for the soaring of a sudden, See the Ukab! oh, the Ukab!' and racing chase he affords, were pacing the cried the Bazdar: True enough! High above banks in busy troops. Gulls and graceful terns us was the wretch, a black dot in the blue sky, hovered over the marsh, here alone in the air, looking out, like an Affghan, for what he could there mingled with flights of red and white plunder. We shouted — we waved the lure; Brahminee ducks, wheeling about in search of unfortunately my poor Bahri was so eager after a spot to light on. The tall Saras stood in pairs, destruction. Then the Ukab disappeared from

quarry, that nothing could tempt her out of now plunging their bills into the shallow waters, now scattering pearly drops from their pink been frightened by our noise. The falcon and the

our eyes, and we thought that the Maloon had throats ; the bittern's ruff peeped out of the green weeds, and the snowy white cloak of the little heron kept rising and rising, till we lost puldy-bird glistened dazzlingly amongst the sight of them also. Presently, by the Prophet's lusset-colored uniforms of duck and

diver, snipe beard I swear to you, Sahib, as we stood looking and snippet, plover and wild goose. Lank herons upwards with straining eyes, a speck appeared were there, and stout, matronly pelicans gazing the instant after, plump fell a body at my feet


a fly in the air larger; and larger it grew; stolidly before them, with bustards large as turkeys, and a goodly array of plump little teal ;

It was poor Sohni, my falcon. The accursed the painted snipe with beautiful dark colors yulture had shattered her skull with his foul ornamenting his wings ; the mallard with his gor-beak. And since that day I have liberally disgeous plume, and many varieties of quiet-looking pensed Kisas to all his breed.” cranes swam and dived, and shook, and splashed, Mr. Burton and Mr. Barker both agree that all screaming, each in his own tongue, their the round-winged hawks have bee much natural joy in a life to them at that moment full neglected in this country. Both in the Leof charms. The fates protected the denizens of that marsh. used, although by far the more expensive to

vant and on the Indus they are principally Hawks generally dislike fying at birds over water ; and unfortunately for us the thick vege- says Mr. Burton," whether Falco gentilis in

purchase, reclaim, and keep. “I doubt," * Falconry in the Valley of the Indus. By

the West ever gave better sport than does one Richard F. Burton, Lieut. Bombay Army, Author of Ibrahim Khan's favorite goshawk's." of "Goa and the Blue Mountains, &c. John Van Our old authors appear to have been fund Voorst.

of commending the goshawk.. Tubervile, in. CCCCLXVII. LIVING AGE.



« PoprzedniaDalej »