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upon Abd-el-Kader in person, by whom he was to be the ridge of the Northern Atlas! was attacked whilst crossing the Sikhah. In fact, France merely affected to retain On this occasion, it should be remeinbered, to Algiers, Mostaganem, Oran, Bona, and other General Bugead's honor, the first successful sea-stations, whilst preparing to march inland attempt was made to prevent the native aux- to Constantina ! The treaty was signed ; iliaries of the French, the Zouaves and Spahis, General Bugeaud returned in triumph to from decapitating the prisoners that fell with Paris ; Abd-el-Kader commenced his prepuin their power. General Bugeaud was quick rations for the punishment of the refractory enough to save the lives of thirty of them; Arabs; and General Danrémont, accompaand he interdicted, under no less a penalty nied by the Duc de Nemours, marched with than death to the offender, such practices in the assured step of a conqueror upon Confuture. General Cavaignac was relieved, and stantina. The garrison of Turks and Kabyles Bageaud returned to France - a lieutenant- again offered a stout resistance, but not with general.
the same good-fortune as before. General General Danrémont obtained the African Danrémont was killed by a cannon-ball whilst command; and as it was deemed imperatively speaking to the Duc de Nemours; and the necessary to efface the failure before Constan- direction of the siege devolved upon General tina by the capture of that city, preparations, Vallée. Finally, the city was stormed, and civil as well as military, were diligently set after a deadly struggle, continued from the on foot, which once matured, would leave no breach along the narrow streets, captured ; doubt of triumph. The expeditionary army and the Duc de Nemours took up his resiwas to be composed of between 20,000 and dence in the palace of the bey, who had es30,000 men ; but even that amount of force caped to Tunis. might prove inadequate while Abd-el-Kader's Abd-el-Kader, on his part, was equally numerous and daring, and, though frequently successful. The defection from his authority defeated, still formidable forces, ranged the had been extensive. His uncle, Sidi Aby Ben open country. Divide et impera is a maxim Taleb, not only disputed his descent from the seldom lost sight of by civilized ministries ; Prophet, and miraculous gifts, which, conand in this crisis of Algerian affairs, it was sidering that he, Sidi Aby Ben Taleb, had been acted upon with great success by the cabinet one of the family-council, is not so surprising, of Paris. General Bugeaud, who had already but positively refused to pay his nephew tribmade himself respected by Abd-el-Kader, was ute, or, as our accustomed tongues would say, despatched to Africa with orders to arrange a taxes. He thus expressed himself in a letter truce with the emir — peace was the word which subsequently fell into the hands of the used - upon any terms short of the surrender French : “ Thou wert nothing before the arrival of the sea-line cities in the actual possession of the army of the French- thou wert nothing of France. This was the turning-point in the before thou madest a peace with those unemir's career, and it argues ill for his patri- believers. I was greater and holier than thou; otism, worse for his sagacity, that he per- and it was in the hope of usurping my authormitted a personal repugnance to the Turkish ity, 0 Abd-el-Kader ! that thou madest a treaty Bey of Constantina, and a revengeful long- with the Christians. When thou thoughtest ing to punish the Arab tribes that had re- thyself great enough, thou brokest the treaty fused him tribute, and defied his authority, to with the French, and thou wilt that we should seduce him into making peace with the French acknowledge thee for our sultan. But I have invader at the very and only moment his ever been greater and holier than thou, and hostility might have been effective. General never will I bow before thee; neither will I pay Bugeaud, escorted by 10,000 men, met the the tribute which thy horsemen demand in thy emir on the banks of the Tafna, where a name." treaty of peace (May 30, 1837) was speedily Bravely as these words sounded, Sidi Aby agreed upon between the high contracting Ben Taleb was compelled to pay his nephew parties. The terms, readily consented to by tribute, and was very glad to be let off with no the French envoy, were such as could only worse punishment for his contumacy; and after have been dictated by the emir if a conqueror, a protracted struggle, the emir succeeded in holding the very existence of France, in Al- overcoming all his domestic foes. His chief geria, in his hands. This alone, did he pos- adversaries were Sidi-el-Aulid, Mustapha Ben sess the clear intellect imputed to him by Ismäel, and Moressa Ben Kaoui. The first generous natures, prone to magnify into was early slain, the second perished in battle, greatness the most ordinary qualities of those and Moressa Ben Kaoui was driven into the wbo, after bravely combating, fail in a just Desert. This home-campaign employed the cause, should have sufficed to reveal the arti- emir upwards of a twelvemonth ; and it was fice employed against him. He was not only not till January, 1839, that the Arab and the reconfirmed Emir of Mascara, but created Frenchman, disembarrassed of other foes, again Emir of Titteri. Tlemecen and Medeyah confronted each other-both with the flush of were surrendered to him, and his boundary I victory upon their brows, mutually-courteous
words upon their lips, and hate and scorn in Khami, who, moreover, were furnished with their hearts, ready to leap forth, like their two pieces of cannon — 8-pounders. At the swords, at the first favorable opportunity, and first shock, fourteen standards were planted upon the slightest provocation. The emir sent on the wall of the devoted fortress, and, but General Vallée the journal of his recent tri- for the close, rapid, murderous fire of the 10th umphs, compiled by Léon Roche, a young Company, it must have been carried at once. Frenchman, who had acted as his secretary As it was, the fierce billowy sea of Arabs was during the war; and the French general sent hurled back, scattered into spray as from a in return some handsome presents to the emir. rock ; and the same fate attended their efforts,
The first overt provocation to a renewal of which were incessant during the rest of the hostilities was no doubt given on this occasion night, the following day, and night again. by the French. In May, 1839, the Duke of Colonel Dubuessil, who commanded at MosOrleans arrived in Algeria, visited Constantina taganem, continued not only unaccountably surrounded by a brilliant cortége, and after blind to the near presence of 15,000 cavalry, distributing a profusion of decorations amongst but to the incessant roar of the cannon, and the leading Moors, marched with ostentatious the interminable flashes of musketry; whilst triumph through the Biban and the Iron Gates the continuity of the attack, as well as how - a remarkable and lofty pass in the central thoroughly the post was encircled, is made Atlas chain - and, disdainful alike of license evident by the fact that it was impossible to or apology, through the territory of the Emir send a messenger to Mostaganem, to warn the of Titteri and the Col de Teneah, back to supine French coinmander of the peril of bis Algiers. Abd-el-Kader's preparations were countrymen. One apprehension alone disnot yet complete, and he simply protested quieted Captain Le Lièvre - would his ammaagainst the violation of his territory by his nition last till either the garrison were relieved, highness of Orleans. This was laughed at - or the Arabs driven off? During a brief in not so the second holy war proclaimed by terval of quiet, the cartridges that remained Abd-el-Kader in the following October, the were counted, and Captain Le Lièvre addressed first huge wave of which, as in 1833, swept his soldiers in the following words :the open country with resistless violence. The Frenchmen, comrades, friends ? there are unfortunate cultivators of the Metidjah were only ten thousand cartridges left. I propose sabred, and their dwellings given to the flames, continuing the defence till they are exhausted. and many isolated detachments of French I shall then fire the barrel of gunpowder in troops were overwhelmed and destroyed; but, the magazine, too happy to die for our counas at the former period, steady bravery and try. Vive la France !" discipline gradually prevailed against the « Vive la France !" echoed the excited fluctuating impulses of fanatical enthusiasm ; soldiers, with wild enthusiasm, and, rushing and the Kabyles and Arabs were driven back back to the walls, reöpened their terrific firs to the fastnesses of the Atlas, where, during upon the astounded assailants, scarcely, a three years, a war of razzias and guerilla ad- büllet sent amongst whom, from their crowded venture raged with varying fortune but equal numbers, failing of its aim; the slaughter ferocity on both sides.
amongst them may therefore be approximately It was soon after the commencement
of this estimated by the number of used-up cartridges. second holy war, that the brilliant affair of Two more days and nights the desperate conMazagran occurred, which, in the language test continued, when, and not an hour too of the Paris papers, flashed like a gleam of soon, for the cartridges were almost exhausted, lightning (coup d'éclair) athwart the deep Dubuessil heard in some way of what was gloom of the African war, and covered Cap- going on at Mazagran, marched to its relief, tain Le Lièvre and his heroic companions and the surviving Arabs fled! with imperishable glory. According to the The foregoing is really a cold, weak summary published reports, to which it almost seemed of the details of the extraordinary affair, as there would be no end, Captain Le Lièvre, published in the Moniteur and the noncommanding the 10th Company of the Battal- Official Paris papers. Captain Le Lièvre was ion of Africa, numbering 123 young soldiers, made a commandant, and had the cross of the was posted on the 1st of February, 1840, at Legion of Honor conferred upon himn. Nothing the small military post of Mazagran, distant else was talked of for many weeks ; a huge somewhat less than two leagues by the road mimic Mazagran was got up in the Champs - much less in a direct line from the gar- Elysées --- it was stamped upon paper-hangrison-town of Mostaganem, on the coast. ings, pocket handkerchiefs, painted upon the Mazagran mounted one piece of artillery, a scenes of theatrés, engraved in every variety 4-pounder ; and, besides à barrel of gunpow- of style ; and Mazagran pantaloons, hats, der in the magazine, the garrison had a sup- gloves, shawls, &c., became instantly and ply of 30,000 ball-cartridges. Towards even- universally the vogue. At length it began to ing, on the 1st of February, the post was sud- be whispered, that the officer commanding at denly attacked by 15,000 horsemen under Ben Mostaganom had demanded a court-martial
either upon himself or Captain Lièvre, no- come to with Great Britain, by which the body knew exactly which, for the Paris retention of Algeria by France was acquiesced papers, like the Moniteur Algérien from the in, upon the agreed condition that the French first, had suddenly become religiously silent dominion should not be extended either east npon the subject. Next it was said, that the or west — in other words, that the indepensubscription raised for the widows and or- dence of Morocco and Tunis should be respect phans of the fallen heroes was to be returned ed. The governor-general returned to Paris
- not a single soldier of the 10th battalion of soon after his victory of Isly, which made Africa having been either slain or wounded him a peer and marshal of France, but not in the terrible defence of Mazagran! Finally, till he had taken measures for encircling the the London Morning Chronicle boldly pro- plain of the Metidjah with a wall, ditch, and claimed and challenged the French govern- chain of block-houses, for the much-needed ment, day after day, to contradict its state- protection of its still sparsely scattered cultiment — that the Mazagran story was a flam, vators — nearly one-half of whom, by the an invention from end to end! Only one way, are Spaniards and Germans. Paris, newspaper, Le National, reprinted the The star of Abd-el-Kader's military life Chronicle's exposure, evidently derived from had not yet finally set, though obscured by unquestionable authority, and demanded expla- clouds, and rapidly, nearing the western dation of the government. The government horizon. The struggle amidst the hills was answered not a word — all allusion to the maintained by his partisans with scarcely subject was dropped by general consent, and abated vigor, even whilst he himself still bas not since been revived ; Captain La Lièvre lingered at the half-friendly, half-hostile court the while keeping the step in rank he had of Morocco; and it was nothing doubted acquired, his cross, and a handsome sword that the emir would make yet another trial of presented to him by the merchants of Mar- his fortune before abandoning the unequal seille. Who the hoax originated in, it would struggle in despair. There is only one incibe idle to inquire - possibly the governinent, dent in this intermediate, desultory warfare desirous of relieving the public anxiety which it is essential to reproduce in these relative to the renewed and formidable out- pages, but that one is of so terribly significant break in Algeria by a well got-up if somewhat a character, that it cannot be onnitted in a extravagant popular fiction ; but whoever paper designed to give the reader a true imits author may be, it offers only a more fla- pression of the character of the war in Algeria. grant proof than others, of the bold impunity We will endeavor to state it without prejuwith which African army news has been ha- dice or exaggeration. On the night of the bitually got up and seasoned to the palate of 12th June, 1845, about three months before the French people. Real fighting, however, Marshal Bugeaud left Algeria, Colonels Peif not of the super-humanly heroic Mazagran lissier and St. Arnaud, at the head of a conkind, had begun io serious earnest.
siderable force, attempted a razzia upon the General Bugeaud, who had replaced Mar tribe of Ben-Ouled-Riah, numbering, in men, shal Vallée, organized a plan of campaign women, and children, about 700 persons. by movable columns, radiating from Algiers, This was in the Dahrah. The Arabs escaped Oran, and Constantina ; and, having 100,000 the first clutch of their pursuers, and when excellent soldiers at his disposal, the results, hard-pressed, as they soon were, took refuge as against the emir, were slowly but surely in the cave of Khartani, which had some effective. General Négrier at Constantina, odor of sanctity about it ; some holy man or Changarnier amongst the Hadjouts about maraboot had lived and died there, we beMedeyah and Milianah, Cavaignac and Lamo- lieve. The French troops came up quickly to ricière in Oran, carried out the commander- the entrance, and the Arabs were summoned in-chief's instructions with untiring energy to surrender. They made no reply; possibly and perseverance; and, in the spring of 1843, they did not hear the summons, or perhaps the Duc d'Aumale, in company with General the courage of despair had steeled them to Changarnier, surprised the emir's camp, in await the attack of their foes, however nuthe absence of the greater part of his force, and merous and sure of ultimate victory. those it was with difficulty that he himself escaped. foes might be, and endeavor to sell their lives Not long afterwards, he took refuge in as dearly as possible in the holy and vantage Morocco, excited the fanatical passions of the ground they had happily reached. Colonele populace of that empire, and thereby forced Pelissier and St. Arnaud would certainly not its ruler, Mulei-Abd-er-Haman, much against have been justified in sacrificing the lives of his own inclination, into a war with France the soldiers under their command by attempt - a war very speedily terminated by General ing to force a passage through windings and Bugeaud's victory of Isly, with some slight intricacies thronged with armed and desperate assistance from the bombardment of Tangier men ; but, as there was no other outlet from and Mogador by the Prince de Joinville. the cave than that by which the Arabs entered, Upon this occasion, an understanding wasl a few hours' patience must have been re
warded by the unconditional surrender of the having seen both the orator and his applaudimprisoned tribe. Colonels Pelissier and St. ing audience seized and hurried to prison by Arnaud were desirous of a speedier result; soldiers whose babits had been contracted in and, by their order, an immense fire was Algeria, acting under the orders of colonel, by kindled at the mouth of the cave, and fed that time General, St. Arnaud, and minister sedulously during the suminer night with of war! A more luminous commentary upon wood, grass, reeds, anything that would help the dangerous unsoundness of Marshal Soult's to keep up the volume of smoke and Aame geographical ethics, and the folly of supposing which the wind drove in roaring, whirling that, to decorate men for outraging humanity eddies into the mouth of the cavern. It was in Africa, is to train them to respect law and too late now for the unfortunate Arabs to right in Europe, could hardly be imagined. offer to surrender. The discharge of a cannon We now turn the last page as yet written would not have been heard in the roar of of Abd-el-Kader's public life. Driven, at the that huge blast-furnace, much less smoke- instance of France, from the cities of Morocco, strangled cries of human agony. The fire he still lingered on its half-desert frontiers, was kept well up throughout the night; and and gradually drew together a considerable when the day had fully dawned, the then ex- force. If the Emperor of Morocco did not wish piring embers were kicked aside, and as soon to involve himself in another war with France, as a sufficient time had elapsed to render the it was imperatively necessary that he should air of the silent cave breathable, some soldiers at once take decisive measures against the were directed to ascertain how inatters were obstinate and impracticable emir. He rewithin. They were gone but a few minutes, solved to do so, and without delay. An army, and they came back, we are told, pale, chiely composed of the Kabyles of Morocco trembling, terrified, hardly daring, it seemed, who, especially if considerable booty, as in to confront the light of day. No wonder they this case, was likely to be obtained, were trembled and looked pale. They had found nothing loath to do battle with Arabs — was all the Arabs dead-men, women, chil- hastily assembled, and sent against Abd-eldren, all dead ! had beheld them lying just Kader, with orders to drive him out of the as death had found and left them; the old Morocco territory, whatever expenditure of man grasping his gray beard ; the younger life might be necessary to effect that object. one, grim, rigid, stern as iron with fanatic The emir, finding he could not avoid the conhatred and despair; the dead mother clasping test, boldly assumed the offensive, and in an her dead child with the steel gripe of the attack on the night of the 20th December, last struggle, when all gave way but her 1845, obtained a momentary triumph, by an strong love!
expedient as extraordinary as it was cruel. This is no fancy picture; it is the plain General Lamoricière thus describes the emir's record of an indisputable, undisputed fact, strange ruse: “ Abd-el-Kader plastered four justified on the elastic plea of necessity. The camels all over with pitch, loaded them with French ministry of the day, moreover, in immense heaps of dried grass,
with order to mark, it seemed, their contempt for pitch, and had them conducted in the dead the indignant clamor which the recital of the of night to the edge of the Morocco camp by dreadful deed excited in France, as well as in four soldiers, who had been previously paid other civilized communities, actually re- 100 douros each for the service, and there set warded, with an air of courageous defance of on fire.". The plunging and tearing about of public opinion, which but thinly masked the the maddened, flaming animals, produced, as real pusillanimity of their conduct — the favor was expected, much consternation and conof the army being in issue — Messieurs Pelis- fusion amongst the Morocco troops, greatly sier and St. Arnaud with a step in their pro- increased by the impetuous charge of Abd-olfession! It was in reference to this tragedy Kader's horsemen, led by the emir in person, that Marshal Soult used the words we have and for some time the advantage was greatly before quoted — " that what would be a crime on the side of the assailants ; but the hour of against civilization in Europe, might be a dawn, showing the Morocco Kabyles the fewjustifiable necessity in Africa. In a subse- ness in number comparatively with themselves quent debate upon the affairs of Algeria, an of the Arabs, and the camel-meteors having eminent French statesman observed, amidst long since burnt themselves out, was that of the loud cheering of the National Assembly, hopeless, irretrievable defeat. The emir's " that he was reconciled to the enormous entire force was either destroyed or dispersed ; sacrifices required of France by the exigencies and the only alternative left him, was either of the African colony, by the value he attached to surrender upon terms to General Lamorito the warlike experience and habits the cière, who had been anxiously awaiting the French army had acquired there.” It is sel- issue of the struggle between Abd-el-Kader dom that eloquent sentences are so speedily and Abd-er-Haman, or to endeavor to escape and strikingly illustrated as in this instance, by the eastern mountains. The French the morning of the 2d of December, 1851, general, upon hearing of his defeat, despatched
Bou Kraii with twelve chosen Spahis, to en- to one of the two places named in the deed of deavor to intercept him, if, as was likely, he surrender – he undertaking not to return should take the road through the Col de Ker- without the permission of France to Algeria. bores. The completeness of the emir's defeat There lingered, it is plain, in the Duc d'Auis strikingly shown by General Lamoricière's male's mind, a harassing doubt of the good letter to the Duc d'Aumale, at this time gov- faith of his father's government, for he goes on ernor-general of Algeria, announcing the pre- to say: "The moment I arrived here, I raticaution he had taken to prevent Abd-el-Kader's fied the engagement made by General Lamoriescape, though doubtful that he should be cière ; and I have the firm hope that the govable to do so: “Bou Kraii, with twelve ernment of the king will sanction it.” And Spahis, will be stronger than the entire escort as it' resolved that there shall be no excuse of him whom only yesterday Morocco strug- for umfair dealing, he insists that the emir's gled against with 38,000 men." There was surrender was entirely yoluntary on his part : no opening for the services of the Spahis." The emir had in his favor darkness, a The fallen emir determined on surrendering difficult country traversed by paths unknown himself to General Lamoricière upon certain to our guides. Flight was still easy for conditions, which were negotiated through him." the Cadi of Tlemecen, who, General Lamori Ste.am swiftly conveyed the important news cière states, was of great service to him in the to France, and as swiftly returned with the affair. The terms were agreed upon, first reply of the Paris cabinet: Abd-el-Kader must verbally, but afterwards reduced to writing, embark immediately for that country! Acand subscribed by both parties. In reality, cordingly, he, his mother, three children, his there was only one essential condition, which cousin and brother-in-law, Hadj Mustapha, was thus stated in a despatch from General and suite, in all ninety-three persons, emLamoricière to the Duc d'Aumale, dated 230 barked in the steam-ship Asmodée — not an December, at nine o'clock in the morning: unfitly named vessel - and arrived safely at “Let it suffice, that I assure you I have only Toulon, after a stormy passage, on the evenpromised and stipulated that the emir and ing of the 30th December, 1845, to find themhis family shall be conveyed to Alexandria selves close prisoners, probably for life — at or to St. Jean d'Acre; they are the places all events, for an indefinite period, the probwhich he himself indicated in the conditions able termination of which could not be even apwhich I accepted.” The great news of Abd- proximately indicated by the French ministers el-Kader's surrender brought the Duc d'Au- themselves. Not long afterwards, Abd-el-male to the French camp, where General Kader himself, his family, and such persons Caraignac had previously arrived. The gov- of his suite as he chose to name, were transernor-general personally assured the emir, ferred to the Castle of Amboise, on the left that he entirely approved and confirmed the bank of the Loire, between Blois and Tours. engagement which he, Abd-el-Kader, had Strange, unlooked-for events knocked at entered into with the general, to whom, upon the gate of the old castle, and glanced in at the faith of that engagement, he had sur- the captive, with a promise of relief, during rendered himself, and that it would be re- the seven weary years which the unfortunate ligiously respected. The Duc d'Aumale, who, emir lingered through there; the dethronethere can be no question, acted throughout ment, exile and death of the monarch in whose the transaction with perfect good faith, and name he had been imprisoned – the setting within the limits of his official powers, an- up of a republic, whose shibboleth was freenounced the emir's surrender to the French dom ! liberty! Illusive promise-breakers all ! minister of war in the following terms : The chafed spirit of the emir still hopelessly ** Monsieur le Ministre - a great event has fretted itself against the unmoving bars of his jast been accomplished. Abdc;l-Kader is in dungeon, when, like a shift of scene in a our camp. Beaten by the Kaby les of Morocco, theatre, the door flew open, a mass of glitterchased from the plains of Moolouïa by the ing uniforms floated in with a sudden lighttroops of Mulei-Abd-er-Haman, abandoned by burst, and the bewildered captive felt the his people, who took refuge in our territory, chains put on by a king and riveted by a he has confided himself to the generosity of republic, fall off, as if by magic, at the voice France, and has surrendered upon condition of one who but the other day was a prisoner of being conveyed either to Allexandria or to like himself, and in apparently more hopelesu St. Jean d'Acre.” There is a trifling slip bondage! Whatever may have been the here, intended, no doubt, on a rhetorical inotives of Louis Napoleon in freeing Abd-elflourish. Abd-cl-Kader had not confided Kader — perhaps delight in the exhibition of himself to the generosity of France - that is, supreme power, a wish to obtain a reputation of the government of France -- for he had for chivalric generosity at the cost of a cheap, made a bargain with her sepresentatives, un hazardous magnanimity, the desire to conbinding them, with all the power that a tra st his own conduct towards the emir as solemn engagement possesses, to convey him | strikingly as possible with that of the fore