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ment, and was forth with consigned to the Madame de Villette ; who had remained a prison of Niort. Here Françoise D'Aubigné, Protestant, as much out of respect for her afterwards the Marquise de Maintenon, first father as for Calvin. The young girl followed beheld the light, in the year 1635.
the religion of her aunt. Constant D'Aubigné had always found a At this epoch, proselytizing was the order plank of refuge in his shipwrecks. To do him of the day. 'Madame de Neuillant, a relation justice, though stained with every possible of Madame d'Aubigné, obtained an order crime, he was brave and gallant. For this from court to withdraw Françoise from the chivalric outside, Mademoiselle de Cardillac, maternal care of her heretical aunt. Made his second wise, fell in love with and married moiselle d'Aubigné wept bitterly at the idea him. He made away with her property, loved of a separation ; for she regarded the château her passionately, and ill-used her tremen- de Murçay almost as her native place. Ai dously, though not to the point of killing her, length she quitted it to live with Madame de as he had done his first wife. She lived on, Neuillant, but in the determination to remain perpetually in prison or in exile. Madame de true to the mode of faith her beloved aunt had Villette, the sister of Constant, more touched taught her. At first, caresses were rainly by his misfortunes than revolted by his crimes, employed to wean her from it; then humiliacame to the prison at Niort to take away his tions. She was placed on a level with the three children, whom she brought to her domestics of the establishment, and employed château of Murçay. The little Françoise had in the care of the turkeys. the same nurse as her own daughter. But for "I commanded in the poultry-yard," she this trait of mercy, poor Madame d'Aubigné has somewhere said ; " it was there that my might well have believed herself accursed of reign commenced.” God and man; for even in the prison, where The woman who afterwards dwelt so near she divided her time between prayer and a throne might then be seen any fine morning mending her husband's old clothes, the latter following her feathered charge, with a relvet was employed in coining. She wrote to mask on her face to preserve her from the Madame de Villette with a profound feeling effects of the sun; a large straw hat upon her of misery and abasement : "I fear the poor head, a switch in her hand, and a small basket little girl will give you much trouble ; may containing black bread and cherries upon her God enable her to requite you.” What a arm. These cherries she was enjoined not to singular contrast was presented here between touch until she had learned by heart five the cradle and the tomb! She who was born verses of Pibrac. She usually learned one in a prison, and brought up on charity, died verse, and ate all the cherries. the wife of a powerful monarch. Suppose Madame de Neuillant, tired out, at length, any one had prophesied this to the poor forcibly placed her obstinate young relative in mother, her who was brought too low by want the Ursuline convent at Niort, whence the latand misery even to nourish her babe! ter was shortly afterwards dismissed, Madame
Françoise d'Aubigné never forgot her aunt's de Neuillant refusing to pay the pension of a maternal tenderness. In later times, when Huguenot. The young girl returned to ber entreated to abjure Calvinism, she replied — mother, who had scarcely yet recovered from
" I will believe anything you like, except her griefs. Madame d'Aubigné, who was a that my aunt De Villette may be damned."* strict Catholic, conducted her rebellious child
Yet another notice of her father. He was to the Ursuline convent in Paris. Here they set at liberty, and sailed with his wife and had the good sense not to force Mademoiselle children to Martinique. He once more suc- d'Aubignés convictions, and she at length ceeded in laying hold upon Fortune ; played, embraced the parental religion. and lost all. His wife was compelled to
There lived at this time a wit and a poet, return to France with her children, leaving who had risen from the ranks of the people. behind her unhappy husband, whom the se- Eccentric and crippled, he laughed at his own vere lessons he had received had not been able infirmities, and by the power of his intellect to convert to good,
and the éclat of his humble dwelling, radiant Françoise d'Aubigné had already com- with liberty of thought, protested against risimenced her part of heroine. At Martinique ble grandeurs, the prestige of birth, and the she was attacked by a serpent. During the sumptuousness of rank and wealth. Around passage homewards she was nearly thrown Scarron's hearth were grouped Ménage, Péinto the sea for dead; but upon her mother lisson, Scudery, Benserade, Marigny, Saint pressing her lips to hers for a farewell kiss, Amand. At his table were welcomed Marthe supposed corpse opened her eyes and ex- shal d'Albret, the Marquis de Sévigné, the tended her arms. The vessel was afterwards Comte de Grammont, Martemart, Coligny, and assailed by corsairs, and escaped with diffi- twenty others of the same calibre. culty.
“I also have a marquisate," he once said Mademoiselle d'Aubigné, on her arrival in to the illustrious assembly — " the marquisate France, was again received into the house of lof Quinet."
Quinct was his bookseller.
of monarchs die with them; that of the wise One erening there appeared in the witty of Scarron will live to future ages." cripple's saloon, where a goodly company were It was Mademoiselle de Pons who lent the met to laugh and sup, a young girl of fifteen bride her wedding attire. The latter at once years of age, " already handsome, but timid, assumed the dignity befitting her new po who wept upon her entrance, being enbar- sition; and from the first day wrought a rassed by the shortness of her robe." She change in her husband's establishment. “I came from the provinces, where the court- will teach her plenty of fooleries," Scarron fushions had not yet penetrated. Her mother had said before their marriage ; but he was was with her. The young girl was silent, disappointed in his mirthful design. To his but all comprehended the language of her elo-hearth, haunted by fashionable vice, she quent eyes. Scarron was affected even to brought the reviving freshness of virtue, the tears, for he had heard of Madame and Made- smiling and graceful virtue of seventeen. She moiselle d'Aubigné. Upon that evening, he was present at every conversation, at every was brimming over with wit and fun. The supper ; but, as her biographer says, “she youthful guest was much more struck by these claimed respect without imposing restraint:” qualities than with the fine airs of the court and, according to Madame de Caylus, " passed gentlemen who were doing their best to make her Lents in eating a herring at the end of the an impression on her inexperienced fancy. table," because she thought it better to show We see by this, how, even at that early a little strictness amid the license by which period, intellect carried the day with her. she was surrounded.
The girl and her mother returned to Poitou, From the day of the nuptials she assumed and shortly afterwards Madame d'Aubigné left her post of femme savante, but with a modesty this weary scene, where her fainting spirit worthy of all praise. She was at the same had been able to find no rest. Madame de tine the pupil, the critic, and the secretary of Villette being likewise dead, Françoise d'Au- Scarron, and his devoted wife. In his sufferbigné found herself almost alone in the world : ing, as in his merry hours, she was still by she was compelled again to accept the pro- his side. She learnt Spanish, Italian, and tection of her Aunt de Neuillant, who allowed even Latin, but she likewise learnt the duties her to go "nearly naked through avarice," of life. Little by little her husband's sway says Tallemant des Réaux. Decidedly the was eclipsed by her own. People came no commencement of her life was not very prom- more to hear him, but to hear and see her. ising.
“She had,” said M. de Noailles, “ acquired She had left at Paris, besides Scarron, an- an infinite charm of conversation.” Every other syra pathizing soul, Mademoiselle de St. one knows about the servant who one day at Hermant. One of the letters that she wrote table whispered in her ear, “ Madame, be to that young lady was exhibited to Scarron, pleased to tell another story. There is no who answered it in a most flattering inanner. roast meat to-day." It was the first gallant epistle she bad ever Scarron's circumstances were not improved received. This man, ber future husband, we since his marriage. The roast ment was often may certainly consider her first lover. wanting. Yet he always wished to live like
Madame de Neuillant now conducted her the nobility. He even affected to protect the protégée to Paris, where she allowed her to arts. A letter of Poussin's informs us that see a little society, being at the same time amid the tempest of the Fronde that great proud and jealous of her beauty. The young artist painted two pictures after Scarron's lady became a prominent personage ; her ro- order. ' Mignard was an intiinate friend mantic adventures were generally discussed, Scarron ordered pictures likewise of him. and she was everywhere called "The Young He painted the first and last portraits of MadIndian,” People wondered what kind of ame de Maintenon ; the one in 1659, the future awaited this talented orphan, who other in 1694. Of these two portraits it is talked like a charming book and attracted unhappily, only the last with which we are every eye. She dreaded a convent, but she acquainted. “We only behold her in her equally disliked the idea of remaining in so- decline,” says M. de Noailles." We picture ciety, without the protection of a husband. her to ourselves in her dead-leaf robe and Yet how could she expect to marry without severe head-dress — regent of a court become dowry? In this difficulty Scarron, who loved serious like herself.” Mignard painted her her as a sister or a daughter, offered her his as St. Françoise ; noble and dignified, but hand. She gratefully accepted the proposi- sombre and melancholy, without a single tion, being well aware that theirs would only reflected ray of her youth lighting up her be a marriage of the spirit. They were ac- sallow visage cordingly united in the spring of 1652. The Madame Scarron lived at home.
" At notary asked what dowry Scarron intended to first," as Scarron wrote to M. de Villette, bestow upon his bride. “Immortality," was "she was very unhappy at not having either the proud reply “The names of the wives! means or equipage to go abroad.” After
wards her husband's infirmities retained her The knell of Louis the Fourteenth's reign near his bedside. Her virtue daily gathered now sounded - the reign of the monarch who, strength from the fact it was her sole wealth, believing that all the passions of France beat and would be her sole refuge. At length poor in his busom, said, “ I am the State," because Scarron died the death of a stoic philosopher; he saw everywhere around him bravery and they placed over his grave the following touch- genius. Scarron's widow was not of this ing epitaph :
splendid period. When she came near the
throne the court was already in the decline of Passants, ne faites pas de bruit
its splendor. We will follow her no further. De crainte que je ne m'eveille,
The history of Madame de Maintenon, aged
and a devotée, is known to all the world, for
it is the history of France. In her youth she * Passenger, don't make a noise, lest you waken illuminated with a smile the troubles of Scar me. This is the first night that poor Scarron has ron; grown old, she veiled with a mask of been able to sleep.
severity the royal dignity.
For those, who, mindful of their money fled ELEGY
Rejoice in retribution, sure though late
Should they, by ruin to reflection led,
Ask Punch to point the moral of his fate, The Station clock proclaims the close of day ;
The hard-worked clerks drop gladly off to tea; Haply that wooden-headed sage may say, The last train out starts on its dangerous way,
«Oft have I seen him, in his fortune's dawn, And leaves the place to darkness and to me.
When at his levees elbowing their way,
Peer's ermine might be seen and Bishop's Now fades the panting engine's red-tail light,
lawn. And all the platform solemn stillness holds, Save where the watchmen pacing for the night, “ There the great man vouchsafed in turn to By smothered coughs announce their several each colds.
Advice, what scripor shares 't was best to bay, Behind that door of three-inch planking made,
There his own arts his favorites he would teacb, Those frosted panes placed too high up to peep,
And put them up to good things on the sly. All in their iron safes securely laid, The cooked account-books of the Railway sleep. Till to the House by his admirers borne,
Warmed with Champagne in flustered speech his The Debts to credit side so neatly borne,
strove, What should be losses, profits proved instead ; And on through commerce, colonies and corn, The Dividends those pages that adorn
Like engine, without break or driver, drove No more shall turn the fond Shareholder's head.
“Till when he ceased to dip in fortune's till,
Out came one cooked account - of our M. P«; Oft did the doubtful to their balance yield,
Another came — yet men scarce ventured still Their evidence arithmetic could choke ;
To think their idol such a rogue could be. How jocund were they that to them appealed !
How many votes of thanks did they provoke ! « Until those figures set in sad array
Approach and read (if thou canst read) my lay, Nor Prudery give hard names to the spoil Writ on him more in sadness than in scorn. 'T was glad to share --while it could share secure.
THE EPITAPII. . All know the way that he his fortune made, Here lies, the gilt rubbed off his sordid earth,
How he bought votes and consciences did hire ; A man whom Fortune made to Fashion known; How hands that Gold and Silver sticks have swayed Though void alike of breeding, parts, or birth,
To grasp his dirty palm would oft aspire. God Mammon early marked him for his own. Till these accounts at last their doctored page, Thanks to mischance and panic, did unroll,
Large was his fortune, but he bought it dear; When virtue suddenly became the rage,
What he won foully he did freely spend. And wiped George Hudson out of fashion's He plundered no one knows how much a year, scroll.
But Chancery o'ertook him in the end. Full many a noble lord who once serene No further seek his frailties to disclose ;
The feasts at Albert Gate was glad to share, For many of his sins should share the load ; For tricks he blushed not at, nor blushed un- While he kept rising, who asked how he rose ? seen,
While we could reap, what cared we how he Now cuts the Iron King with vacant stare.
From Chambers' Repository. by the famous ordonnances, would be drownel TIE WAR IN ALGERIA.
and forgotten in the triumphal echoes of the
African victory. If so, the rash monarch was A SLIGHT blow on M. Deval, the French ruinously self-deceived ; the coup d'état, aimed consul's cheek, in 1829, by the fan of Hus- at the popular liberties, failed miserably sein, Dey of Algiers, afforded Charles X. an solely, as we now perceive, because launched unhoped-for chance of brcaking the spell of some twenty years too soon, and by the wrong Il-fortune which attached to the transmarine hand; and the deposed dey arrived in France expeditions of France — of crushing, in the just as his discrowned conqueror was leaving general interest of humanity, a nest of pirates it forever. This, we may observe by the that for three centuries had infested the Medi- way, has not been the only time warlike adterranean ; and chiefly and lastly, of divert-venture in North Africa has been associated ing the attention of his volatile subjects from with disaster to the House of Bourbon. St their new fancy — constitutional government Louis died in the camp before Tunis ; Charles
– by the regilding of their old and tarnished X. in the same month wins Algiers and loses idol – foreign conquest. The first-mentioned France ; and but for the inopportune absence purposes were easily accomplished. The time in Algeria at a critical moment of De Joinchosen was summer, June, 1830. Great Brit- ville and D'Aumale, by far the most popular ain, to whose hostility previous maritime dis- and energetic of Louis Philippe's sons, it is nsters were chiefly attributable, partially sat- more than probable that the feebly-opposed isfied by a verbal assurance that no permanent outbreak of February, 1848, would have had a occupation of the Algerine territory was con- very different termination. But it was not to templated, interposed no obstacle to the enter- be so written. prise ; and a fleet of upwards of a hundred There is reason to believe that Charles X., transport-ships, escorted by twenty vessels of and his minister, Prince Polignac, were quite war, under the command of Admiral Duperré, sincere in the assurances given to Lord Abersafely conveyed General Bourmont, 40,000 deen that the only object of the French choice troops of all arms, and the necessary expedition was the thorough extinction of war-material, from Toulon to Sidi-Feruch, a Algerine piracy, so long the scourge and terpoint of the African coast a few miles west- ror of feeble commercial states ; but it was ward of the city of Algiers — where the dis- one of the cruel necessities of Louis Philippe's embarkation, which occupied three days, was precarious position - resting as it did, welleffected without difficulty. Algiers, though nigh exclusively, upon the timid sympathies of strongly fortified to seaward, was incapable of the moneyed and middle classes, instead of serious resistance to a well-appointed and nu- upon those far more powerful buttresses of merous land-force; and after a brisk cannon-continental thrones, the traditions and instincts ade of the Emperor's Fort, to the south-east of a numerous army, and the passions and of the city, the dey offered to capitulate, on prejudices of the great masses of the populacondition that private property and the relig- tion — that he was compelled to temporize ion of the inhabitants should be respected, with every whim and vanity of the popular and himself and his garrison of Turkish Jani- mind that happened to be in any way associzaries, about 7000 in number, permitted to ated with the military “glory” of France. embark unmolested in person and effects. Compelled by this pressure, the citizen-king's These terms were readily acceded to by Gen-government, after the exhibition of much vao eral Bourmont; and the white flag of Bourbon illation and infirmity of purpose, finally reFrance replaced (5th July) the red ensign of pudiated the engagement with Great Britain, the pirates ; the victors, moreover, finding and, admittedly against their better judgment, themselves in the possession of public spoil to prosecuted the war we are about to sketch, the amount of two millions sterling in gold sometimes with languid irresolution, at others and silver, besides twelve vessels of war, and with remorseless violence, till French Africa, more than a hundred bronze cannon. But as it is called, nominally comprised an area of this brilliant success availed the French king 100,000 square miles, extending from Morocco nothing in his conflict with the Paris democ on the west, to Tunis on the east racy, if
, indeed, it did not precipitate his fall, tance of about 500 miles — and from the blue by inducing a belief in the royal mind, that waters of the Mediterranean on the north, to the clamorous indignation sure to be excited the great Desert of Sabara the Arab's“ Sea
without Water" (El baher billa maa) – -on the westward of Algiers. The chief inland south, an average breadth approaching 200 towns of Oran are Mascara, near which Abd. miles. This country of hill and dale, plain el-Kader was born, and, till his final overthrow, and desert, sand and forest, rock and river, is the governmental capital of the province; divided into three provinces Constantina on and Tlemecen, 100 miles south-west of Oran, the east, Titteri in the centre, and Oran on near the borders of the Sahara, which there the west ; of which Bona, Algiers, and Oran approaches unusually near the coast. Tlemeare respectively the principal maritime towns cen is also but a few leagues eastward of the or sea-gates — Algiers, or El Jezira (“the Desert of Angada, a debatable district, faWarlike”), being placed near the centre of mous for its ostriches, on the confines of Mothe coast-line between Bona and Oran, which rocco. Mascara is on the borders of Titteri, are about as distant from each other as both and inland ten leagues of Mostaganem. The are from France. Other important coast- only city of importance that breaks in the towns are Mostaganem and Arzew, westward, vast plains of the eastern province, is Conand Bouteyah and Philippeville — the latter stantina itself, fifty leagues from the coast, built by the French near Bona for greater fa- and perched upon high table-land, the southcility of access to the interior of Constantina, ern boundary of which is the Libyan Desert. eastward of the capital of Algeria. The great Conquerors and colonists out of number Atlas Mountains, which rise on the Atlantic Phænicians, Romans, Vandals, Greeks of the sea-board of Morocco, stretch in broken lower empire — attempted,, with more or less and irregular masses across the three provin- present success, the subjugation and settle ces in a south-easterly direction ; whilst the ment of this part of North Africa, and passed less elevated ridges, known as the Little or away, leaving few traces of their footsteps, Maritime Atlas, extend through the country till the Arabian invasion, under Kaled, " the from about Mostaganem and the mouth of the Sword of God,” in the eighth century, which, Shelliff River, in a direction more parallel it is quite manifest, vitally impressed the lanwith the coast than the central and southern guage, manners, religion, and, in no slight ranges — from which the Shelliff, for nearly degree, the physical conformation of the na300 miles, divides them. The heights of the tives of this ancient Numidia. The popular Lesser or Northern Atlas vary from 200 to tion of Algeria, about two millions, according 1000 feet, and, together with the loftier chains to General Lamoricière's estimate, is essenand the extensive intervening valleys, occupy tially Asian, not African ; and all, with the the greater portion of the surface of French exception of the Jews and negroes, are de Africa. Algiers itself is built in the form of vout votaries of Mohammed. This strongly an irregular triangle upon the seaward slope marked and diversified people consist of Berof Le Sahal, a magnificent amphitheatre of bers, otherwise Kabyles, Arabs, Moors, Koohills swelling gently up from the Mediterra- loolis, Jews, and negroes from Soudan. The
These hills are based and girdled Kabyles (clansmen) are the descendants of southward by the plain of Metidjah, which the hill-tribes of North Africa, and, like their extends a distance of seven leagues only - Numidian ancestors, are reputed to be brave to the nearest ridge of the Little Atlas, in and active, as well as cruel, inhospitable, the midst of which, about forty-five miles and revengeful. They still occupy the mounsouth of Algiers, Medeyah, the capital of the tain-ranges, and are skilled in agriculture and province of Titteri, and, moreover, the key of the ruder mechanical arts. Their dwellings the south country, is situated. To reach are stone huts, straw-thatched and overgrown this city, and the equally populous, though with palm-branches, in almost every one of not, in a military sense, equally important which there is to be seen a copy of the Ko town of Milianah, from Algiers, the Col or ran. They are broken into innumerable tribes, Pass of Teneah, a dangerous mountain-defile, constantly at feud with each other, and are of which we shall have to make frequent men- governed, like their co-religionists the Arabs, tion, must be threaded. Two other towns in by sheiks and holy men or maraboots — literthe vicinity of Algiers are Blidah and Koleah, ally, men with rope-girdles — who possess separated from each other by the width of immense influence over them. They under the Metidjah — the first nestled at the base of stand Arabic, and those near the const speak the Lesser Atlas, the other charmingly placed that language ; and in complexion they differ on the Mediterranean shore, about four leagues little from the swarthy Arab, but their beads