Obrazy na stronie


Commercial Retrospect for 1828.


Also, an Essay on the Minute Anatomy and The Cambria and Celtic Repertory, intended as Physiology of the Human Eye and its Appendages, a Vindication of our Welsh neighbours from a contrasted with those of Animals ; to be embel charge which they have justly laboured under, of lished with Plates, and dedicated by permission leaving literary stores to the care of strangers. to G. J. Guthrie, Esq. F.R.S. Professor of Ana. Counsels and Cautions for Youth. By the Rer. tomy to the Royal College of Surgeons, and John J. Thornton. One vol. 18mo. Connolly, Esq. M.D. Professor of Medicine in the Letters on Missions. By W. Swan, Missionary University of London.

at Selinginsk ; with an Introductory Essay by Andrew Ure, M.D. F.R.S. &c. has in the press, Wm. Orme, Secretary to the London Missionary a large octavo volume, entitled, "A New System Society. One vol. 12mo. of Geology, in which the Great Revolutions of the

Preparing for Publication. Earth and Aniinated Nature are reconciled at

In one volume octavo, embellished with a Poronce to Modern Science and Sacred History." trait of the Author, Sabbath Meditations, in prose This work will be illustrated by Copperplate En. and verse, by the late Rev. James Pitt Vernon, gravings of shells, characteristic of the strata and A.M. To which will be added, a Biographical superposition of the bone-caverns, and of casts of

Memoir of the Author. By Charles James Mans. fossil plants ; besides about 50 Wood Engravings, field, A.M. representing the most curious animal inhabitants

Dr. Davis, of Fitzroy-Square, Professor of Midof the primeval world, described by Cuvier, and wifery, &c. in the University of London, is preother fossil zoologists. The volume will appear | paring for publication, in one vol. 8vo. a Treatise about the end of January.

on tbe Diseases and Constitutional Management of Sherman's Guide to Acquaintance with God. Children. Third edition, considerably improved.

Matilda's Birth-Day; or, the Grand Magic Lan- Erratum : col. 1068, last line but one, for dignity tern. A Tale for Youth.

read benignity.


In tracing a rapid sketch of the state of Trade and Commerce of the Year about to close, it is to be remarked, that no great fluctuations have occurred, except the natural rise in all kinds of Grain, consequent upon a deficient barvest. It is, however, matter of thankfulness, that the season up to this period has continued so mild, thereby permitting the out-door employment of the poor, and an importation of Grain from the Baltic-otherwise generally impracticable at this season of the year.

In the insular situation of England, trade and commerce are inseparably connected with the political state of things. She has remained at peace, a state consonant with her best interests: it cannot, however, be denied, that she may have to complain of political wrongs from some powers, and commercial injustice from others. Still she maintains the “even tenor of her way,” and thus holds in her grasp that preponderating influence amongst all powers, which may be said to constitute her the arbitress of all. The system of free trade, we think, is gaining upon popular opinion-although it has had to encounter the opposition of some who are real, and of many others who are only imaginary, sufferers ; still, as a system, we must contend that Great Britain, by its adoption, is giving a lesson to Europe, and pointing‘out to the States of the New World, a path founded on the soundest principles of political justice, and the real welfare of every state. In the book of improvements, now adopting by this country, it is still to be regretted, that so few of the Agriculturists should be found willing to follow the advice of Whitmore and others, who have shewn that the Corn Trade might be thrown open, upon a basis compatible with the fair demands of the farmer, and the paramount just claims of the artisan and merchant. It may not be irrelevant here to advert to the conduct of America, in having adopted a restrictive system, (now justly exploded in England,) which can hardly fail of recoiling upon herself.

Most of the staple branches of manufacture of this country are in a healthy, if not in a flourishing condition ; the Cotton trade, in its great variety, and the Woollen trade: the same remark applies to the Iron trade, bar and pig iron. The various articles of Foreign produce are ruling generally at very moderate rates. We proceed to enumerate some of the leading articles of import, which are all rather under a peace medium.

Raw Sugar has been subject to occasional Auctuations and partial amendment, but a marked dif. ference may be observed in the relative difference which refined goods bear to the raw articles ; refined sugar being evidently cheaper.

Coffee for the last few months has been improving in value ; the article presents favourable prospects of improving prices,

Hides 'have, for a length of time, commanded high prices; but as peace has been concluded between the Brazils and Buenos Ayres, the trade will be thrown open, and considerable supplies will come in, and the articles will become more plentiful and cheaper. English oak-bark will derive a beneficial improvement from this cause.

Cotton Wool remains at steady and low prices ; the working classes engaged in this branch are now fully employed; and while the Foreign demand may be expected to revive in the spring, the Home customer is again putting forth his strength.

Indigo is improving in price, owing to a consumptive demand, and a report of a failing crop in the East Indies.

Olive Oil is rising in value ; and the price of Linseed Oil is enhanced in consequence of the scarcity of seed for crushing.

Although, in some quarters, the withdrawing of small notes is alleged as likely to occasion embarassment; on others, temporary rumours are raised, to shake credit ; yet for our parts, we see every reason to anticipate an improviug state of things, whilst we perservere in abstaining from war; and whilst we trust that the husbandman may get a fair protection, we would throw open as wide as possible the doors for trade and commerce.

During the past year, the Printing and Bookselling businesses have greatly improved. In the Fine Arts, the demand is unexampled ; and in most places throughout the realm, the Engravers and Copperplate Printers may be said to be overwhelmed with work.



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to a footing with her splendid sisters of Memoir of

Oxford and Cambridge ?. Cannot governJAMES PILLANS, ESQ. F. R. S. E., &c. &c. ment contrive to apportion a pittance for Professor of Ilamanity in the University of this purpose ? Notwithstanding, however, Edinburgh.

all these disadvantages, it is with sincere ( With a Portrait.)

pleasure we announce the fact, that the

cause of classical literature in Scotland It was recently asserted by some“ mettle has received a new spring and impulse, some Oxonian," in the columns of a which is to be attributed to the spirited and venerable contemporary, that Scotland had successful exertions of several eminent produced no classical scholars of eminence, scholars now alive-more especially to saving and excepting George Buchanan. those of the present professor of humanity It is not to be expected that we shall set in the university of Edinburgh, Mr. Pillans, ourselves seriously to refute an assertion so whose system of teaching, as we shall pregroundless and illiberal. Probably the sently shew, has done more towards the writer had never heard of the admirable promotion of thorough, accurate, and exLatin verse of a Barclay, a Jonston, or a tensive scholarship, than is generally acReade; or of the more modern names of knowledged. Moor, Young, Adams, Hunter, Carson, This gentleman was born in Edinburgh, and, though last, not least, the eminent on April 11, 1778. The rudiments of his individual whose portrait accompanies our classical education were received at the High present number.

School, under the tuition of the celebrated The actual state of classical literature in Dr. Adam. In this large establishment there Scotland, appears to be excessively under- is a higher station for those of the scholars rated in our country. Every report to its who are more advanced in classical studies, discredit meets with ready belief, and is and afford higher promise of improveextensively propagated. If

, however, one ment, than the rest, called the Rector's consideration were taken into account- class-which is taught by the rector himthe almost total absence of all adequate self. To this, Mr. Pillans soon made encouragement in the shape of fat fellow. his way, and, when there, distinguished ships, scholarships, endowments, prefer- himself no less by his talents than by his ments, and the hoc genus omne of an industry. Several of his class-fellows have Oxford and Cambridge establishment-it since arrived at high eminence : two of will afford matter for wonder, that so much whom were no less celebrat

persons ardour in the pursuit of classical literature than the present Henry Brougham, and is displayed in Scotland, as is to be found the late lamented and highly gifted at the present moment.

Francis Horner. With the latter, partiEven at the leading Scottish university, cularly, Mr. Pillans was on terms of the though it can boast of professors celebrated closest intimacy, and generally sat by him

every department of literature and phi- through the year, as well as at the public losophy, with the exception of one or two examination in 1793; at which this gifted inconsiderable bursaries for proficients in trio, we believe, very honourably distinthe Gaelic language, and a small, very small guished themselves. sum allowed by the city for distribution At the usual age, Mr. Pillans entered among one or two of the literary classes, the university of Edinburgh, bringing with there is nothing whatever in the shape of him the reputation of an excellent classical solid remuneration for talents and acquire- scholar, and passed with eclàt through ments the most splendid and meritorious. the regular routine of literary and philo. Why is this ? it will be asked. Truly we are sophical classes. It is said, that at one at a loss to answer. Are there no opulent time it was his intention to have devoted Mecænases in Scotland, who would take a his services to the church; and he, acpride in elevating the Edinburgh university cordingly, attended--if we are not 'mis

122,--VOL. XI.


Memoir of James Pillans, Esq.



informed the divinity hall for one The branches of knowledge taught at sion, but

was prevented continuing a Mr. Pillan's class, were, Latin, Greek, and second, by engagements as domestic tutor; | Geography, principally ancient. The in which capacity he resided for some Latin class, consisting of about 200 boys, time in Ayrshire, and several years after- met at nine o'clock every morning; and wards in London and Eton.

was occupied in reading and parsing, About the close of the year 1809, Dr. accurately, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Livy, Adam died; and, at the suggestion of his &c., and in committing to memory Adam's old friend and schoolfellow, Mr. Francis Grammar, and Roman antiquities. These Horner, Mr. Pillans was induced to offer were the lessons prescribed, without any himself a candidate for the vacant rector- assistance, the day before. The class ship of the High School. After some com- formed, immediately after prayers,

into petition, he was declared the successful twenty divisions, under their respective candidate, and entered on the important monitors; and the Cicero and Horace duties of his office early in the year 1810. or whatever was the regular lesson-were He soon observed, that, even under the construed by the nine boys of each divi. able auspices of his illustrious predecessors, sion: the monitor's duty in each, beingthe system of teaching, hitherto adopted in “1. to take care that every boy shall conihat establishment, would admit of large strue a portion of the new lesson ; 2. to see improvements. About this time, the mo- that his division understand the syntax nitorial system of

ell and Lancaster was and construction of the passage ; 3. to take attracting public notice; and, after a care- care that the right meaning be always ful consideration, Mr. Pillans became con- given to the passage, in all its parts; vineed that its principle might be most 4. to mark on a slip of paper those who advantageously extended to classical edu- fail in saying.” This, it will be seen, cation. He accordingly resolved to try the was an admirable plan for securing a experiment in the High School ; and in so thorough acquaintance with his lesson, on doing was the first who ever applied the the part of every boy. The monitor's was monitorial system to the purposes of certainly an arduous task; but, in addition wassical education ; and Dr. Russel, the to this, he was required to be every instant clarned head-master of the Charter House, on the qui vive ; since each of the boys of leas the first scholar in England who his division was instructed to note any false followed his example. As this is an in. quantity, false translation, or error of any teresting era in the annals of teaching, we kind, and reserve it for subsequent appeal have taken no small pains to obtain some to the rector. If they could make good information on the subject, as well in its their point, they took the place of those general plan, as its more minute details: who had failed to detect the error, and the and we hope the few sketches we may monitor himself lost his place. give of this admirable system, will be “This system,” says Mr. Pillans, in the useful to such of our readers as are con- able letter from which we have before had nected with education, and are not pre- occasion to quote, “binds both monitor viously acquainted with the method of and pupil to careful preparation at home : Mr. Pillans.

the former, from fear of detection and exOn entering his office at the High posure by a boy far below him in the class School, “scarcely a week has passed," -the latter, both by the infallible certainty says Mr. Pillans, in a letter addressed of his being called on to say the lesson, some years ago to the secretary of the and reported, if he fail--and by the British and Foreign School Society, honourable desire of rising in the class, “ without suggesting some improvements and proving that he knew the lesson better in my arrangements, all tending to one than the monitor. A further advantage of noint--that of stimulating, and applying this liberty of appeal is, that it generally to purpose, the various faculties of 200 brings forward into discussion the difficult boys, differing widely both in acquirement passages; and they being settled beforeand capacity; to insure attention, by ex- hand, a more perfect understanding of citements at once strong and honourable; the lesson is secured, and the necessity and to exclude that languor and listless- of frequent repetition avoided.” This was ness, arising partly from want of motion, the method of reading the Latin classics and partly from the physical misery of introduced by Mr. Pillans—a method to being so long in a sitting posture, which which many living excellent scholars attri. most of us may remember to have been bute the broad foundation of their future the great source of the unhappiness we labours. experienced at school."

With regard to the Greek class, it is

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