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of crimes, and in those countries, where
| THE PENITENTIARY OF SING SING, ON punishments are mildest, there are generally the fewest atrocities. The experiment of
THE EAST BANK OF THE HUDSON. the sanguinary method has been tried for The following interesting article is exages, with little apparent effect. It is now tracted from Captain Hall's new work on time to try the other method.
America: IX. If those persons whose crimes are! In several parts of his book he bears such as to render their liberty dangerous to strong testimony to the wise and benevo. society, were placed in perpetual, or even in lent exertions which are making in the limited confinement, and put under a regular United States to improve prison discipline, and severe course of labour, they might by rendering it as efficacious for the reforstill render some benefit to society, and mation of criminals, and the protection of enjoy a season for reflection and reforma- the public, as possible: tion, which would often result in the hap- “The prison at Sing Sing when compiest effects.
pleted, which it probably is by this time x. It is affirmed that the cost of trans- (1829,) will contain eight hundred cells, porting felons to foreign parts, amounts to four hundred of which are on the side more than the expense of confining them at facing the river, and a like number on the home would do.
side next the land. The block or mass of X1. The public prisons, penitentiaries, building, formed of these two sets of cells and bridewells, with little additional charge placed back to back, may be compared to and trouble, might be constructed to em- a long, high, and straight wall, twenty feet brace this benevolent object, and afford a thick, perforated on both sides with four time and place for many an unhappy man parallel and horizontal ranges of square to become amiable and virtuous.
holes. This again is encased on all sides XII. However criminals may be dealt by an external building, the walls of wbich with, it is certain that no legislature has a are ten feet distance from those of the right to cut short an offender's probation, inner work or honeycomb of cells. These and consign him to eternal misery; tem- outer walls are pierced with rows of small poral pains and privations are all they have windows, one being opposite to each door, a right to inflict. If they shall claim the and so adjusted as to afford abundant light right to punish with death, let us ask from and fresh air, but no means of seeing out. whom they received it?-Certainly not Stoves and lamps are placed along the area from God ;-and if they answer, From or open space between the external wall and society-we inquire again, What is society, the inner building, to afford heat in winter, but a compact or corporation of indi- and light to the galleries after sunset. viduals, no one of whom is vested with a “As soon as the prisoners are locked up power over the life of his fellow. If it be for the night, each in his separate cell, a referred to the monarch, we reply, that his watchman takes his station on the groundstation as king makes no difference in this floor abreast of the lower tier, or, if he respect. He is still only a human being, thinks fit, he may walk along the galleries and no society can transfer to him a right past the line of doors. His feet being they do not themselves possess.
shod with mocasins, his tread is not heard, XIII. It is plain that our government while he himself can hear the faintest are well affected to any improvement in attempt at communication made by one the criminal code, and that both they and prisoner to another; for the space in front the judges of the land are inclined to lenity of the cells seems to be a sort of whisperand mitigation of punishment, as appears ing or sounding gallery, of which fact I from the few who are executed, compared satisfied myself by actual experiment, with the numbers that are condemned: though I do not very well know the cause. and it is well known that our gracious and In this way the convicts are compelled to benevolent sovereign always signs a death- pass the night in solitude and silence; and warrant with the strongest reluctance. I do not remember in my life to have met
Now therefore would be a suitable time before with any thing so peculiarly solemn for petitions to be presented by every town as the death-like silence which reigned, and province in the empire, expressive of even at noon day, in one of these prisons, public opinion on this subject; and should though I knew that many hundreds of this be done, we might have the happiness people were close to me. At night the to see a milder system adopted, many lives degree of silence was really oppressive; spared, and much mişery prevented to the and like many other parts of this estamocent families and friends of the blishment must be witnessed in person to
| be duly understood.
“The convicts are awakened at sunrise while the superintendent himself can neither by a bell; but before they are let out, the be seen nor heard by the prisoners, or by clergyman of the establishment reads a their keepers. The consciousness that a prayer from a station so chosen, that with- | vigilant eye may at any given moment be out effort he can readily make himself fixed upon them, is described as being heard by all the prisoners on that side of singularly efficacious in keeping the attenthe building, that is, to say, by four hun- tion of all parties awake, to an extent dred, or one-half of the number confined. which no visible and permanent scrutiny,
The turnkeys now open the doors, and a I am told, has the power of commanding." word of command being given, each of “At a fixed hour (eight, I believe) a the prisoners steps out of his cell into the bell is rung, upon which all work is disgallery. They are then formed into a close continued; the prisoners again form themline, and made to march with what is selves into a close line under their turnkey, called the lock step, with their eyes turned and when the order is given to march, towards the keeper, along the passages to they return back to their cells. Each one the work-shops. On leaving the building, now stops before his door, with his hands the different divisions or gangs under the by his side, motionless and silent like a several turnkeys make a short halt in the statue, till directed by a signal to stoop outer yard, to wash their hands and faces, down for his breakfast, which has been and also to deposit their tubs and water- previously placed for him on the floor of cans, which are taken up by another set the gallery. They next turn about, and of prisoners, whose duty it is to attend to march in, after which the iron doors of their the cleansing department of the household. cells are locked upon them, while they take Another party of the prisoners attend to their comfortless meal in solitude. At Authe cooking; another to washing clothes; burn, where this system was first put in opein short, the whole work is done by the ration, it was the practice at the time of my convicts. The main body of the prisoners visit, to allow the prisoners to eat their are then marched to their fixed tasks; meals in company. But experience having some to hew stone or to saw marble, some shown that even this degree of sociability, to forge iron, some to weave cloth; while trifling as it was, did some harm, and that others are employed as tailors, shoemakers, much good was gained by compelling them coopers, and in various other trades. Each to mess alone, the plan above described shop is under the charge of a turnkey, of has, I believe, been introduced in all the course not a convict, but a man of cha- | other similar establishments in America, of racter, and known to be trustworthy, who, which I am glad to say, there are now a besides other qualifications, is required to great many. be master of the business there taught; for “After twenty minutes have elapsed, the his duty is not only to enforce the closest prisoners are marched to their work, which attention to the rules of the prison, and in goes on in the samé uninterrupted style till particular that of the most rigorous silence, noon, when they are paraded once more to but he has to instruct the men under his their cells, where they take their lock-up, charge in some trade. The prisoners, unsociable dinner, and then pace back when in these work-shops, are placed in again to their dull silent round of hard rows, with their faces all turned in one labour. On the approach of night, the direction, so that they cannot communicate prisoners are made to wash their hands by looks or signs. Each turnkey has not and faces as they did in the morning on less than twenty, nor more than thirty men, leaving their cells, and then, as before, at under his charge; and it is found that one the sound of the yard bell, to form them. man, stimulated by a good salary, or by selves into lines, each one standing in order other adequate motives to do his duty, and according to the number of his night's who is duly supported, can perfectly well quarters. As they pass through the yarı! enforce these regulations upon that number they take up their cans and tubs, and pro. of persons.
ceed finally for this day to their cell doors, * The general superintendent of the pri where their supper of mush and molasses, son has a most ingen:ous method of watch a preparation of Indian corn meal, await3 ing, not only the prisoners, but also the them as before. At a fixed hour they are turnkeys. A narrow dark passage runs directed by a bell to undress and go to along the back part of all the work-shops, bed; but just before this, and as nearly at from whence the convicts sitting at their sunset as may be, prayers are said by the tasks, as well as their turnkeys, can be dis- resident clergyman. It is very important tinctly seen through narrow slits in the wall, to know from the best qualified local authohalf an inch wide, and covered with glass, rities, that the efficacy of this practice,
considered as a branch of prison disci: | on the Ohio are covered with very large pline, and independently of its other valu- trees. But, in the prairie regions, where I able considerations, has been found very have seen the greatest numbers, they are great,
covered with tall grass, and generally large
benches,—which indicate the former courses ON THE GRANDEUR AND MORAL INTEREST of the rivers in the finest situations for OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES.
present culture; and the greatest popula(By T. Flint.)
tion clearly has been in those very posi“You will expect me to say something of tions, where the most dense future populathe lonely records of the former races that tion will be. * * * inhabited this country. That there has “The English, when they sneer at our formerly been a much more numerous country, speak of it as sterile in moral population than exists here at present, I am interest. It has,' say they, 'no monufully impressed, from the result of my own ments, no ruins, none of the massive repersonal observations. From the highest | mains of former ages; no castles, no moulpoints of the Ohio to where I am now dering abbeys, no baronial towers and writing, and far up the upper Mississippi dungeons; nothing to connect the imagiand Missouri, the more the country is nation and the heart with the past ; no explored and peopled, and the more its sur- recollections of former ages, to associate face is penetrated, not only are there more the past with the future.' mounds brought to view, but more incon. ..“But I have been attempting sketches of testable marks of a numerous population, the largest and most fertile valley in the
“ Wells, artificially walled, different world, larger, in fact, than half of Europe, structures of convenience or defence, have all its remotest points being brought into been found in such numbers, as no longer proximity by a stream, which runs the to excite curiosity. Ornaments of silver length of that continent, and to which all and of copper, pottery, of which I have but two or three of the rivers of Europe seen numberless specimens on all those are but rivulets. Its forests make a respectwaters,-not to mention the mounds them- able figure, even placed beside Blenheim selves, and the still more tangible evidence of human bodies found in a state of pre- “We have lakes which could find a servation, and of sepulchres full of bones, place for the Cumberland lakes in the hol-are unquestionable demonstrations, that low of one of their islands. . We have this country was once possessed of a nume- prairies, which have struck me as among rous population. * * " The mounds the sublimest prospects in nature. There themselves, though of earth, are not those we see the sun rising over a boundless rude and shapeless heaps, that they have plain, where the blue of the heavens, in all been commonly represented to be. I have directions, touches and mingles with the seen, for instance, in different parts of the verdure of the flowers. It is to me a view Atlantic country, the breast-works and far more glorious than that on which the other defences of earth, that were thrown up / sun rises on a barren and angry waste of by our people during the war of the revolu. sea. The one is soft, cheerful, associated tion. None of those mountains date back with life, and requires an easier effort of more than fifty years. These mounds must the imagination to travel beyond the eye. date back to remote depths in the olden time. The other is grand, but dreary, desolate,
"From the ages of the trees on them, and always ready to destroy. and from other data, we can trace them | “In the most pleasing positions of these back six hundred years, leaving it entirely prairies, we have our Indian mounds, which to the imagination to descend farther into proudly rise above the plain. At first the the depths of time beyond. And yet, eye mistakes them for hills; but when it after the rains, the washing, and the crum- catches the regularity of their breast-works bling of so many ages, many of them are and ditches, it discovers at once that they still twenty-five feet high. All of them are the labours of art and of men. are, incomparably, more conspicuous monu- “When the evidence of the senses con• ments than the works which I just noticed. / vinces us that human bones moulder in Some of them are spread over an extent these masses; when you dig about them, of acres. I have seen, great and small, I and bring to light their domestic utensils; should suppose, a hundred. Though diverse and are compelled to believe, that the busy in position and form, they all have a uni- tide of life once flowed here; when you form character.
see, at once, that these races were of a very “They are, for the most part, in rich different character from the present genesoils, and in conspicuous situations. Those | ration, you begin to inquire if any tradi
tion, if any, the faintest, records can throw | little by the public in general. The latter, any light upon these habitations of men of of course, know but little of the way in another age.
which news is collected, or newspapers are “Is there no scope, besides these mounds, got up, and care as little, so long as they for imagination, and for contemplation of receive their accustomed paper at the apthe past? The men, their joys, their sor pointed hour in the morning or evening, rows, their bones, are all buried together. and find in it how things are going on at But the grand features of nature remain. home or abroad, in the east, the west, the There is the beautiful prairie, over which north, and the south; and yet, perhaps, our they strutted through life's poor play.' readers may not be displeased with some The forests, the hills, the mounds, lift their little information on the subject, given by heads in unalterable repose, and furnish one whose “ daily bread" is gathered from the same sources of contemplation to us, this, among the millions of ways open to that they did to those generations that have the inhabitants of this vast metropolis. passed away.
It would appear to a person unacquainted “It is true, we have little reason to sup with the printing business, that the vast pose that they were the guilty dens of petty number of newspapers now circulated, when tyrants, who let loose their half savage vas | compared with the circulation of former sals to burn, plunder, enslave, and despoil | years, would give employment to a greater an adjoining den. There are no remains number of printers in the two distinct of the vast and useless monasteries, where branches of that business. The contrary, ignorant and lazy monks dreamed over their however, is the case. In former years one lusts, or meditated their vile plans of acqui individual would be proprietor of one paper, sition and imposture.
and another of another; and it was a rare “Here must have been a race of men, thing to find two or more newspapers got on these charming plains, that had every up in the same office. Now matters are call from the scenes that surrounded them, entirely changed, and one individual will to contented existence and tranquil medi- be proprietor of two, three, four, or more tation. Unfortunate, as men view the newspapers; all, or nearly all, got together thiny, they must have been. Innocent and by one set of hands, instead of each having peaceful they probably were; for, had they a distinct office, and a distinct number of been reared amidst wars and quarrels, like men regularly engaged in its preparation. the present Indians, they would, doubtless, This evil, (for evil it has been, and is, to have maintained their ground, and their the journeyman, though productive of an posterity would have remained to this day. incalculable profit to the master,) has arisen Beside them moulder the huge bones of from a variety of causes, among the foretheir contemporary beasts, which must have most of which is the saving of time by been of thrice the size of the elephant. steam-printing. The mighty powers of
“I cannot judge of the recollections ex steam, and its adaptation to the purposes cited by castles and towers that I have not of printing, are little known and understood seen. But I have seen all of grandeur, by the public. Formerly, the proprietor which our cities can display. I have seen, of a newspaper was satisfied with a modetoo, these lonely tombs of the desert, rate, of course a paying, circulation, for this seen them rise from these boundless and reason,-that the physical powers of his unpeopled plains. My imagination and men and the construction of his printingmy heart have been full of the past. The presses would not allow more than a cernothingness of the brief dream of human tain number of impressions in a given period life has forced itself upon my mind. The of time; and in a daily paper, for instance, unknown race, to which these bones be only a certain number could be printed, up longed, had, I doubt not, as many projects to the hour of publication. But the introof ambition, and hoped, as sanguinely, to duction of steam gave a new turn and imhave their names survive, as the great ones pulse to the whole affair. of the present day."
The number of impressions produced in the old mode, by manual labour, 'varied
from 200 to 300 per hour, but steam will REMARKS ON NEWS, NEWSPAPERS, &c.
produce from 800 to 1200; consequently In no science, profession, trade, or manu where four hours were before consumed, facture, perhaps, so much as in the art of one is now only required. printing, has the spirit of enterprize and im Then speculation and competition in no provement been manifested, unattended by ordinary degree arose; the hundreds a paper any particular announcement on the part of circulated were as quickly as possible trebled; the individuals concerned, or regarded so l numerous newspapers, of limited circula
tion, were bought up at enormous prices, | This number will be found absolutely neand merged into others, giving one paper cessary to ensure despatch, when we contwo or three titles or headings-printing esta- sider that we can see, at six o'clock in the blishments were broken up-and journey- morning, the proceedings of the house of men, of course, obliged to seek employment | lords or commons, amounting perhaps to in other channels—the masters pocketed an 15 or 16 columns, and at the end of the enormous revenue and the public were no same “The house adjourned at 3 o'clock." gainers by the change, the newspaper con- The persons employed on morning papers tinuing at the same price it was before. consequently retire to rest when others are
This is not the only evil the introduction getting up. of steam has brought to the journeyman The expenses attending evening papers are printer: a more important one is yet to be much less, though even in some of these they noticed. In consequence of the speed with are very considerable. When morning pawhich printing is now executed, it soon of pers are published, evening papers are comcourse occurred to the masters, (and it is menced. The editor of an evening paper now carried on to a considerable extent,) has before him all the morning journals. that two or three papers might easily be The news in each is public propertymade up out of one collection of type.- the scissors consequently are his best and
This is performed in the following simple most intimate friend -here he culls all that manner:-A newspaper with a certain title pleases his fancy, or that he thinks will is put to press, and the usual number of its please his readers; and thus, with the assistcirculation printed off—say a thousand ; ance of some few reports of circumstances this occupies an hour. During this hour occurring during the morning, his news is the editor may be employed in writing, and obtained in a much cheaper way. the compositors in putting together, any It happens, however, sometimes, that thing additional that may be brought in what is obtained and paid very heavily for, through the various channels of information is copied into the papers the following open to the establishment. The first paper morning, and thus a mutual exchange is being printed off, is removed to the place made beneficial to both parties. It is of publication—the type taken away--the known that one article only, say 40 or 50 other certain title got ready-a moving and lines, has, in time of war, when sent by shifting of different articles of news takes express, cost the proprietors 50 or £60.; place-an alteration of appearance is made and the salary of a clever evening-paper as much as possible; and thus a morning editor rises sometimes so high as £20 per paper may be turned into an evening paper; week. two or three evening papers got up from one collection of type; or two, three, or four
AN AUDIENCE OF THE PACHA OF EGYPT. weekly papers “made up” out of perhaps a daily evening or a morning journal.- This The following extract is from an intelligent is no exaggeration; many individuals out of work recently published by Mr. Madden, a the printing business, have noticed and re-medical gentleman, who has lately travelled marked,-say a glaring or a curious blun- through Turkey.. der made in one paper, appearing in an- “After the presents were extolled by all other-and found in a third : their asto- the court, I shewed his highness the mannishment is excited; but it ceases, on their ner of winding the musical clocks, which being told that one set of men, and one set he seemed much pleased with, and repeat. of type, do the whole of the business of edly exclaimed “Mashallah,' God is great. these different newspapers.
"You hakkims,' he said, can do every A description of the varied sources and thing; you can mend people's bodies and vast expenditure of a morning paper, for wind clocks, Mashallah !'' This was inthe different articles of news it contains, tended for a witticism, and all the Chriswould occupy too much of our space. The tian parasites accordingly laughed at the expense of postage alone, in many offices, good thing his highness' said. We got would cause a look of incredulity and asto- coffee, but no pipes. Sir Hudson Lowe nishment, leaving out the money paid to was one of the last persons who had a pipe reporters, (generally about 1 d. for every at the Pacha's. The cancelliere, who sat line furnished) or the two, three, or four by me, repeatedly told me not to sit at my hundreds per year paid to others regularly ease, but to rest on the very edge of the belonging to the establishment, and that divan, as the other Franks did ; for,' said establishment of reporters alone consisting he, when Sir Hudson visited his highness, perhaps, especially during the sitting of he sat in such a respectful manner, that he parliament, of eight or ten individuals. hardly touched the seat; and his highness