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to him, extends alike to every being, the the Almighty Creator, and which, in fact, most lowly as well as the most exalted, the he must unavoidably pursue. peasant as well as the prince ;

“The poetry of Tasso, therefore, is not

more sublime than his philosophy is just, * And sees, with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall :

when, in his description of the glories of Atoms or systems into ruin hurid,

heaven, and the magnificence of the eternal And now a bubble burst, and now a world.'

throne, he adjoins, A noble and philosophic sentiment, whose | 'Tis there he sits, the just, the good Supreme; beauty is only proportioned to its truth. Propounds his laws, and harmonizes all : 3. “ But it has, farther, been alleged,

And leads the tribes of this diminish'd orb

Thro' scenes where sense or doubting reason fails. and in that part of the allegation which regards individuals lord Bolingbroke unites "I grant that the belief of a providence in opinion,—that no providence or divine thus particular has been the source of a interposition, either general or particular, thousand errors and extravagant conceits in can ever exist without infringing on the the minds of the enthusiastic and the liberty of moral election.

superstitious. But, not to urge that right “Now it is possible, and indeed nothing reason can never admit the doctrine of a is more common, tban for influences and general providence, without, at the same interpositions to subsist between man and time, including that of a particular,-it man, and yet for the liberty of the person does not follow that a proposition must be who is acting, to remain as free and invio false because some visionary adherents to late as ever. Such are often the result of it, pretend to deduce consequences which the remonstrances of friendship,--such, of are not necessarily involved in it, and with the counsels of wisdom and experience. which, in reality, they are by no means We consent to desist from one particular connected. I am not contending for the mode of conduct, and to pursue its oppo- inspiration of De Serres, or the wandering site, whenever the first is demonstrated to tribe of prophets who united themselves to us to be unjust or deleterious ; and the him on the mountains of the Cevennes, at second to be advantageous, or consistent | the period of the revocation of the edict of with rectitude. We act under the influ Nantz; nor for the invisible interposition ence of the representations of our friends, to which the excellent but too credulous but we perceive not, in thus acting, and in | Baxter attributed it, that his small linen, reality, do not submit to, any infringement when hung out to dry, was caught up in on our liberty of choice.

| an eddy, and carried out of sight, over the “Shall we, then, allow the existence of church steeple:' but there are, nevertheless, such an imperceptible power in man, and | a thousand events occur, as well in the yet maintain that it cannot possibly exist lives of individuals, as in what relates to in the Supreme Being? If the man of society at large, which-though they canaddress, from a superficial knowledge of not be said to violate the established laws our character and opinions, is so far capa- 1 of nature ---we are by no means led to ble of insinuating himself into our favour, expect; and, indeed, the very reverse of as often to influence and direct our ideas which we have been secretly predicting. and our actions to the very point he has “That Charles the Eighth, or Francis in view-must not a Being who is all- the First of France, men who had devoted powerful and all-active, who is acquainted the earliest and most vigorous hours of with the deepest recesses of the soul, who their lives to illicit amours and continual views every thought as it arises, and knows debaucheries of every kind, should comby what motives it may most assuredly be plain, towards the advance of age, of influenced ; must not such a Being be pains and debilities, and a constitution capable of directing, with infinitely more totally broken and worn out; and, at ease, the train of its ideas; and, at plea- length, fall victims to their own irregusure, either subtract from, or make addi- larities and misconduct: or that Louis tion to, the force of the motives that govern the Eleventh, or others, men who never it? However impossible this may be on hesitated to employ either artifice or murthe doctrine of moral necessity, and sup- der for the accomplishment of their purposing the same severity of fate to subsist poses, should, at length, become fearful throughout the ideas and actions of intel- of their own personal safety, be perpetually ligent beings, that is ever to be met with haunted by the horrors of their own imain the physical department of creation ginations, and the lawless deeds they had far from any such impossibility of conduct committed; and at last sink into an early resulting from the opposite doctrine, it is grave through mere distrust and disquiea conduct that appears perfectly natural to tude of spirit;—that men thus abandoned


Observations on the Ruins of York Cathedral. 696 .............................................. .........conrr.....croarrrrrr...... or dishonest should in this manner, in due | tends, at pleasure, the complicated contime, meet with the very punishments they cerns of mankind : a power, who, alike 80 richly deserved, may not particularly amidst all the fluctuating fortunes of excite our surprise, as being merely the individuals or of kingdoms, still obvious consequences of causes equally Rides in the whirlwind, and directs the storm.' obvious and natural. But when we be- Such has been the situation of things in all hold the Dauphin, who was afterwards ages; such the recurrence of the peripetia Charles the Seventh of France, pursued in the grand drama of human life: and with resistless impetuosity by the victorious such the sentiments by which every nation llenry the Fifth of England -a wretched has, at all times, been actuated. Hence fugitive in a country he was afterwards altars have been erected, temples dedidestined to sway with so much eclat- cated, and vows profused, without numincapable of providing himself and his ber; hence the wrath of the presiding family with the common necessaries of deity has been deprecated, or his benelife ;-his father, the reigning monarch, diction coveted and besought.-Can we, disordered in his intellects; his mother, then, influenced by considerations like the flagitious and unnatural Isabelle, con-these-by rational arguments and the sancsulting to save herself by marrying hertion and testimony of every nation and daughter to the young conqueror, in exclu-climate under heaven-can we do othersion of the Dauphin, apparently for ever; wise than conclude, in the words of Cicero --when we survey the nation vanquished the Roman orator, -- By the providence of in every part, and the victor, exulting in God the world is ordered; all human the mighty deeds he had achieved, ad- affairs are under his guidance, and that not vancing towards Paris with all the pomp only as a whole, but with reference to every of royalty and success; there to be crown- part.'; ed, unanimously, sovereign of the conquered country :-when we survey these things, and learn that at this eventful

OBSERVATIONS ON THE RUINS OF YORK moment the successful Henry expires ab

CATHEDRAL. ruptly in the bloom of youth and vigour,

(Concluded from col. 615.) and leaves his victorious armies to save INTERNAL decorations and ornaments atthemselves, in their turn, by a disgraceful tached to useful furniture, are extraneous to, retreat:-or when, in later times, we read and frequently incongruous with, the fabric the history of the memorable armada of in which they are placed, in those portions Spain, destined for the conquest of this of sacred edifices which are appropriated country, which Philip the Second had to the celebration of divine service; they alınost ruined himself and his people to are a fabric within a fabric, and may be complete, and which Sixtus the Fifth, the and are, in most cases, removed, replaced, reigning Pope, had consecrated, and be- or changed, according to the prevailing stowed his benediction upon; when we feelings or taste of those, who at the survey this mighty armament pressing on moment preside over their destinies. Havthe very shores of Great Britain with all ing been in the habit of reviewing the the insolence of conscious triumph, and venerable Cathedral Church of York perimark it defeated by a force far inferior to odically, during half a century, and always itself, and wrecked, by the most opportune with peculiar interest and delight, my tempests, on the very coasts it had a few memory recalls into existence, and dwells moments before so insolently menaced ;- upon the grandeurs of its choir with pecuwhen reverses of fortune like these are liar zest. On the 20th day of November

occurring around us, so abrupt and deci- last, I reviewed and lingered over these . sive — the vulgar may stare and keep | grandeurs with more than usual interest, silence,-the man of science may pretend taking a last look, on finally parting, after to account for them, and resolve the whole returning more than once, I knew not why, into different, though capricious, combina- to look again and again upon that which my tions of natural causes and effects: but the boyish days had dwelt upon with eagertrue philosopher, the man of real reflec-ness, and my manhood had reviewed and tion, even while he acknowledges the pre- re-reviewed with delight; yet little did I sence and energy of natural causation, and imagine that this view was to be the last, contends not for any miraculous interpo- and that, within three short months, all sition, traces, nevertheless, throughout the this magnificence would be resolved into whole, the secret direction of an invisible dust. On consulting my notes upon that and superior power :-a power to whom visit, I find the following memorandum :every element submits, and who superir-! « Revisited the Cathedral Church at

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York, was peculiarly struck with the hoary | the habit of contemplating their hoary magnificence of the choir, venerable with grandeurs, it cannot be expected that the age, and associated with my earliest recol same veneration awaits a revivification of lections; this mass of grandeur, congregated every thing incongruous which belonged in the midst of an immense and truly sub to them. To a chaste and genial re-edifilime structure, equally venerable with itself, cation of these ornaments, no doubt, the is not in perfect keeping with the edifice man of taste will come with an ardour in which it is placed ; however, it is a similar to that which induced him to venegrand mass of ornament, hoary with anti- rate the antiquity of those which are now quity, and what, as an old acquaintance, I become dust, but a new edition, uncordelight to review, and which I dwell upon rected, will, instead of praise, meet unquawith sensations of awe, approaching the lified censure. The florid has no place in sublime: yet it is like a jewel in a setting the edifice itself, and to give it local habiungenial with itself; it shines, but shines tation in the choir alone, will be to mar alone; no reflected rays return to greet its | rather than re-edify this venerable and lustre, no genial beams mingle with its interesting monument of antiquity. radiance; cold is the casket, it gives no The mass of ornaments which formerly note of the gem within. The immense, is occupied the choir, and are now become the character of this fabric, and its dignity dust, we have reason to believe were arises out of its vastness and simplicity; added to the Cathedral Church some time complication in the fabric has no place; after the fabric itself was finished, and in it is in the choir, and in the choir alone, this addition the taste of the time seems where the florid bears sway, and its sway to have been consulted rather than the assumes more of the feature of usurpation fitness of this internal decoration with the than of legitimacy in its countenance." external structure. The whole mass, how

On the 13th day of May, I stood upon ever, has now become a total ruin, no part the same spot, from whence, in the pre whatever having escaped the sweeping ceding November, I had surveyed and conflagration, which, in the short period of admired the grandeurs of this choir; but the fraction of a day, destroyed utterly all they were no more, and in their place an that science and labour had, by years of immense void presented itself, naked and plodding and toil, brought to perfection : bare, and fraught with ruin; but the out the time is, therefore, come when the lines of the choir, with such parts of the errors of that age may be effectually corfabric as the removal of these ornaments rected, without the least inconvenience to had rendered visible, in all their pristine the parties concerned; because, as all is dignity presented themselves to the eye; destroyed, the whole mass, both as to and I was as greatly awed by the imposing design and execution, must in toto be ruins and dignified simplicity of this vast erected anew. To borrow a design from edifice, seen for the first time in its immen perspective views and fragment prints, and sity, as I previously was by the grandeurs eke this design out from memory, may, of its choir. It was a moment for feeling, and in all probability will, embody all the and I felt for the loss the public had sus errors of the first, with a portion of its tained; but as it was a moment for feeling beauties add more errors, and rear, in the recollection, so also was it a moment for place of the departed members, yet more contemplation, and I could not but con incongruity than existed in the original, at firm the notes of incongruity I had long | which, when finished, 'many of the ancient made: they rushed upon me with tenfold men, who have seen the first, will weep conviction, when no longer isolated in the and say, In comparison of the first it is as midst of this immense structure, amidst nothing. Why not consult the style of the ornaments of the choir, which barred the edifice itself, and, instead of the florid the view in every direction, save towards and fanciful order, which has now passed the grand east window, I beheld the real away, adopt a design founded upon the character of the fabric itself without a chasest principles, drawn from the strucveil between.

ture itself, without the least deviation, and I conceive, in the reconstruction of the thus form a consistent whole? cathedral throne, the stalls, the pulpit, the Every man who has attended divine desks, the pews, the organ loft, and the service in a Cathedral Church, must be tabernacle-work in general, a design ought aware, that there are certain parts thereof, to be adopted which is in perfect harmony in which a mode is adopted peculiar to with the whole fabric. Much as the vene- that service; to a stranger, therefore, this rable antiquity of the former ornaments peculiarity is a novelty, to which he resorts, endeared them to those who were long in as well to satisfy his curiosity, as to je


Observations on the Ruins of York Cathedral.


in the service; the grandeurs of these struc-chancel, from the pews of the choir to the tures have also their attractions, and not a rails of the communion table, duly ornafew are drawn by these to join in the ser- mented, would invite the weary traveller vices celebrated therein; and the preaching to a momentary rest, and speak directly to of the dignitaries of a Cathedral Church his heart. draws to its services strangers of all deno- I humbly conceive, without stepping minations ; but for these, where is the out of my own line, and setting up for a accommodation in the choir? During my divine, that the present is the moment repeated visits to York, I have attended when, for the interest of the church of divine service in the choir generally, per | Jesus Christ, which I believe to be one haps in the whole a hundred times, but as with the church of England, the digniI invariably sojourned at an inn, and the taries of that church might condescend, inn I frequented had not a pew in the with every propriety, to the people, and choir, during all my attendances upon the endear them, by stronger ties than earth cathedral services in York, I never was can furnish, to themselves and the church, entitled to a sitting in any one of the pews. / in which they minister in the name of Whether it arose out of a forbidding man. Him who created and redeemed all manner in the congregation and attendants kind. there, or from my utter neglect, in never While the only door to the emoluments, trying the silver key which I always car-honours, and power of the state was through ried in my pocket, I will not venture to this church, multitudes, fraught with other pronounce; but one thing is certain, I views than those allied to piety and devonever once was invited, and of course I tion, flocked to its ordinances, and thronged never sat down in any one of its pews. its courts; but now the emoluments, Occasionally, from mere weariness, I have honours, and power of the state are open squatted down upon some of the forms to every creed, and men are left to the which, in the open area between the pews choice of that creed which is most genial and the altar, were occupied by soldiers to their own views of things, every man, and others, but in general I stood during | unbiased by interest or ambition, will be the whole service; and if I could obtain come a member of that church, which the situation, stood against the side of the accords in its doctrines and practice with last pew on the north-east end of the choir, his own. which, rather from instinct than choice, What a task have these concessions of might be deemed my favourite situation. the state rolled upon the clergy of the

From numbers of respectable travellers, Church of England! While the liturgy of I have heard loud complaints upon the this Protestant church is one of the most privation, and have witnessed too often to pious and sublime compositions the pen of name, the chagrin and disappointment man has yet produced, and correctly acunder which they writhed, on retiring from cords with the experience of the saints in divine service in that choir. I would all ages, it is, on this very account, exceedhumbly ask, would it not be a work, light ingly obnoxious to sinners, and of course as the labours of love, in the reconstruction unpopular with mankind in general. The of the choir to mingle hospitality to the carnal mind is enmity against God, and stranger with provision for the resident, by therefore at enmity with every thing that is erecting a few extra pews, wherein the like God; but this liturgy accords with wayfaring man may sit at ease, and enjoy the bible, and the bible is a transcript of the service of the sanctuary? In the open the attributes of Deity; the same mind, space or chancel, between the pews and therefore, which rejects God, rejects His the communion table, if a semicircular word, and rejects this pious liturgy also. range of pews were erected, with a floor There is a church, however, whose docelevated to the height of the floor of the trines and practice accord with the carpal altar eastward, and descending westward to mind ; this church was heretofore in the the level of the pews in the choir, I con- | back ground, but the emoluments, honours, ceive a beautiful termination of the choir and power of the state are now open to it, eastward would be the result, and one in common with all others; to the Roman which would correspond much better with Catholic church, therefore, the carnally the elevated pews in the organ-loft to the minded will flock in crowds; interest and west, than the naked area which heretofore ambition cease to keep them away, and seemed to leave the choir unfinished. But there are the physicians, who, with opiates, if this be thought too much, a single row can lull to rest, if they cannot heal a of pews, ranging with the bases of the wounded conscience, while it continues in piers, east and west, on each side of the sin.

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Siege of Bhurtpore. ....................................coconcorrorocco.............................

Either the Protestant clergy must now of horse artillery,) we started for Muttra, labour amidst their flocks, bring them india where the army was assembling, and reached vidually to Christ, and become to them that place on the 4th of December; a larger the ministers of salvation from sin, the or a finer army never took thefi eld before spiritual fathers of their flocks, or the mul- in Hindoostan - 30,000 men, and 160 titude will be scattered, and leave that pieces of cannon. On the 8th we marched, church desolate. Conciliatory and endear and came in sight of Bhurtpore at eight ing measures, evincing that the mind which o'clock on the morning of the 10th. I shall was also in Christ Jesus, is in the ministers proceed with the principal occurrences of of the established church, that mind which the siege, in the form of a journal. led the holy reformers of our nation to 1 On the 10th, arrived in sight of Bhurtcompose the excellent and pious liturgy pore in the morning about eight o'clock now in use therein, would lead up the the cavalry and horse artillery entered the sinner to the blood of atonement, and jungle which surrounds the fort, and drew open his eyes to the fooleries of a church, a heavy fire by getting too close to the which in vain worships Christ, teaching for works-a few men and horses killed and doctrines the commandments of men, and wounded. out of sinners would arrange a congrega From the 10th to the 23rd, employed in tion of saints, devoted to, and worshipping reconnoitering, investing the place, and prethe living God, into a building, fitly framed paring materials for the siege. On the 24th together, growing unto a holy temple in a gun battery of eight 18-pounders, and 12 the Lord; and would convert the church eight-inch mortars, opened on the fort; I of England into a habitation of God through | commanded the mortar battery, and fired the Spirit, without which it will fall into the first shot : kept up a heavy fire during ruin.

the day and night; our distance from the fort about 700 yards. In the night, ap

proaches were commenced, to form the seSIEGE AND CAPTURE OF BHURTPORE.

cond parallel, and on the night of the 20th The following letter from an officer to his | a ten-gun battery was erected within 350 sister, giving an account of these events, we yards, to knock off the defences.-The 27th copy from the Sydney Gazette.

28th, and 29th, employed in completing Camp, on the march from Bhurtpore to

our approaches and batteries under the fire

of those already finished : I commanded Meerut, March 1, 1826.

the ten-gun battery on the 29th : the enemy MY DEAR SISTER,

kept up a constant and heavy fire.-By the My last letter left me on the point of evening of the 4th of January all our batmaking a long journey by post to Meerut, a teries were completed, and on the 5th at distance of 1,000 miles. Every preparation day-break, 80 pieces of heavy ordnance being made, I took my departure from Cal- commenced the work of death and destruccutta, and arrived at my destination without tion; this day I commanded the centre accident, on the morning of the 9th of No mortar battery; the fire from both sides vember; the trip is usually made in twelve was tremendous.-6th. This day I comdays, but I stopped at intermediate sta- manded the grand breaching battery of 16 tions, which rendered the journey less fa. guns, and fired upwards of 3,000 shot : all tiguing. Only conceive yourself shut up in the batteries kept up a constant fire : our a box, and carried on men's shonlders from engineers had succeeded in establishing London to Edinburgh and back again, and their saps on the crest of the ditch, and you contemplate posting in India; fortu- commenced the operation of mining ; the nately the sedan-chair-like motion has the ditch in this part was free from water.-7th. effect of shrouding the senses in sleep, This day I returned to the centre mortar which is a great blessing in travelling over battery, where I remained night and day, an uninteresting and horrible country. Ap- until the whole affair was over on the 19th. petite is totally abolished-a very fortunate ----8th, 9th, and 10th. Kept up a constant circumstance, as nothing in the shape of fire on the fort and town-two mines were eating is procurable-a few biscuits, and sprung, but with little effect: the gun a little tea, will sustain nature many days. breaches nearly practicable, our loss in kill

On my arrival at Meerut, I found wared and wounded considerable.—11th, 12th, was the order of the day, and preparations 13th, 14th, and 15th. Still hammering making for the attack of Bhurtpore, a for | away at the walls of the fort, which are very tress of great size and strength, and which thick and strong; waiting for two grand resisted Lord Lake's efforts in 1805. On mines under the points of assault.-17 the 12th (three days after joining my troop The large mine on the left was spru

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