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Early Manuscripts and Editions of the Bible.
340 mercurrerie...cocom..........morenoondiser denotes the habits to be aquatic ;--the The Old Testament was first written in neck, the back, and the whole configuration, Hebrew, and afterwards translated into are constructed accordingly ;-and thus, Greek about 275 years before the birth of throughout the range of creation, con- Christ, by 72 Jews, by order of Ptolemeus trivance and wisdom are manifest.
Philadelphus, king of Egypt. The precise But it is time that we proceed to number of the Hebrew manuscripts of the another part of our subject ;-and in pur Old Testament is unknown; those written suance of our plan, the skull next de before the years 700 or 800 it is supposed mands our attention.-We have already were destroyed by some decree of the Jewish stated the skull and vertebral column to senate, on account of their numerous differbe the principal parts of the skeleton; 1 ences from the copies then declared genuine. for in all red blooded animals they con- Those which exist in the present day were stitute a requisite in their organization. all written between the years 1000 and 1457. The skull, both with regard to its struc The manner in which these MSS. were writture, and the important organs it encloses ten, is rather interesting. and protects, is by far the most interesting In the first place, then, the inspired part of the skeleton, which can be offered language has been written upon various sub. to our consideration. We have reserved stances-leaves, skins, vellum, paper, &c. it for the last topic of our essays, and if and it is even probable that several of the its interest restrain us from a speedy close, prophets wrote upon tablets of wood. (See we trust our readers will grant us their Isaiah xxx. 8.) Zacharias, the father of indulgence.
John the Baptist, when required to name The head is divided into two portions, his son, asked for a writing-table, and wrote viz. the face, and the skull or cranium.- “His name is John." (Luke i. 63.) In the For although, when speaking, in general reign of the emperor Zeno, (485,) the reterms, of the skull, the bones of the whole mains of St. Barnabas were found near head are usually intended, yet, strictly Salamis, with a copy of the Gospel of speaking, the word applies to that portion St. Matthew, in Hebrew, laid upon his only by which the brain is immediately breast, written with his own hand, upon enclosed and defended.
leaves of thyine-wood; a kind of wood W. MARTIN, Hammersmith. particularly odoriferous and valuable. In (To be continued.)
the library of St. Mary, at Florence, is the whole New Testament on silk, with the
Liturgy, and short Martyrology; at the end EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS OF J of it there is written in Greek, “ By the THE BIBLE.
hand of the sinner and most unworthy The most ancient and most valuable book mark; in the year of the World, 6840, is the Bible, and of all others the most (that is, of Christ, 1332,) Monday, Dec. deserving our attention, even were it only the 22nd."* Some of the Greek MSS. as a specimen of the earliest literature; but were written all in capital letters; the small the holy volume has a stronger claim upon letters not being generally adopted until the us. As the spring from whence flow all close of the 10th century. Numerous curithe blessed gifts of our divine Father-as ous abbreviations also existed in them; the the sacred reference for our guide through first and last letters, and sometimes with the paths checkered with perplexities and ills-- middle letter of a word only appearing, and as the source of inexhaustible consolation the words not being separated. The fol. and relief, when encompassed by sorrow's lowing literal rendering of Matth. v. 1, 3. powerful armas the beacon through which according to the Codex Bezæ, or Cambridge we learn how to live on earth and lastly, MSS. of the Four Gospels and Acts, will as the ladder to climb to heaven, „we must convey to the reader some idea of the manhold its name ever dear to us, and treasure ner in which manuscripts were anciently every fact connected with its existence. written and printed :
Townley's Illustration of Biblical Literature.
#SPT, is contracted for spirit.
English historians mention some part of appeared in our mother tongue, that they the Bible to have been translated into the declared from their pulpits, “ that there mother-tongue in the beginning of the 8th was [a new language discovered, of which century.*
the people should beware, since it was that Amongst the Lansdown MSS, preserved which produced all the heresies; that in in the British Museum, there is a volume this language was a book come forth called stated to be 100 years older than Wickliffe's the New Testament, which was now in time, (Wickliffe flourished about 1360.) every body's hands, and was full of thorns This book has been considered, by no in- and briers.” competent judge, even of a still earlier date, The Vicar of Croydon, in Surrey, toand as the first and earliest English transla- gether with numerous other monks and tion known. The following extract (the first priests, were also much terrified when the chapter of Genesis) from this edition, is a Scriptures first appeared in a printed highly curious and interesting specimen of volume, and the former thus expressed early translations :
himself in a sermon preached at St. Paul's "In ye beginning God made of nought Cross :-“We must root out printing, or hevene and erthe. For sothe the erthe was printing will root out us." As long as idil and voide; and derknessis werun on the ignorance and hypocrisy could stand against face of depthe, and the spyrit of the Lord the infant strides of knowledge and truth, wos born on the waters.
this doctrine was enforced ; but ultimately, “And God seide, lizt be maid, ond lizt as ever must be the case, bigotry and superwos made, and God siz the lizt it wos good, stition were soon, in this particular instance, ond he departide the lizt fro derknesses, torn from their haughty and oppressive ond he depide ye lizt dai, ond the derk- throne, and the vicar's prophecy was fully nessis nizt, ond the eventyd and mornetyd wos made on dai.
1532. The first edition of the whole Bible “And (God) seide, make we man to in the English language (the translation by oure ymage ond likenesse, ond be he | Myles Coverdale) was published by Grafton. souereyn to the fisshes of the see, ond to It was printed at Paris or Marsburgh, in the volatilis of hevene, and to unreason- Hessia. Six copies were presented to Archable beestes of erthe, ond to eche creature, bishop Cranmer, and Lord Cromwell. It ond to erthe crepinge beest which is movid was à folio, dedicated to the king, in the in erthe, and God moid of nought a man to following manner: his ymage ond likeness. God moide of “Unto the moost gracyous soveraygne nought him, male and female."
lord kynge Henry the eyghth, kynge of Several translations having appeared, we Englande and of France, lorde of Irelande, now come to the year 1526, when the New &c. Defender of the Fayth, and under Testament, translated by Tindal, &c. was God the chefe suppreme heade of the published by Grafton, which occasioned the churche of Englande. then Bishop of London to issue a pro L “ The ryght and just administracyon of clamation, demanding under “ poine of the lawes that God gave unto Moses and excommunication, and incurring the suspi- unto Josua; the testimonye of faythfulness cion of heresie, oll ond singular such bookes that God gave to David : the plenteous conteyning the translation of the New Testa abundance of wysdome that God gave unto ment in the Engliche tongue.” This trans. Solomon : the lucky and prosperous age lation, containing, according to the decree, with the multiplicacyon of sede which God “ erroneous opinions, pernicious and offen gave unto Abraham and Sara his wife, be sive, seducying the simple people, attempty. given unto you most gracyous prynce, with ing by their wicket and perverse interpreta- your dearest just wyfe and most vertuous tions, to prophanate the majestye of the pryncesse quene Jane.” scripture, ond craftily to abuse the most This dedication is thus subscribed :holy word of God." This prohibition was
“ Your grace's humble subjecte little regarded, consequently the bishops
" and daylye oratour, and clergy made great complaints, and
“MYLES COVERDALE." petitioned the king. They were, however, It appears by what Coverdale says here, very soon bought up by Bishop Tunstal and elsewhere, that the Holy Scripture was and Sir Thomas More, and burnt at St. now allowed to be read, and had, in EngPaul's Cross.
lish; but not so always, for in some part of The ignorant and illiterate monks were his reign, Tindal's Bible was suppressed, by so much alarmed when the Testament act of parliament; indeed, the Bible was Aldemus translated the Psalms into Saxon, in 1
absolutely forbidden to be read or expounded 709.
| in our churches ; but the Lord Chancellor,
the Speaker of the House of Commons, 1 “Great English Bible," and sometimes the Captains of the Wars, Justices of the Peace, | Bishops' Bible." and Recorders of the Cities, might quote 1 1572.-The above edition was again passages, to enforce their public harangues. reprinted, and called “ the Holy Bible," À nobleman or gentleman might read it in and had the distinction of being divided his house or gardens, quietly and without into verses, which was the work of different disturbing good order; but women, artific bishops. cers, apprentices, journeymen, husbandmen, 1584.-The Papists now discovering that and labourers, were to be punished with one it was impossible to prevent the circulation month's imprisonment, as often as they were of the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue, detected in reading the Bible, either pri- | printed a copy at Rheims, and called it vately or openly. « Nothing shall be taught & the Rhemish Testament." or maintained contrary to the king's in I 1603 to 1610.-The last and best Engstructions ;" 32 Hen. VIII. c. 39. Such, lish translation of the Bible was that ochowever, was the privilege of a peerage, casioned by the conference at Hampton that ladies of quality might read “ to them- Court, in 1603. At this meeting many selves alone" and not to others, “any chap- objections were made to the “ Bishops' "ter in the Old or New Testament."
Bible," when, after due deliberation, it was 1536. About this time Bibles were order-recommended to have a new translation. ed to be set up in some convenient place King James accordingly issued an order to within their churches, so that the parish- prepare one. “Not for a translation altojoners might resort to the same, and read it, gether new, nor yet to make of a bad one a and the charge of this book to be “ ratably good one; but to make a good one better, borne between them and the parishioners of or of many good ones, one best.” In 1604, one side; that is to say, one half by the fifty-four learned persons were appointed to parson, and the other half by them." this most important task; but they did not
1539. In this year a large folio Bible commence until 1607, when the number was printed, called Cranmer's Bible, with were reduced, by deaths, to forty-seven. the following title :
Notwithstanding this diminution in their “ The Byble in Englyshe. That is to number, they completed their work in saye, the content of all the Holy Scripture, three years, and dedicated it to King bothe the Olde and New Testament, truly James. translated after the veryte of the Hebrue After this edition was published, the other and Greke textes, by the dylygent studye of translations dropped by degrees, and this dyuerse excellent learned men expert in the | became generally adopted. True, it was forsayde tongues."
published by authority, but there was neither By a proclamation this year, it was or- canon, proclamation, nor act of parliament dained that every parish should buy a copy, to enforce the use of it. Selden, in speak. under the penalty of 40s. The price of it ing of this translation, says, “the translators bound with clasps was 12s. The Popish in King James's time took an excellent Bishops, two years afterwards, obtained way. That part of the Bible being given to the suppression of this book, and thence- | him who was most excellent in such a tongue, forth no Bible was printed or sold during | and then they met together, and one read the remainder of the reign of Henry. the translation, the rest holding in their
Edward VI. coming to the crown, 1547, | hands some Bible, either of the learned Bibles were again permitted to be circu- tongues, or French, Spanish, Italian, &c. lated.
If any found any fault, they spoke ; if not, Queen Mary ascending the throne, the they read on."
S. W. B. Bible was again suppressed; but was happily restored by Queen Elizabeth, and an edition of the largest volume published
NOT FORSAKEN.-A FRAGMENT. before 1562.
“ Through life, in death, whate'er betide thee, 1563.–March the 27th, a bill was brought To have that seraph form beside thee." into the House of Commons, that the Bible and the divine service might be translated “I am not forsaken," said Le Sage; into the Welsh tongue, and used in the “the hand of affliction has been laid heachurches of Wales.
vily upon me, but the same power which, 1566.- The edition published in 1562, in its wisdom, visited me with sorrow and having been sold, a new one now ap | distress, administered also a strength which peared.
enables me to bear the painful vicissitudes 1568,-A new translation, promoted by of human life. I have the consolations Archbishop Parker, came out, called the of the Christian, who, submitting his own 346
: Not Forsaken.
346 cornerwerowe rorrererer....mrcorrorror.sorrir... will to that of Heaven, beholds, in all the them to their proper purpose and ultimate dispensations of Providence towards him, design. Looking beyond the narrow the indulgent and the chastening hand of limits of mere mortal vision, his eye was a father : I have more, my friend," con-humbly, yet steadily fixed on that future tinued he, with much emotion, “I have world where vicissitude will not be known, more than this; I have a daughter-ex- and whose joys are of that unmixed cuse a father's feelings—who inherits all description, that they cannot fade. Yet her mother's gentleness and virtue, and was Le Sage a man feelingly alive to whose only study is to cheer the bereaved the distresses of his fellow-men. Chris. heart of her remaining parent.
tianity had taught him resignation, but "These consolations," returned Philo, had not wrapped his heart in coldness ; “ are peculiarly yours; they are the natu- , it had taught him to sorrow not as those ral consequences of fervid piety to Heaven, without hope, but it did not lead him to and the paternal solicitude which you condemn all expressions of grief as futile have displayed towards her who is to be and effeminate. He bore privations and the joy and comfort of your declining sufferings as becomes a man, but he also age, and whose smile of purity shall speak felt them as a man. He was a stranger to your soul that peace, of which it is to the proud, cold calculations of heathen truly said, that it endureth for ever." philosophy, which refuse to consider pain
Le Sage took Philo by the hand, and as an evil, and which, at the best, could -led him into the garden. He pointed only inculcate a stoical indifference or a out to him the small white marble urn, total apathy, but could never throw one consecrated to the memory of his deceased gleam of comfort over the rugged path of wife. There was a beautiful myrtle be- life, or lift the soul for an instant above side it, which Flora was endeavouring to the dark confines of the grave. train round the cenotaph. It had been Le Sage had recovered his usual firmplanted by her mother; her father looked ness and strength of mind, and was disupon it with interest, and she valued it coursing with Philo on subjects of literahighly as a memento of her dear deceased ture and philosophy, when at the bottom parent. Le Sage indulged his feelings of the long vista of trees leading to the for a few moments, and stood wrapped in garden, a female of elegant appearance sorrowful reminiscences. Rousing him- was seen approaching towards them. A self, at length, from his reverie, he ex. look of fatherly. love beamed on the claimed to his companion: “I cannot countenance of Le Sage. “It is Flora," expect that these things should greatly said he ; « she has prepared our evening interest you, but you have a sensible heart, meal, and is coming to find me, and and can appreciate the feelings of a hus- lead me to the house, as is her custom.” band and father. When I look, Philo, Philo contemplated with increasing interest on these emblems of mortality, a strange the approach of the fair messenger. She mixture of different emotions move ine came, not in the consciousness of superior forcibly; I am at once joyous and sor- beauty, tripping along like a Parisian rowful, despondent and grateful. I can- belle, or a female of the haut ton, but not forget the loss I have sustained, or with that modest dignity of carriage which how that loss has been supplied to me. always distinguishes the truly virtuous Perhaps I ought to have no feeling but woman, above the flippant part of the that of gratitude, if I would do justice to sex. She advanced towards her father my daughter's merits, for she is all a with an expression of love and respect. duteous, loving child can be; “my dream Le Sage took her hand mechanically, and by night, my pondered thought by day, prepared to walk back to the house. my sweet companion, pupil, tutor, child !”. * Flora," said he, “this is our friend Le Sage, again overcome by his feelings, Philo, of whom you have heard me speak." suffered Philo 'to lead him into a little She curtsied, “ Your supper is waiting arbour that was near; the jasmine and for you, father,” said the lovely girl in a woodbine which covered the trellis-work voice, not less sweet than that which fell had been trained by the hand of Flora ; like soft music on the ear of our first where could her father rest so well as parent in paradise.' “Father," no words here!
can describe the tone and gesture with · Le Sage was one of those truly great which this fond appellation was spoken, minds which bear affliction as best be- nor any artist portray the expression of comes men and Christians. He was too love which beamed in the countenance sensible not to feel, and acutely feel, the of both father and daughter. Terms sufsufferings of humanity, but he referred ficiently delicate and expressive have 347
never yet been found to describe that beau- / agreed to, and adopted, the following tiful and holy tie
rules : viz, " Which binds the daughter to her father's breast." 1. That the affairs of this institution shall
Le Sage, accompanied by Philo, and be regulated by the superior, rectors, and holding his daughter's hand, set forward six of the members, who compose the towards the house. When they arrived Office for the Dead, who shall attend on in the drawing-room, every thing around every Sunday and Wednesday night, at indicated the deep attention which Flora nine o'clock throughout the year, at the devoted to her father's happiness. With above-named place, or any other place, an acknowledgment of thankfulness to which may be hereafter appointed, and Heaven, they sat down to their repast, and there with attention and devotion recite the when it was over, the prayer, and the office for the dead, agreeable to the inten. evening song of praise, brought them into tion that shall be then mentioned. the immediate presence of Deity, and 2. That every well-disposed Catholic restored to them the departed wife and wishing to contribute to the relief of the mother whom they had so lately lost. If suffering souls in purgatory, shall pay one we should attempt to describe the interest- penny per week, which shall be appropriing appearance of Flora whilst kneeling ated to the procuring of masses, to be by her father's side, it would only serve offered up for the repose of the souls of the to show how very inadequate human lan- deceased parents, relations, and friends, of guage is to express purity and beauty all the subscribers to the institution in parapproaching to perfection. Let us forbearticular, and the faithful departed in general. to say more : there are flowers whose 3. That the superior, rectors, and council texture is so beautiful and delicate, that shall continue in office for six calendar to touch is to injure them; and whilst we months, at the expiration of which time, attempt to give their meed of praise, we candidates shall be nominated by the persully them with our breath.
sons in office, who shall give due notice to T. Rose, London.
the whole body of members who compose
the office for the dead, that they may PURGATORY,
punctually attend on the first Sunday night The following is a literal transcript of a in November, at seven o'clock, and on the paper, the contents of which are now in first Sunday night in May, at eight o'clock, full operation in Dublin. We have been for the purpose of electing a superior, recinformed that a similar contrivance to raise tors, and council, to serve for the ensuing money is established at Preston, Lanca- six months, and so in succession. shire.
4. That any male subscriber who may PURGATORIAN SOCIETY,
be disposed to become a member of the Instituted March 29th, 1806, and held at office for the dead, shall be first reported by
the Evening Free School, No. 43, Meath one or more of the members of the office, Street, Dublin.
to the superior, rectors, and council, who In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of shall investigate his character, and, if found
the Holy Ghost : Amen.--" It is, therefore, a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the
be admitted a member, and on no other dead, that they may be loosed from their sins."2 Mac. xii. 45.
account whatsoever. The members who compose the Society of 5. That each member, on entering this Office for the Dead, which commenced on society, do purchase a copy of these rules, the above day, at the said place, adopting in order to defray the expenses incurred by the spirit and meaning of the above sacred printing, and other contingencies; and that text, and wishing, in conformity to the the money arising from the weekly subdivine precepts of the Holy Catholic scriptions shall be disposed of to the most Church, to extend their charitable views necessitated clergymen, who will be rebeyond the grave, by relieving, as far as inquired to give receipts for what they are them lies, the suffering souls in purgatory, 1 paid. and inviting all tender-hearted Catholics, 6. That the spiritual benefits of this inwho have a feeling sensibility of the duty stitution shall be conferred in the following they owe their departed parents, relations, manner, viz.-Each subscriber shall be and friends, who probably may stand more entitled to an office at the time of their in need of their commiseration at present, death, another at the expiration of a month, than at any period of their lifetime, to assist and one at the end of twelve months after in the charitable and pious purpose of their decease, also the benefit of the masses shortening the duration of their sufferings which shall be procured to be offered by by the most easy means imaginable, have the money arising from subscriptions, and