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Profanation of the Lords Day, in London.
Having made this brief survey, perhaps / markets, there are to be seen persons in it will be seen that poetry is not so de almost every shop, ready to sell their various serving of the slight she too often receives. commodities, though in some cases, by the We have remarked, that she not only | appearance of a few shutters, deceitful claims precedence in the scale of ex homage is offered to the hallowed day. istence, but that her origin is in some But in Clare Market, near Drury Lane, no measure divine, and that she was at first | attempt is made to hide their iniquity; every the only medium through which historic shop is completely open, and every avenue and moral truth were conveyed to pos is crowded by people, who are invited to terity. We have observed, that in her purchase by the most public display of artinature she is the most refined, in as much cles of every kind, and by the shameless as her character is the most intellectual. importunity of those who sell them. And, lastly, we have noticed, that the 16 There is every reason to believe, that effect she produces on the mind, though Billingsgate and the markets in the eastern not always so powerful at the moment, | and southern parts of the metropolis are in is far the most permanent. Reasoning no better state. from these arguments, we are led to the “Let any serious person walk through conclusion, that poetry is far preeminent Rosemary Lane, Whitechapel, Spitalfields, above painting or music.
Bethnal Green, Shoreditch, and St. Luke's, · Beaconsfield.
J.A.B. on the one side; or by Drury Lane, Soho,
St. Giles, Tottenham Court Road, Pad
dington, and the Edgeware Road, on the AWFUL PROFANATION OF THE LORD'S DAY, other side; or by Clerkenwell, Saffron IN LONDON
Hill, and Leather Lane, in the centre of
this city ; and he will behold scenes which The following Statement was persented by the
must deeply afflict his mind. Secretaries of the Christian Instruction Society to a Special General Meeting of its Subscribers “The following description of one of and Friends, held at Albion Chapel, Tuesday
these neighbourhoods is supplied by a genEvening, November 3, 1829.
tleman connected with the Society : “THE earliest dawn of God's holy day is “In walking from Pentonville to the met by scenes of dissipation and riot, Minories, I had observed numerous persons occasioned by abandoned characters, of lounging about the public-houses and wineboth sexes, returning to their hoines after vaults, and many others offering various a night of debauchery in those haunts of articles for sale at the corners of the streets. vice which are now to be found in every This I was in some measure prepared for, part of the metropolis, under the specious having witnessed such things on my former names of Coffee, Oyster, and Liquor shops, visits to London. When going down the And it has occurred, that peaceable inha- Minories, however, toward the lower end, bitants have been roused from their slum I was astonished to perceive many of the bers by the noise and violence of those who clothes-shops partially open, the door-ways thus prowl the streets.
within and without hung round with various “ As the sacred day advances, it is me articles of wearing apparel, having the prices lancholy to know that the bustle of business marked on tickets in glaring characters, and commences in the various markets of this the pavement occupied with salesmen invitcity, where, in defiance of the laws of the ing the attention of the populace to the quality country and of God, an open traffic con and cheapness of their merchandise. I went tinues with unabated activity till the hour of on from hence, through Rosemary Lane, to prayer arrives, when, in some instances, a St. George's Road, and here (in the Lane) veil is partially drawn, till, as the phrase is, the guilty scene obtruded itself upon my the “church hours” are over.
notice, without any attempt to cover its “Thus Covent Garden Market has for deformity, or conceal its shame. The shops years exhibited, not only the fearless ex of grocers, butchers, bakers, coal and corn posure of goods for sale on several hundred dealers, salesmen, and others, were wide stalls, but also the assemblance of multi. open ; while stalls and benches were artudes of the most abandoned characters, ranged throughout the street, and covered who indulge in language so filthy and with articles for food and clothing of all blasphemous, as to make them the terror | descriptions; and, what I took to be, when of every sober inhabitant or decent pas looking on them in the distance, a mob senger.
collected to witness a quarrel or a fight, “The other markets, in the west of Lon- | I found was a dense mass of persons endon, exhibit congenial scenes. In the gaged in all the interest, and bustle, and Hungerford, Newport, Fleet, and Carnaby confusion of worldly traffic. ...
Profanation of the Lord's Day, in London. "
“I had heard of Sunday markets in the other publie avenues in the north-western West Indies, and of the benevolent attempts out-parishes of this metropolis, and it is of Government to abolish them; but who affecting to know, that in twenty streets, &c. ever heard of a Sunday market in London! he numbered no less than four hundred and I blashed for my country-I sickened at seventy-three shops of different trades, open the scene, and would fain have turned away for business on the Lord's day, besiile mulmy eyes, and supposed myself deceived; titudes of fruit and other stalls, crowds of but I could not, -- the facts were too ap- squalid and profligate persons around the palling and apparent. Here were garments liquor shops, and many places exhibiting of all sorts, for young and old, male and rather the bustle of a fair than the quietude female, hung up in the open street row of the Sabbath.
- 3 upon row; there were carcases, and sides, “Whilst the streets and markets present and joints, and cuttings, exposed to the view, these scenes, the fields and banks of various and thrust upon the notice of every passer canals in the environs of the city, exhibit by in the most tempting manner; while the same wanton neglect of God's holy day, scores were crossing and re-crossing the though in other forms. The fields of Mile street, taying hold of any who seemed dis- | End, Stepney, Bethnal Green, Hoxton, Isposed to look and listen, and inviting all lington, Somers Towns, Chelsea, and Southio examine and cheapen, to fit on and wark, are resorts of young and abandoned buy.
persons, who are engaged in the fights of "lo one part of the street, a number of dogs and pugilists, the shooting of pigeons, poor creatures were arranged before and the hunting of ducks, and in various knarish around as many boards covered with boots, games. While multitudes of others are and shoes, and slippers, busily employed employed in the Surry, the Regent's, and ia blacking and polishing their several the Grand Junction Canals, and the New wares; to avoid whose elbows and filthy and Lee Rivers, in fishing and bathing. sprinklings, I turned into the cart-road, “ It has been given in evidence by seveand then I narrowly escaped being required ral Magistrates, before the last Police Comto interfere by a busy buicher, who, finding mittee of the House of Commons, that in the quality of his meat arraigned by some the parks and out-skirts of the town, puof his customers, turned to the crowd, and merous gangs and parties of young persons darting his eye toward a tall Irish labourer assemble on the Sabbath-day, for the exon my right, appealed to him, with horrid press purpose of indulging in the vice of oaths, whether the meat was not equal to gambling. any in London, and was answered by T ulf we turn from these scenes to the blasphemies equally revolting and offen. banks of our noble rirer, we shall find that sivé.
they also are crowded by those who are “I had scarcely passed by the swearing seeking “their own pleasure on God's holy butcher, when my ears were assailed by the day. The passage of steam-boats to Mar. cries of those who, in announcing the quali- gate, the Nore, Gravesend, and Richmond, ties and prices of their fruit and vegetables, on every Sunday during the summer months, evinced their anxiety to secure customers, affords an opportunity of Sabbath-breaking, and empty their baskets. To their noisy which multitudes always embrace, but dio were added the quarrellings of drunken which the unusual cheapness of their fares, men and women of the lowest description, during the last season, greatly increased.
the choppings, and bargainings, and reck• Thus the walls of our city were covered onings, and cursings of buyers and sellers, with placards, announcing “Sunday excur while the loud vociferations and disgusting sions to sea;" and it has been boastfully gestures of the ragged crowds surrounding declared by a notorious Sunday newspaper, the gin-shops, occasioned the most horrible that six thousand persons were thus engaged discordances, and completed the frightful on the several Sabbaths in the month of picture. And this is London London in August. The town of Gravesend alone has the nineteenth century ! -London on the witnessed more than two thousand SabbathSabbath-day-London, between the hours breakers land on her new pier, and spread of ten and eleven on the morning of that through her streets and fields the folly and hallowed day, while the bells of the seve. crime of a London population. Nor do the ral steeples were calling to worship, and an upper parts of the river present a more nouncing the hour of prayer ! !" , satisfactory scene; for beside the steamers
4 Another gentleman, who is an active which run to Richmond, many hundred and liberal friend of this Society, has sur- wherries are known to pass through Putney plied the Secretaries with the results of his Bridge, filled by thoughtless multitudes, personal inspection of various streets, and who, regardless alike of the sin and the dan
Profanation of the Lord's Day, in London.
ger, madly pursue their imaginary plea- | which the evening of God's holy day presures... .
sents, when the public-houses and tea-gar. 66 The parks have always presented at. | dens are thronged with noisy Sabbathtractions to Sabbath-breakers of every rank, breakers; when the cattle, which have been from noble senators, who display their bril- purchased at the various lairs in the suburbs liant equipages in open defiance of the laws in the morning of that day, are crowding they are bound by every obligation to up- through the streets towards the public hold, down to the humblest pedestrians, market, and when Smithfield itself exhibits who can reach those agreeable places of a scene of uproar and confusion equal to its resort.
annual fair; when oaths, shouts, execrations, “ The recent alterations in St. James's and cries are heard on every side. Sad Park, have given the public access to a “The Lord's-day is employed for festive beautiful range of pleasure grounds, which purposes by thousands, and these entertainpossess many attractions; and it is, there- ments, from the family party to the cabinet fore, greatly to be deplored, that his Ma- dinner, cause thousands more to violate jesty's Commissioners of Woods and Forests, God's sacred commandment. have not thought fit to close these gardens “Amongst the lower classes, the milliner, on the Sabbath-day, even during the hours the tailor, the shoe-maker, the hair-dresser, of divine service, though application has the butcher, and the baker, in untold myrbeen made to them on that subject, from a iads, are in requisition, to minister to the quarter they were bound to respect. Thus, persons and appetites of the multitude, even at this unfavourable season of the year, while the costly festivities which are given it is computed, that from eight to ten thou- by the higher orders, 'from the private gensand persons may be found strolling there tleman to the prime minister, require the in the afternoon of the Lord's day.
Sabbath labours of the fishmonger, the "The liquor shops that are to be found poulterer, the fruiterer, and confectioner, in all the populous thoroughfares of this and command also all the efforts of their city, become the resorts of myriads, who, domestics, who thus find the Sabbath not a without restraint or concealment, obtain | day of rest, but of unceasing toil. those noxious drams which excite them to « Where this ill-timed hospitality does riot and outrage, or cause them to sink in not exist, it is certain that there are thoua state of disgusting insensibility in the sands who, while they close their shops, and public streets, even before the bells have an suspend their ordinary pursuits, feel no nounced the hour of morning prayer. regard for the sanctity of the day, and en
"The necessary consequence of this is, tirely neglect its public duties, yielding only that before night arrives, the watch-houses to the listlessness of their spirits, and exa are crowded with the miserable victims of claiming, “O what a weariness is it! When Sabbath-breaking and drunkenness, who are | will the Sabbath be gone, that we may sell kept in durance till the following day, when corn, and set forth wheat ?! , large and squalid herds are dragged before “ Shall I not visit them for these things ? the magistrates, whose time is principally saith the Lord. Shall not my soul be Occupied on the Monday mornings in cor avenged on such a' nation as this?", The recting the crimes which neglected and de dread of such merited judgments, has urged secrated Sabbaths have produced.
the Committee of the Christian Instruction “There are published, at the present Society to deliberate on the best means to time, twelve Sunday Newspapers, which correct the evil, and to avert the danger. circulate at least forty thousand copies, As the violation of the Sabbath has been through the agency of about three hun- regarded, from the earliest periods of our dred shops, placarded with all the affairs history, as an offence punishable by the and follies of the week. It is unnecessary laws, and as it is an evil which has been to describe the licentious details and infidel severely reprobated in the proclamations of opinions which are to be found in most of successive kings, it was natural that some these journals. It is probable they have, should wish to appeal to the existing statutes. on each returning Sabbath, two hundred | The majority, however, of the Committee, thousand readers ! readers of the records felt that such a reference was questionable of sensuality and crime, gathered into those | in principle, and would prove most ineffeccolumns with a baneful industry. These tive in practice, as the penalties are very must be, as a magistrate stated before a slight; and there exists a notorious disinCommittee of the House of Commons, clination on the part of magistrates and their amongst the most productive means by officers to enforce them; a disinclination which crime is so fearfully increased. which is increased by a reference to the
“ Nor can we omit to notice the scenes | manners and usages of the great, who re
On Bakewell's Letters - County Asylums.
main unaffected by the existing laws, while, ON MR. BAKEWELL'S TREATMENT OF from mere wantonness, or positive irreligion
INSANITY. and infidelity, they most flagrantly violate MR. EDITOR, them.
SIR.—Being highly nervous, I have been “ Moral means, therefore, were only left
peculiarly interested by Mr. Bakewell's to the Committee, and in the use of these
communications, and I trust benefited by they find themselves completely united. It
his rules to those who “live on the line." first occurred to them, that they might secure
I am, however, astonished and disappointed the co-operation of their esteemed brethren
beyond measure, at the silent indifference of the Established Church, and a proposal
with which this writer has been treated, on was accordingly made by the Committee of
what he advances respecting mental disease the District Visiting Society. But though
--a subject in which every man is deeply the proposition has not been without its use,
concerned, yet it was not accepted by the Church Society:
On other topics, such as Catholic emansome peculiar views of its constitution led
cipation and mephitic gas, he calls forth the Committee very respectfully to decline
immediate discussion-but on the treatment the overture. This disappointment did not,
and cure of mental disease, he may quietly however, discourage the applicants, for
write his fingers to weariness, before he gets knowing that the “Lord can help by many
any person to notice him, much less to or by few," they resolved to follow the con
forward his godlike projects for the welfare victions of their own consciences, and to
of thousands of unhappy beings, who obemploy the best influence they could com
tain from mankind in general as little mand, to awaken public attention to the
consideration as his essays. growing evil.
My desire is, that Mr. Bakewell may be “To promote this object, they solicited
tried--for he appears to be either one of and obtained of the Lord Bishop of Lon
the greatest quacks, or one of the most don an interview for a deputation of their
enlightened philanthropists, of the age. body, consisting of the Rev. Messrs. Clayton, Fletcher, Price, and Blackburn. Those
I feel personally as well as generally
interested in this momentous questiongentlemen were received by his Lordship
for although I never to my knowledge lost the with much courtesy, and were gratified to learn that bis Lordship's mind was alive to
balance of my reason and judgment, yet
such at times has been the excitation of my the great wickedness and imminent danger of the present state of things; and though
nerves, arising from my constitution, ha
rassing circumstances, and enterprising prothey could not require or expect his Lordship to pledge himself to any particular
jects, that it is highly probable, were I a
rich man, surrounded with selfish, hardmeasures, yet they are satisfied that his
hearted heirs, instead of enjoying the bless. powerful influence will be shortly exerted, and that too in the best way, to counteract
ings of life and liberty, I should ere this
have been consigned to the doleful, wretched this gross abomination. "A communication was also addressed
and hopeless dungeon of a lunatic asylum,
- there, like thousands of other hapless to the Committee of the Religious Tract
victims, to drag out a miserable existence. Society, for a supply of tracts upon the due observance of the Lord's-day, and the very
I therefore call upon every enlightened liberal grant of twenty-thousand tracts, and
philanthropic and wealthy man in the kingtwo hundred thousand handbills, was cheer
dom, to put Mr. Bakewell's statements and tully afforded. A large portion of these
system to the test; and if the former are
found to be as true, and the latter as efficahave been distributed by several agents, who
cious, as he asserts—I have no doubt he have, on each Lord's-day, been stationed on
will obtain the enviable distinction of being the quays from which the steam-boats sail,
| placed by the side of Howard, in the estiand in other convenient parts of the metropolis, for that purpose.
| mation of posterity. Alfred Wilson. « Let every Christian be willing in his sphere to reprove this abomination, and, with the patriotic and devout Nehemiah, to
REMARKS ON COUNTY ASYLUMS, CONsay, even to the Nobles of the land, “ What
TINUED FROM COL. 909. evil thing is this ye do, and profane the I am aware that some of the readers of the Sabbath-day? Did not our fathers thus, Imperial Magazine, may be apt to impute and did not our God bring evil upon us, to me selfish motives, in what I have found and upon this city? yet ye bring more to say upon the system of our County wrath upon Israel by profaning the Sab- Asylums.-I will not trouble them with bath."
| the reading of any attempts on my part to
disprove this. I will, however, venture to this system of treatment being a complete assert, that any man situated as I am, and monopoly, so far as relates to pauper lunawith my convictions, who did not endea- tics. If the deaths cleared off the worst vour to introduce a better system of treatment cases, and the remainder recovered, they for insane paupers, would be highly culpa- might be considered as a blessing, but unble. And indeed, under the impression fortunately the worst cases most likely live that any grievous evil exists, the causes of as incurables; and the same causes, it must which might be removed, he who should seem, which produce a large proportion of refuse his best efforts for the removal of them deaths, produce also a large proportion of would have no pretensions to the character incurables : with more than a fourth of the of a good member of society; and if any cases terminating in death, the remainder, it people on earth stand more in need than | might be expected, would all recover. others of powerful advocacy, it is the poor | We hear much of the “march of intelof the land who are visited by a mental lect," and the rapid increase of useful disease. I cannot therefore but regret that knowledge in this our age, but in what an evil of such magnitude is so little attend relates to the treatment of the insane, it ed to, by those having authority and influ appears that the “ march of intellect” has ence, and abilities to understand it. Unfor been retrograde. Nearly three thousand tunately, numbers are prevented by nervous years ago, when a great king was seized timidity, from investigating a subject so with maniacal despondency, the moral very repulsive to the feelings. Many shrink means used for his recovery were judifrom the idea of being thought to know cious and appropriate, and had a good any thing of it; many art totally uninformed effect. This treatment is a complete conupon it; many entertain strange supersti trast to the treatment of pauper lunatics tious prejudices up iont; and many think as in modern days. Human nature, and the little of it as they do of their own deaths | nature of insanity, are the same in all ages. when in good health; it is then no wonder | and in all ranks, and therefore the princithat it should be left to hands feeble as ples of cure should be the same for all; mine are.
| but under the County Asylum law, if a It is a bad cause that admits of no poor man be afflicted with mental derangedefence; and without any defence, a bad ment, he is taken to a large prison, where cause may be made to appear worse scarcely any sound can reach his ears, but than it really is. I wish to be informed of the heart-appalling cries of others in a like what palliating circumstances can be state with himself, and most likely excluded urged in favour of the Wakefield Asylum, I entirely from the sight of any pleasing therefore took care to send the July maga
object. zine to one of the managers, who politely
There is good reason for believing that acknowledged the receipt of it, and early in
the first Bethlehem established in MoorAugust I sent to the same gentleman a copy fields in the days of one of the Edwards, of my last letter; of course I expected to
evinced a more correct knowledge of the see some remarks in the magazine now
disease, and of the best means of cure, before me. There being none I am re
than did the last Bethlehem erected in St. minded of what took place some fifteen George's Fields; and this establishment ceryears ago at the County Asylum at Not tainly gave proof of a better judgment on tingliam. Having written some strictures the subject, than the one now under hand on that institution for the Monthly Maga.
at Hanwell : and in another part of Engzine, a suitable answer became a serious land a County Asylum is now building, the matter of discussion in the Committee future inmates of which may have the advanroom. It was at last concluded to give tage of seeing the birds that fly over them, but none, and treat the writer with silent con they will be entirely deprived of the sight of tempt. Perhaps a like conclusion has ány other moving objects. In comparison been come to by the managers of the with these two gloomy abodes, the galleries Wakefield Assylum.
of Bethlehem must be highly desirable; It is however, probable that the merits for notwithstanding Bethlehem is the most of County Asylums, will become matter noisy Asylum I ever was near, yet the of legislative discussion; and if the treatment people in the galleries have continually before of a malady not necessarily involving any their eyes a great variety of moving objects; dangerous bodily disease, is the cause of and of all impressions made upon the senpremature death in the proportion of one to ses, those which enter by the eye are the three-and-a-half cases, some very important most efficacious in the removal of mental change may soon be determined upon as a legislative measure, and the more so from ! As I have often said before, it is most