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OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, 8. PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
“READING IMPARTS ENERGY TO THE MIND.”
Memoir of His Grace
| nity in his favour. This munificent preTHE MOST REVEREND WILLIAM HOWLEY, late was succeeded by DR. SUTTON, to LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, whose merits we have endeavoured to raise Metropolitan, and Primate of all England. a feeble tribute of memorial in our pre(With a Portrait.)
ceding volume. Although diocesan episcopacy has pro- ! The vacancy occasioned by the death of duced much bitter contention, and been | Archbishop Sutton, was soon supplied by zealously opposed ever since the Reforma the translation of Dr. William HOWLEY, tion by the nonconformists in England, it Lord Bishop of London; of whom we has generally been admitted that, with a shall only give a brief biographical sketch, few exceptions, the hierarchy of this church in imitation of the ancients, who deferred has been distinguished by prelates of the commemorative sacrifices until sunset, or, most extensive learning, and the greatest in other words, until character might be duly liberality. To this character, the late Dr. estimated without the charge of adulation. Samuel Chandler, who was no friend to The present most reverend primate was church authority, bore an unequivocal testi- born about the year 1763, at Winchester, mony. In a conversation with one of the of which cathedral, his father, Dr. William principal members of the Kirk of Scot- Howley, was prebendary. The son reland, who highly extolled the Presbyterian ceived his education at the celebrated government, Chandler took occasion to school of his native city, under the learned say, that “if he were driven to the neces Dr. Joseph Warton; where he had for his sity of chusing between them, he would companions, the present Bishops of Salisat once give the preference to the Church bury and Hereford, Lord Sidmouth, and of England over every other ecclesiastical other personages, who have, like himself, establishment."
risen to the highest stations by their comIt is now more than seventy years since manding talents and extensive learning. this encomium was spontaneously pro From this seminary Mr. Howley removed nounced, since which nothing has occurred to New College Oxford, as a scholar on to call its truth in question. On the Wykeham's foundation, and here, after contrary, the whole of the last, as well as taking his first degree, he obtained a fellowof the present reign, will be found to ex. ship. On completing his degrees in arts, hibit the moderation of the church-inter- he became the principal tutor of his colnally, as far as regards her own discipline; lege, with such a reputation, that when the and externally, in respect to her conduct to young Prince of Orange, now King of the dissenters--in the most amiable point of view. Netherlands, was entered as a student of
At the time when the above panegyric the university, Mr. Howley, on the recomwas delivered, the archiepiscopal chair was mendation of his friend Mr. Addington, occupied by the venerable, and it may truly was appointed to the honourable charge of be said, apostolical prelate SECKER; who | his education; in which office he gave had been Chandler's schoolfellow, but who the fullest satisfaction to their late majesafterwards altered his sentiments, thoughties, as well as to the illustrious family of without losing his liberal principles. This his royal pupil. excellent primate was succeeded by Dr. / On the elevation of Dr. Huntingford to CORNWALLIS: a man of the same gene- | the bishopric of Gloucester, in 1802, the rous spirit, who guided the helm of the consecration sermon was preached by Mr. Establishment in a manner that commanded | Howley, and published the same year, in the applause of all parties, except those obedience to the command of Archbishop who were ardent for what they called a Moore. Soon after this, on the advancereform of the doctrine and worship of the ment of his friend Dr. Randolph to the church. After him came Dr. John MOORE, bishopric of Oxford, he was appointed regius of whom it is enough to say, that Lowth professor of divinity, and canon of Christ and Hurd both-declined the elevated dig- church, in consequence of which he pro132.VOL. XI.
Abuse of the Human Faculties.
ceeded to his doctor's degree. In this im- | sioned by him for the purpose. Since portant station he remained till the sudden then, the only inerrable light is contained death of his learned predecessor, who had in the written word ; and this we must been successively removed to Bangor and consult and follow without setting up our London, occasioned a vacancy in the last own judgment either as paramount, or a mentioned see. A case had not occurred concurrent authority. since the Revolution, wherein the episcopal | Such is the fair and sound construction chair of the metropolis had been filled of the learned Prelate's assertion, in which without a translation ; but in the present he is supported by the whole code of reveinstance, the pre-eminent ability, services, lation, and by the uniform decision of the and worth of Dr. Howley, set aside all Christian church, with the exception of the regard to the formality of precedent, and he Tridentine council, and the equally arrowas accordingly consecrated, in 1813, to that gant usurpation of the Socinian school: the dignity in the chapel at Lambeth, where one placing all authority in a supposed inthe late queen Charlotte and the princesses fallible chair, and the other in every man's attended to witness the solemn ceremony. private judgment.
In 1814, the bishop of London, having I Since the publication of his first charge, completed the primary visitation of his the bishop printed another, of great merit, diocess, at the request of his clergy, sent and particularly applicable to the state of the charge which he had delivered, to the the times; but without adverting to the press. Though this pastoral address con coarse and illiberal treatment which he had tained nothing that justly could give offence | experienced from the Unitarian Coryphæus, to any description of persons, yet such is and the whole tribe of infidels, who, either the restless disposition of some men, that in sheer ignorance or wilful malice, re. they seem, as it were, to lie in wait for the echoed the virulent misrepresentation. sole purpose of endeavouring to obtain a When the late lamented Duke of York little celebrity, by attacking public charac- | lay confined by the malady which terters. To that motive only can be ascribedminated his valuable life, he derived great the conduct of the late Mr. Thomas Belsham, consolation from the ministry of the Bishop the Unitarian controvertist,who, soon after the of London, who was much affected by the appearance of the charge, published a letter meek and resigned deportment of the to the bishop, in which, among other things, royal sufferer, than whom, he has been he abused the Prelate for saying of the Uni- heard to say, he never witnessed a more tarians, that “loving to question rather than sincere and humble penitent, to learn, they approached the oracles of di The elevation of this excellent prelate vine truth without that humble docility, that to the Primacy, was the meet reward of prostration of the understanding and will, his diligence and moderation. Indeed,withwhich are indispensable to proficiency in out disparagement, it may safely be affirmchristian instruction.” This position, the ed, that, out of the whole episcopal bench, Socinian leader represented as being no there was not one upon whom that dignity better than popery, and a slavish principle could more properly have been conferred, tending to establish an arbitrary authority at a time when the interests of the estaover the mind. On the contrary, the mean- blished church demanded the greatest ing of the bishop amounted only to this, vigilance, circumspection, and liberality on in which he rested upon scriptural ground, the part of her rulers. In all the stormy that reason and revelation have distinct debates on the momentous question of provinces, that what the one could not dis- admitting the Roman Catholics to the cover by its own power, and the exercise of right of legislation and the exercise of its own faculties, must be implicitly re- nearly every civil office in the state, the ceived on the authority of our divine Archbishop steadily, but temperately, apteacher, otherwise we undervalue his mis- proved himself an uncompromising de. sion, and render the gospel nugatory. It fender of the constitution as the same was is required of all Christ's disciples that settled at the revolution. they become, in regard to the understanding, as little children, submitting their minds to a heavenly instructor, from whom
ON THE ABUSE OF THE HUMAN FACULTIES. alone the knowledge of God, and of the Man is of all created beings the most noble terms of our acceptance with him, is to be and exalted, both in his coporeal and menobtained. While our Lord was upon tal constitution. In the former, the erect earth, this knowledge was received imme- | attitude he is capable of supporting, gives diately from himself, or through the in- him a superiority both of form and stature strumentality of persons specially commis- over other animals of commensurate bulk, 1061
Abuse of the Human Faculties.
and declares him the lord of the creation; those organs through which it operates; and but even independent of this advantage, thus we may safely allow to the secret opethere are other peculiarities in his anatomi- | ration of organic structure in the brain the cal structure, habits, and natural powers, retention and combination of ideas, though that are unknown to any other creature. not their original formation, without either
The economy of his digestive organs impugning the immateriality and immortaqualifies him to be omnivorous, for though lity of the soul, or running into the fantastic the structure of his teeth would lead us to reveries of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim. conclude, pulse, fruit, and vegetables to | We might thus travel through the whole constitute his natural food, yet the gastric of the human frame, in proof of man's juice is an adequate solvent for animal sub superiority; but the present instances will stances of every kind, and in every state of abundantly establish the fact, and lead to preparation; while the powerful action of the conclusion, that the design of the the muscular fibres of the stomach, is capa- | Almighty in his formation was, to produce ble of promoting digestion in materials, a being capable of his worship, and of which would produce serious, if not fatal obedience to his laws; furnished with faculconsequences on the health of any animal, ties which might qualify him for intercourse either herbivorous or carnivorous.
with his mind, fit him to assume the subMan is the only animal gifted with the ordinate government of the lower animals, power of speech, the use of which appears and make the productions of the earth he inseparably connected with the reasoning inhabited subservient to his existence and faculty, as monkeys possess all the requisite comfort. organs; but the sounds produced even from We have now to inquire how far man this identity of structure are confined to a has fulfilled these evident designs of his guttural scream or squeak, or a dental existence ? Alas! what a lamentable picture chatter. The most persevering and assiduous does the contemplation present to the attention has never been able to cause ani- view of the Christian. Let us, however, mals to utter an articulate sound; and hence take a short survey of some of these various we are led to conclude, that the exercise of particulars. the faculty of speech is the result of mental 1. His animal powers. Man is, for his associations acting through the media of bulk, the strongest of all animals. This is appropriate organs, and thus producing a owing to the peculiarity of his osseous and sensible effect. Mental energy in con muscular systems, the first forming two tinuous action is then the cause; mechanism perfect arches, united by a continuous but is the medium; and articulate sound is the | flexible column, which, by the regular effect.—Speech may thus be considered as curves it is capable of assuming, makes the the connecting link between mind and chord the centre of gravity; and thus both matter, possessing the essential attributes the arches acting on the same centre, and of the one, and the most refined arrange mutually aiding each other; the support of ment of the other.
surprising weights is the consequence. The Other faculties of organic action may be muscles, from the erect position of the body, produced by contrivance and reiterated and the various motions it is capable of practice, as peculiar positions of the limbs; | performing, are longer, firmer, and more but speech appears to result from an elastic than those of quadrupeds, and in inherent faculty of the rational mind, their number, form, combination, and inand its development in some modus ope- sertion, adapted to the motions of the randi is found in every nation, and in every several articulations to which they are atclime; while its absence is occasioned by tached. Hence, man is capable of endura defect, either in the articulative organsing more exercise than the horse, both in themselves, those of hearing, through which time and distance, witness the Barclay the communication of individuals is sus match, which no horse could equal. But tained, or in the mechanism of the brain, to what base ends does he prostitute these whose delicate but incomprehensible struc invaluable powers!' Behold him dressed ture must be admitted to have its share in in the fantastic garb of a buffoon, performsome unknown manner in the economy of ing the most difficult but disgusting feats thought.
both of strength and agility, and twisting his Man is partially a material being, all his manly form into the resemblance of a hoop, powers and all his faculties are exercised or, as is exhibited by a modern artiste, disthrough the instrumentality of organic struc locating his limbs for the amusement of the ture; and though the moving principle be gaping multitude. We might pursue this immaterial, its sensible development de- revolting subject through all the various pends on the perfect and healthy state of acts of horsemanship, rope dancing, swal
lowing swords, &c.; but the nauseous cata- | portionably engage the reflecting part of logue of these abuses may be closed with mankind in the present day; and let us the presumptuous, nay almost impious feats fervently hope, that the labours of the of the celebrated exhibitor, who allows him. Christian philosopher, while contemplating self to bake with rumpsteaks, and swallows the wonderful machinery of Divine Prophosphorus with daring impunity.
vidence in the great theatre of the universe, 2. His mental fuculties. These, the do and looking through them, sees in the vista blest attributes of man, which raise him of time the bright regions of a never-ending above the brute, and fit him for rational in
E. G. B. tercourse with the God who created him, are made subservient to his follies, and be
ANTIQUATED EXPOSITION come the agents of his crimes. What are Extract from an Antiquated Exposition on the bis pursuits, but gain or ambition? What Fourteen first Chapters of Genesis, by way of
Questions and Answers, by Abraham Ross, of his most desired pleasures, but the grati Aberdeen, bearing date 1626, and dedicated to fication of his passions ? What his most Lord Verulam, "Lord High Chancellor of coveted rewards, but the empty applause
England. of man, or the immediate feeling arising
On Creation. from the indulgence of sensual appetite ? Quest. Was the world created, or Such are the general outlines of the human eternal ? character, and if we descend to particulars, Ans. Created. 1. There can bee but we shall find ample room for illustration. one eternal. 2. Almost all the PhilosoHis talents are but too frequently applied phers are against the eternitie of the world, to unworthy, if not vicious purposes, and 3. They that hold it eternal, can bring no he whose abilities might have qualified him sound reason. 4. The most ancient moto support the principles of religion, is numents of records amongst the heathen, found foremost in the ranks of infidelity. | are not so old as the Flood of Noah. Thought the most profound, and deductions | Quest. Could God make more worlds the most specious, drawn from arguments than one? Ans. Yes : for he is Almighty, equally ingenious and fallacious, are em and hee made it not of any matter : for ployed to poison the minds of the ignorant that should have bin exhausted : but more and prejudiced, and sap the foundations of he would not, because hee being one, dedivine revelation. Even science itself is lights in unitie. made the engine of moral deterioration, Quest. Why in Hebrew saith Moses, and to its undivided cultivation is sacrificed Gods created ? joining the noune plurall, every principle of religion; while the mind with the verbe singular? Ans. To signify is deprived of those salutary checks, which the mystery of the Trinitie, one essence in can alone place morality of conduct on the three persons. It is the property of the only basis which can secure it from the at- | Hebrew phrase. tacks of temptation, and preserve it untainted Quest. Why in the beginning of this from the contaminating breath of vice. booke, speaketh Moses only of heaven and
This has been termed the age of im- | earth? Ans. Because by the name of provement, and we are loudly congratu- heaven, he comprehends all celestial lated on the march of intellect. Certainly bodies, and by the name of earth the science has arrived at a high degree of ex elements : for water is in the earth, and cellence, both in theory and practice; in fire and aire, as witnesse the springs and deed it appears to form the prominent exhalations, in earthquakes, and burning theme of public speculation and inquiry. mountains, or hote waters. Mechanism, and the several branches of Quest. Did God create the earth moveinechanical science, absorb the attention of able or not? Ans. Immoveable. Job 38. the artisan; while our publications are de- | Psal. 39, and 104; this is understood, in voted to abstract science and philosophical respect of the whole earth : yet it moved research. The weighty subjects of history in respect of parts, by earthquakes, Job 9. or biography, which once occupied the Quest. Of what figure is the earth? bulky folio, are condensed by the literary Ans. Round, this figure is most perfect, chemist into the portable and elegant capable, ancient. duodecimo, and the more minute details Quest. Is the earth under the water or of our national annals are suffered to sleep not? Ans. Vndere, because heaviest : undisturbed on the shelves of our public yet Exod. 20. Psal. 24, and 136. it seems libraries.
the water is vnder the earth; but it is to The great events of time, and the awful be vnderstood, that a great part of the concerns of eternity, are the appropriate earth was made higher than the waters, for objects of human contemplation, and pro- | man's habitation.
Quest. Why cannot the whole earth God would shew how worthie Adam was move ? Ans. Because hee is in his na- to be scorned, who thought to be like to turall state, which if it should move, it any of the three Persons in the Trinitie, should ascend : and this is against the na- for eating of the forbidden fruit : so this ture of the earth !”.
word (vs) doth not signify angels, but the care vor sporto con il 62713697313 three Persons of the Tripitie. Quest. Why
Inil On the Serpent. 2010! did God drive Adam out of the Garden? Quest. What is meant by the Ser- |
Ans. To let bim see how foolishly he had pent? Ans. Not the diuell : for so these
done, in guing more credit to his wife, words should be metaphorically vnder
than to him ; to keepe the tree of Life stood : but this is a misterie, and no
from him, lest he should abuse it, by allegory : nor the image of a Serpent, for
thinking to haue life by it, seeing he had it was not a picture, but a real Serpent
| now violated God's Law; for altho this that was cursed, neither was it a naturall
tree was a sign of life before his Fall, now Serpent that did speake : for speech and
it is none, that by driuing him from reasoning alone naturally belong to men,
this Tree of Life, he might seek for a not to beasts : for they neither have rea
better life than this Tree could yeeld, euen sonable soules, nor the instruments of
that heauenly life which is hid with Christ
in God. Quest. When was Adam cast speech : but it was the deuill that spake in the Serpent, vsing the same as his
out of Paradise ? Ans. That same day instrument to deceive. So then, there was
he sinned : for he being now a sinner, and both a Serpent, which is proved both by
rebellious against God, was not fit to stay the speech of Moses, and the punishment
any longer in that holy place : but what inflicted on the Serpent; and besides, the
day of the weeke he was cast out, is undiuell, which is knowne both by his speech
certaine; yet it is thought the eighth day and reasoning with Eua, as also by the
after his creation, he was cast out, in the testimonie of Christ, calling the deuil a
euening of that day; for Satan did not man-slayer from the beiginning, John 8.
suffer him to stay long therein vntempted! Quest. Why was the diuell so earnest to
yet I do not hold that he was cast out that tempt Eue?' Ans. Because he hated
same day that he was created : for so God, and would not have man to glorifie,
many things as fell out betweene his crebut to anger him; because of his
ation and casting out of Paradise could not pride and enuy: for he could not abide
be done all in such a short space as a piece That man should be in such happiness,
of a day; for the beasts were created the himself being in misery. Quest. Why
sixth day, before man was : in such a did Adam eat of this fruit? Ans. Partly
short time Adam could not have perceived through the instigation of his wife; partly,
the pleasures and happiness of that place; through curiosity, desiring to try what
therefore he was not cast out that same day kind of fruit this should be, which God
hee was created. did prohibit. Quest. Was the sin of
Quest. Why would God have Adam Adam and Eua the greatest sinne that ever
to till the ground ? Ans. Because now was committed ? Ans. If we do consider
the ground was cursed, and would not one sinne with another, then wee say, that
yeeld fruite without hard labour : by Adam's sinne was not the greatest, for the
this seruill worke hee would put him in sin against the Holy Ghost is greater; but
remembrance of his sinne, which brought if we respect the circumstances of Adam's
him to this misery : yet afterwards God sinne; to wit, the place, Paradise, where
mitigated his hard labour, in freeing euery no occasion of sinne was; the time when
seuenth yeare from his tillage, to put them he sinned, immediately after his creation,
in mind of that ease they lost by sin, at the first encounter yeelding to his
which was restored again spiritually by enemy, the excellence of the person that
Christ. sinned, Adam being created in God's
The Cherubims und Flaming Sword. owne Image : if we regard also that infinite hurt and misery that hath falne vpon
Quest. What is meant here by the mankinde, by that sin of Adam ; we must
Cherubins and the fiery Sword ? Ans. Not confess, that it is the greatest sin that euer
fearful visions, nor the torrid zone, nor a man committed.
fire compassing Paradise like a wall,
neither the fire of Purgatory, as TheodoExpulsion from Paradise. rotus, Aquincio, Lyranus, and Ambro
nus doe imagine, but by the Cherubins Quest. Why did God say, that Adam we vnderstand the Angels, which did was like to him? Ans. By these words, appeare often times with wings, as Dani"