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rity, which is required of us, not only towards our fellow men, but towards the whole creation of God.
The tender regard of God for brute animals, will very clearly appear from the following texts of holy scripture.
TEXTS. And to every
beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to 'every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat. Gen. i. 30.
And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark. Gen. viii. i.
And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after. you; and with every living creature that is, with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you, from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth. Gen. ix. 9, 10.
The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ar, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle. Deut. v. 14.
Thou shalt not muzzle the or, when he treadeth out the corn. Deut. xxv. 4,
Thou, Lord, preservest both man and beast Psal. xxxvi. 6.
He giveth to the beast his food, and to the young ravens, which cry. cxlvii. 9.
A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast; but the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. Proy. xii. 10.
Behold the fowls of the air; for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Mait. vi. 26. Luke, xii. 24.
Texts of scripture, to the same purpose, might be multiplied; but with those, who acknowledge its divine authority, as it may ably be supposed all do, who call themselves Christians, a single text, when it is shewn to bear upon a point, ought to be as conclusive as a hundred.
It is to be observed, that all, who encourage acts of cruelty towards brute animals, by any marks of approbation, are nearly as criminal as those, who are the immediate actors in them,
For further admonition on this subject, see “Thoughts on the duty of mercy and sin of cruelty to the brute 'creation.” Sold by Crosby and Letterman, London. Also, a Sermon, on the sin of cruelty towards the brute creation, by the Rev. Legh Richmond, A. M. Sold by Rivingtons and Hatchard, London
CORRESPONDENCE between WILLIAM ADAM and JOHN
with what propriety we do not presume to say, diffusively circulated, within the metropolis, grutis; but of which we find upon enquiry at the booksellers, no copy is now to be procured. The publicity which has been given to them will be our apology for intruding 3 L 2
upon * “ It is well known that his Grace has frequently contributed to keep his la« bourers from church, by paying them their wages on a Sunday; and on one " occasion he employed some hundreds of them, on thal day, in emptying the “ Great Pond at ihe Abbey.”
upon what, we apprehend, at least in one of the parties, was never ins tended for the public eye. We therefore present them, as an object of curiosity, io our Readers, who will, doubtless, be anxious to ascertain upon what grounds any inference unfavourable to so distinguished an advocate for those sound and orthodox principles of religion and morality, upon which we profess to conduct our work, is attempted to be founded. We shall, therefore, cautiously abstain from any remark upon the correspondence itself. We content ourselves with laying the letters before the public, leaving it to them to form their decision; convinced that whatever prove to be the true state of the case on the only two disputed FACTS, no imputation lies upon the ver icity of Mr. Bowles, who, it is clearly established by this publication, did not lightly and rashly hazard the assertion, but proceeded upon the competent anthority of a respectable clergyman, who himself received the information in a manner, and from a quarter, which suggested no motive of suspicion as to its correctness,
In consequence of a pamphlet written by Mr. John Bowles, and of some paragraphs obviously originating in that pamphlet, the present Duke of Bedford expressed to Mr. Adam the great uneasiness he felt from the attacks made on his brother's memory on the subject of Religion, in the said publications.
The Duke particularly mentioned a note in page 36 of Mr. Bowles's pamphlet, in which matters, totally without foundation, are stated as positive and well known facts; these his Grace conceived to be calcu. lated to confiru the slander, if they were allowed to pass uncontradicted. Mr. Adam, in order to obtain such contradiction, had an interview with Mr. Bowles; out of which the following correspondence arose,
The letters and other docuinents are printed without any comment or observation, except what is necessary to shew their connection.
The passage, to which the letters and examinations relate, is as follows:
Pages 35 and 36. “ In the parish where this doctrine was delivered, it was mis6 chievous in a peculiar degree. The inhabitants of that parish had
a personal knowledge of the deceased duke: they knew that he had
never joined with them in public worship;--they knew that he “ had passed his sabbaths, like his other days, in worldly occupations " and amusements ;--that he had even been the means of preventing "! many others from keeping that day holy*Until this sermon was “ delivered, much as they might respect him for his amiable qualities, “ for his liberality and munificence, which certainly were entitled to “ their respect, still they must have felt that all was not right, for “ want of religion. 'i'hey could'not, when he was at Woburn, have “ heard the bell ringing for church, without some misgivings in their $ minds on account of his constant neglect of the summons."
(Indorsed, "Written in consequence of a conversation which I had with Mr, Bowles, at Alice's Coffee-house, early in April.)
Lincoln's Inn, 15th April 1803. I am sorry that my engagements have postponed my submitting to you so very interesting a matter, as the result of my enquiry respecting the late Duke of Bedford's religious principles.
I can answer for the truth of the information; and I am sure that you will have the greatest satisfaction in making it public, in the manner that was settled between us,
I have the honour to be,
Your most humble servant,
of Dutch Claims, Broad Street.
Statement drawn up by Mr. Adam in consequence of his conversation
with Mr. Bowles, and transmitted to Mr. Bowles for the purpose of being inserted in the Anti-Jacobin Review, and in the next edition of his pamphlet,
1. With respect to employing the workmen at Woburn to empty the fish-pond on a Sunday,---all the agents and superintendents employed by the Duke of Bedford, at the time, give the most positive contradiction to the performance of that or any other work by his Grace's workmen on Sundays at any time.
2. The report respecting the system of paying the workmen on Sunday, and keeping them by that means from divine service, is equally without foundation,
It is possible of the great member of workmen employed by Grace, that some of them, who might by accident be unable to attend on the Saturday night, might call to receive their payment on the Sunday: but even this must have been unknown to the duke, and must have been both rare and accidental; as the arrangements for paying the workmen were particularly calculated to guard against any irregularity and necessity for paying wages on a Sunday.
3. The effect of the allegation that he did not attend divine worship at his parish church will be completely removed when it is known, that the church of Woburn had been long in such a state as to render it unfit for the reception of a decent congregation---that his grace ordered it to be repaired at his own expence---that it was considerably advanced at his death---and that the nature of the repair and accommodation shews that he meant it to be calculated for his own attendance on divine worship.
The Duke of Bedford's neglect of religion being founded on the propagation of facts, to which the foregoing statements afford ample contradiction, his memory will be sufficiently rescued from that obloquy by what is already stated; but the natural anxiety which those who were nearest to him, and who knew his sentiments on that subject best, has furnished the means of adding, that in many instances which
did not meet the public eye he shewed a most serious regard to religion.
His devout conduct on the loss of a near and dear relation, and his having desired the present Duke of Bedford to accompany him to the communion-table, where he partook of the sacrament, are powerful manifestations of this disposition.
Brighton, May 10, 1803, I should sooner have replied to your communication had I been able entirely to make up my mind on all the points to which it referred. When I had the honour of conversing with you on the same subject, I observed that, in the last edition of the pamphlet to which you allude, I had dropped the two allegations respecting the payment of the wages of labourers and the emptying of a pond on a Sunday. The former was suppressed because though I found, upon
further enquiry, that the fact had in some instances at least existed, yet I had reason to believe that it was without his Grace's privity. As to the latter, I omitted it merely because a strong doubt had been thrown upon its authenticity. Respecting this part of my original statement you will allow me to say, Sir, that the contradiction of it, which your paper contains, does not seem to me to be so complete as to warrant a positive retractions for that contradiction amounts only to a general declaration on the part of his Grace's agents and superintendents at the time," that' no such occurrence, took place. The precise time when it was supposed to have taken place does not appear, and it may have been previously to the employment of the agents and superintendents in question. I have made another effort to obtain either a refutation or a confirmation of the statement, from the quarter whence I originally received it; and I assure you, Sir, that I shall be very happy to find, by clear, precise, and indisputable evidence, that no such fact ever existed.
Respecting the non-attendance at church, I beg you to recollect that this circumstance was not brought forward by me as a substantive charge, but incidentally, in consequence of the Duke's eulogists holding him up as a perfect character, and onnitting in their enumeration of the qualities which rendered him so all mention of religion: a kind of description which I am sure you will admit to have a very injurious tendency. Should I go into a new edition, I shall be happy to give all the effect I can to your statement on this, as well as on the other subjects; which statement I have, in the mean time, communicated to the editor of the Anti-Jacobin Review, for him to make what use of it he may think
Your most faithful servant,
Lincoln's Inn, 14th May, 1803. I have received yours of the 10th: after what passed in our converSition, it by no means answers the expectation which I had formed.
The refutation as to emptying the pond, seems to me as precise as the charge would admit; but if you will state to me the time when it is alleged to have taken place, as I know from my examination into it that it is without foundation, I shall by, referring to dates render the refutation complete.
With respect to the non-attendance in church, it is important to destroy the impression which was produced by your publication, and in that light my statement should be communicated by: you to the public.
I understood from our conversation that you would have directed its insertion in the Anti-Jacobin Review, as your publishing another edition is uncertain, and
if certain, distant:---when I learn from you the time to which I am to refer, as to emptying the tish-ponds, I will send you the refutation, in perfect confidence that you will order it to be inserted in the Anti-Jacobin Review....
I am, Sir,
obedient servant, John Bowles, Esq. Office of Commissioners
WILLIAM ADAM, of Dutch Claims, Broad Street.
Lincoln's Inn, June 13, 1803. Near three weeks have elapsed since I wrote to you in reply to your letter concerning the conversation which we had, and the paper which I sent to you above a month before, on the subject of your publications relating to the late Duke of Bedford.
It is possible that the letter may have miscarried, it was put into the penny-post, addressed (as you desired) to the Office of Commissioners of Dutch Claims, Broad Street.
I wish to know from you whether the letter has been received, if it has not I will supply the defect as soon as you inform me that it has not reached you, but if it has, I have just reason to complain that I have no answer; and I shall consider myself as justified, unless what was arranged is adopted, in taking other measures to attain the object expressed in my conversation and correspondence with you.
I am, Sir,
Your most obedient servant, John Bowles, Esq. Office of Commissioners
WILLIAM ADAM. of Dutch Claims, Broad Street.
Dutch Commissioners Office, June 11. The chief cause of my silence has been the extension of my stay at Brighton, where I received your last letter but one. Since my return I have been endeavouring to ascertain the authenticity of my original information respecting the emptying of the pond. I hope this day or to-morrow to receive a communication on that subject; and indeed I was only waiting for this communication to write to you: the moment