Obrazy na stronie

The death of men turns to her account.

INSPECTOR. (To be continued)




a little

IN my last letter I endeavoured to sketch an outline of the history of

events predicted in Dan. viii. xi. and xii. I shall now attempt to complete the picture. The viii. chapter of Daniel under the type of Antiochus Epiphanes, pourtrays the various Antichristian powers which were to counterfeit or oppose the Church of God. I shall direct my attention principally to the Latin Antichrist, because he was to be the most extensive and durable enemy of the Church. It is not necessary to comment upon the eight first verses of this chapter They relate to Persian and Grecian affairs; it is, however, remarkable that the chair of St. Peter was brought from Antioch to Rome; and there is good reason to think that Antioch was to be the type

of Rome. The Latin power may be considered as one from beginning to end, or may

be divided into two states, first Papal, secondly Infidel. This prophecy will apply throughout to all these powers. The serpent may change his skin as often as he pleases, but he cannot shake off the character impressed upon him by prophecy : the impression of God's seal is fixed upon him, and he that runneth may read it. The first characteristic of Antichrist is that he should at first be.“ horn,” or power, ver. 9. So was Christ to be “ despised and to grow up as a weak plant.” Isa. liii. 2, 3. The Pope, at first, was despised, and even took the name of servus servorum Dei : Infidel Antichrist is of no higher an extraction ; a fisherman the one, and a soldier the other, Secondly, Antichrist was to triumph towards the south, the east, and Jerusalem. The Latins, it is well known, subdued Egypt while subject to the eastern Empire, and the Holy Land in the time of the Crusades. Infidel Antichrist has trod in his steps, though this second expedition of Antichrist has been thwarted by British ships. By the Holy Land, figuratively, is meant that of the Church. Thirdly, Antichrist was to wax great against, or revolutionize the host of heaven, comp. v. 10. and Rev. xiii. 6. The host of heaven is the stars and other luminaries, i. e. Rulers, Gen. i. 15. See Rev. i. 20.-- viii. 12. Those of the west, Antichrist was to set his foot upon : and who is ignorant that even Emperors have bowed their necks to the Pope and kissed his feet?

Papists have compared the Pope to the Sun, and the Emperor to the Moon ; while Infidels have compared their destroying angel to the sign or star of Jesus Christ, comp. 2 Macc. ix. Attila who immolated the old Roman Empire, making way for the Pope, and who


power, and it

is the subject of the fourth trumpet, Rev. viii. 12. used to boast“ that the stars fell before him, and that he was the Rod of God.” Fourthy, this power was to magnify itself unto the Prince of the Host, or in other words, was to be Antichristian, v. 11. comp. v. 25. and 2 Thess. ii. 4. It is difficult to say whether Popery vr Infidelity have exalted their champions to higher dignities. "The Vicar of the Son of of God, and the Christ of Providence, are titles which have been given to these blasphemers. Fifthly, The daily or everlasting (sacrifice or service) were to be taken away by Antichrist, and the Holy City to be trodden under foot by the means of a host not properly his own, and the truth was to be cast down by the practices and political management of this power, v. 11, 12. The Christian sacrifice is the atonement made by Jesus Christ, or the Christian commemorative sacri. fice of Christ's body and blood; or if we understand the Christian service to have been designed, the taking away the service of Christ in the vulgar tongue may be denoted, or the abolition of the sabbath. In every sense the prophecy has been accomplished by the Latin


be observed once for all, that as Infidelity has restored Popery, every character of Popery adheres to it. The sermons of Leo I. prove that he was most remarkably instrumental in substituting St. Peter for Jesus Christ, and according to Bowyer he introduced into the Communion service these words, Hoc sanctum sacrificium. In the year 666, according to Fleming, the Latin service was generally instituted.' That the Holy Land and the Protestant Church have been trodden under foot by Popery and Infidelity needs no proof. The present Infidel governor as well as the Pope, have obtained kingly power without the royal name, and are upheld by foreigners. We now come to the most essential character of Antichrist, policy. All the wisdom of the serpent is concentered in Antichrist. Italian policy has been more celebrated than ever Roman strength

The present Infidel power is not behind hand in policy. Devoid of all religious and moral principles, the chief consul of France is all things to all men to win all. Every form of Antichrist meets in him. All the opinions of mankind he considers as so many prejudices which he is to flatter, embrace, and turn to his own purpose.

In a word, he is the genuine child of modern philosophy, and seems to have been raised


that the world might judge of the tree of knowledge by the fruits; Let this Proteus no longer deceive us :


Quantum formas se vertet in omnes
Tanto, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla.

It is by reason of the transgressions of the Church that persecutors are raised' up, Daniel also informs us, and this should teach us to “ become zealous and repent." The Church, indeed, is never so pure as when it is refined by the fire of persecution, and hence we learn the wisdom of God in permitting these afflictions to be brought upon his people.

Sixthly, The persecution of the Church and of its ministers,' &c. is said to last until 2300, or 1150 days. (See Wintle on the place). By days are meant years, each of 360 days; and the two periods are.


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equal to 2268, dr 1134 of our years. The termination of this period is called the end, v. 19. A relative term, and often applied to a period, and not to a point of time. The time of the end, is the time of the Gospel, opposed to that of the Law, and agreeably to this in Rev. x. 6. corresponding with Dan. xii. 7, 8. the Reforination is preceded by a declaration, that " time should be no, more," i. e. the time corresponding to that of the Jewish Law, should be succeeded by a publication of the Gospel in 1522. If we commence the 2268 years at the time of the vision in the year 553, B. C. the period will terminate in 1715, when the last Romish persecutor died, and the age of pure l'opery was effectually terminated by the Gospel. If we date the 1134 years from the death of Christ when the Jewish sacrifices were abolished, the period will reach to Waldo. If we take the epoch 666, the time will end in 1800, when the mystery of Infidel iniquity seems to liave been more fully developed, and about which time the comprehensive sense of this prophecy was discovered in a great measure by Mr. Kett, as well as properly applied. Nothing has tended more to elucidate Scripture than the discovery, which perhaps we.owe principally to Lord Bacon, (see his Advancement of Science) that the Prophecies have manifold accomplishments.

St. John, also, calls the time of the end, the time of Antichrist, 1 John ii. 18. and it is remarkable that the years 1715 and 1800, were distinguished by appearances of Antichristian powers. The age of Philosophy seems to have commenced upon the death of Lewis XIV. and the years 1799 and 1800, seem to have been equally marked by advancements of infidel Antichrist. The time of the end must be a time of considerable duration, from the many events which are said to take place then, see ch. xii. 40, &c. Infidelity, too, may be an instrument in the hand of God, as well as the Gospel, for cleansing the Sanctuary. The actions of the Prophet, be it now observed, both in this and the tenth chapter, resemble those of St. John, Rev. j. and seem to typify the resurrection of the Church, occasioned by that of Jesus Christ.

Seventhly, the character of Mystery is applied to the Latin Antichrist, see Rev. xvii. 5. The mysteries of the Conclave and of the occult lodge are notorious.

Eighthly. A most remarkable character of Antichrist is given, that he shall not only extend his conquests by the help of foreign powers, as the Corsican Consul does; but that he should prefer peace to war, for the purpose of agrandizement by means of his emissaries. In imitation of the prince of peace, Antichrist must be a mediator too, and woe to those countries who accept of his mediation. Surely this character is much more applicable to the Pope and to the present infidel power than to Mahomet. Lastly, Antichrist is to stand up against the Prince of princesz and to be broken without hand, comp. Rev. xvii. 14. (where the Latin Antichrist is undoubtedly designed) and 2 Thess. ii. 8. This prediction relates to a future event and has been but in perfectly accomplished as vet in the opposition made to Christ and his representatives by popery and infidelity. This great war is foretold in Rev. xvi. 14. where the second form of Antichrist is denoted by three frogs, an emblem which appears to me to represent French emissaries. The Abbé Barruel

calls the Jacobin. “A venomous reptile which crawls from den to den.” See his introduction to vol. iv. The commentator on Nostrada. mus, ed. 1672, p. 251, observes, that that author denotes the French by the Frog, for this reason, because the old arms of France were three Frogs. I refer to this author for the fact and not because any attention should be paid to such kind of vain, if not presumptuous writers. In ch. xiv. 20, and xix. 20, 21. there seems to be a distinction made be. tween the two forms of Antichrist. For the patrimony of St. Peter and the Holy Land, are both 1600 furlongs in length, and it would appear that both were designed by the wine-press, and that the former particularly was to be annihilated, while the Holy Land was to be the scene of the destruction of infidel Antichrist. Should you deem these remarks worthy of insertion I shall at a future period endeavour to explain the parallel prophecy contained in ch. xi. and xii, and I trust that the collation of the parallel passages in these visions will be sufficient to establish my hypothesis.

I am, Gentlemen,
Your obedient humble servant,




S the attention of

your readers has lately been excited to a work of Mr. Archdeacon Blackburne, the celebrated author of the Confessional, it is probable, that they will read with additional interest the following remarks written by my venerable friend, the Rev. Thomas Ludlam, on the Advertisement prefixed to the third edition of the Cone fessional. They were intended as an appendix to an Essay on the Nature and Ends of Social Union," also written by Mr. Ludlam, of which he has favoured me with a MS. copy, and given me permission to make what use of it I please. Though that Essay is highly valuable, as all Mr. L.'s writings are, and well deserving of publication, it may be thought too long to be inserted in a miscellaneous work: I therefore send you. only the appendix. It appears from this, as it does still more clearly from the Essay itself, in which are contained occasional remarks on the Confessional, that, though Archdeacon Blackburne was a learned and ina genious writer, his powers, as a reasoner, were not of the first rate, and that no great stress ought to be laid on his authority.

I am, Gentlemen,

Yours, &c.
October 11, 1803.

E. P.

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Mr. Blackburne quotes Soame Jenyns as an ingenious and learned writer, and therefore adopts, I suppose, his observation at p. vii.that “if it were possible for mankind to receive a perfect religion, national establishments would be necessary for its support;" and yet, strange to conceive, this circumstance, so absolutely necessary for its support, must be " infallibly productive of its destruction.” Nevertheless, Mr. B. tells us, p. ix. that those national establishments bid the fairest for permanency, which have their greatest supports froin human power, (so then, it seems, they have some supports from elsewhere) and the least countenance from Scripture. Do the Scriptures, then, make it impossible for the magistrate to establish true religion, where all other circumstances permit it? It would be kind, if those, who assert this, would acquaint us what those doctrines, rites, or ceremonies are, which render Christianity hostile lo civil so. ciety.

But, what are we to understand by a perfect religion? For myself, I freely confess, I am utterly at a loss to tell what these words mean, and should be much obliged to the admirers of Mr. Jenyns, or of his friend Mr. B. to inform me.

The author of the Confessional continually speaks as if he thought it the design and the business of the civil establishments of religion to promote and maintain true religion. The truth of the religion, which the magistrate finds it expedient to establish, has no more to do with the reasons, by which he is to be governed in determining what religion he shall establish, than it has to do with the form of the buildings in which such religion is to be taught, or the shape and colour of the garments of those who teach it. Før, though it is the duty of the magistrate to estublish, it is not his duty to make or find a religion for his subjects.

Religion in the hands of the magistrate is merely an instrument of civil government ; he must establish some religion, because no human government can subsist without religion, and he is to adopt that religion, which, all circumstances considered, is fittest to promote the peace of his subjects, for the national religion. Peace is the first and principal end of civil government. Without peace amongst his subjects, neither the safety of their persons, nor the security of their property, which are the only ends of civil society, can be attained. It is, therefore, the duty of the magistrate to establish the largest, i. e. the most numerous Church. By a Church, I mean a society of persons united together, and assembling for the purpose of worshipping God in what they deem the most acceptable manner: and, by an establishment, I mean a provision, at the PUBLIC expence, for such circumstances respecting this Church, as the magistrate may deem most proper for supporting the form-of WORSHIP adopted by this Church. Now religion, as a public institution, involves in it the doctrines to be taught, the rites to be administered, and the ceremonies attending, i. e. the mode of such administration. But, though each religious society must determine for itself the doctrines it thinks proper to receive, the rites it chuses to adopt, and the ceremonies it is dis. posed to employ, according to that sense it entertains of the words of Scripture; yet the magistrate, as guardian of the public, must take care,


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