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bottom, placed about a foot from the bottom of the cask, that is, the end on which it is standing, and perforated with numerous small holes. A gun barrel, or tin tube, connected with the spout of a tea-kettle, placed on a fire, is to be introduced into an opening in the side of the cask, between the real and false bottom; and the patient, being seated on the false bottom, the steam, or vapour, from the boiling kettle, soon surrounds him, by rising though the holes. It must be prevented from escaping by means of a blanket, which should cover the open end of the cask, and be applied closely round the neck of the patient.
The old adage, that "Cleanliness is next to Godliness" cannot be too often remembered and so necessary is ablution of the skin in warm climates, that it is enforced on the followers of Mahomet, as a religious rite. The skin performs very important functions in the animal economy, balancing the circulation by its secretion, which exudes through small pores abundantly disposed over the whole surface of the body. By a due performance of the functions of the skin, the temperature of the body is regulated, during all vicissitudes of the atmosphere; for when the temperature of the animal machine is above the natural standard, (91° Fah.) evaporation takes place from the surface, and superabundant heat is thereby kept down. By perspiration the skin is kept soft; but, unless cleanliness be observed, saline particles contained in the sweat will accumulate on its surface; its pores will be stopped; and eruptive diseases, or some internal complaints will sooner or later ensue: for it is well-known that children living in filth are seldom healthy; as increased transpiration from the lungs, must make up for that which should exude from the skin, whereby they are obliged to perform more than they are capable of; and the
bowels get into irregular and diseased actions from exactly the same cause. Cleanliness, therefore, consists in removing from the skin all particles which are in contact with it; whether proper to it, or accidentally applied. Washing the face and hands once or twice a day, does not render a person clean, for there are other parts which require much more attention producing, as they do, an offensive secretion, which should never be allowed to accumulate. After every meal the mouth should be washed, whereby particles of food will be removed from between the teeth, where they are apt to remain and putrefy; producing caries of the teeth; offensive flavours in the mouth; and fœtid breath. The tongue should be scraped, and the throat well gargled with water. Tooth-picks should never be used excepting for the removal of particles which cannot be otherwise dislodged from between the teeth; and the teeth themselves require soft brushes; tooth-powder should be used but seldom, and that of a simple innocent nature: the following " Receipt for tooth-powder" is excellent.
Take of, powder of orris-root, two drachms; powder of burnt hartshorn, one ounce; dragon's blood, powdered, half a drachm; ottar of roses, two drops :-Mix.
Attention to the feet is an essential act of cleanliness, as the exudations from them are of the most offensive description, and produce, if suffered to accumulate, tenderness and ulcerations of the skin.
Nothing need be said to the robust respecting their diet; but, it will be readily conceded, that in the present day, we live too luxuriously, whereby we induce diseases, which are popularly called bilious. This is, however, a very vague term, and is generally used to denote symptoms of indigestion, which will be hereafter treated of. The plan of our work precludes the possibility of our entering very fully into theoretical views ; and as we have always entertained the opinion, that no very precise rules are required on this subject, "some men's food, being other men's poison," we shall endeavour to lay down directions that apply generally, and then treat on the proportion of the most important articles of food.
To insure an appetite for breakfast, we should rise one hour, at least, before that meal, and employ ourselves in some gentle exercise; but we must take especial care to eat sparingly when suffering from excessive fatigue. If tea should disagree, substitute for it, milk, or coffee, or, what are better, barley water, or thin gruel. Home-made bread, a day old, seldom hurts any one; if it does, toast it, or eat a hard biscuit. Cold roast mutton, or beef, are excellent additions; or the yolk of an egg, moderately boiled. The stomach must never be overloaded, and if we take an early dinner, luncheon is seldom required.
The old adage of "eating little and often," is a bad one, where the
stomach is in a weakened state, for if we thus employ it, we prevent a regular performance of its functions, and the feeling of hunger, which is the best monitor a dyspeptic patient can have. Now, if a good breakfast has been taken, and some moderate exercise, two or three hours after it, the stomach will act on its contents; and, about two o'clock, appetence for refreshment will again return, and this must be the dinner hour; but, should hunger be vehement before this time, a hard biscuit and a glass of old sherry wine, will form no bad luncheon. The dinner may consist of a little whiting, or haddock, or cod, with which some plain butter may be eaten, or a little catsup. If meat be caten, let it be venison, or game, or chicken, or roast mutton, or beef. The pudding may be composed of rice, tapioca, or sago, and a baked apple dumpling is generally harmless, if flatulency be absent. No cheese should ever be eaten by the invalid, and toast and water, weak wine and water, or good home-brewed table ale, are the best drinks.
When tea-time arrives, tea may be taken in moderation, accompanied by dry toast, or bread and butter, if necessary.
If supper be absolutely required, a very small quantity of meat, or an egg lightly boiled, are less objectionable, than cheese and salads. Bed, however, must never be entered, till one hour has elapsed after such a repast.
OF ANIMAL FOOD.
The elements composing animal bodies, arrange themselves into combinations that form three materials, (viz.) gelatine, or jelly; albumen, and fibrine. They differ in their nutritive qualities, and their digestibility in the stomach varies also; meat, therefore, is nourishing according as one or more of these materials predominate in various animals, or in different parts of the same animal. Gelatine (or jelly), may be obtained from almost any animal substance, but principally from the skin and membraneous parts. Bones and horns furnish it plentifully; but cooks generally procure it from calves-feet and cow-heels. Isinglass is pure gelatine; and size and glue are other forms of it, but are not used for food, being obtained generally from putrid substances. Soups are solutions of gelatine, and contain besides, a mucilaginous matter peculiar to animal substances, which imparts a flavouring principle; while gelatine is insipid and devoid of taste and smell. Although jelly is very nourishing when it has been properly acted on by the stomach, yet it is not digested with such ease as is generally imagined; in fact, there is something in it which resists the action of that organ, and it is only in its most healthy state, that it is able to elaborate it readily into a proper form to be converted into blood; for invalids, therefore, and those of impaired digestive powers, this material, or such parts of animals as are principally composed of it, are by no means suitable and the popular opinion, that jelly is extremely light and easy of digestion, is formed, therefore, in error. It may be said of gelatine, that it is a substance which the healthy sto
mach converts into a material highly nutritive, and well fitted for the process of digestion ; but, in an uncombined state, (that is, separated from the animal substances with which it was previously united, by the process of art) being less susceptible of those changes in the digestive organs, necessary to effect assimilation of the food, it is not an eligible form of nourishment for the dispeptic, the valetudinarian, or the convalescent.
Albumen, as well as gelatine, exists in most animal substances, but more particularly in the nerves, the serum or watery parts of the blood, the curds of milk, &c. In a simple state, it is a transparent viscid fluid, possessing neither taste nor odour; coagulating at a heat of 165 degrees, and being incapable of being converted into fluid again. It is no more digestible than gelatine; but, in consequence of the peculiarity attending its coagulation, it is subject to objections from which that substance is exempt. Coagulated albumen is very indigestible; and a very low temperature being sufficient to bring it into this state, it can scarcely be subjected to any of the common culinary processes, without becoming an improper article of food. The white of an egg consists almost entirely of albumen, and ought to be entirely rejected, or merely heated to its point of coagulation.
Fibrine, is the third substance of which animal bodies are composed, and is the essential constituent of flesh, having the appearance of white threads, mixed with gelatine; it is, in fact, the fleshy fibres themselves. As an article of food, it is superior to any other parts of the animal, but is modified in this respect, according to the tribe it belongs to. is not a substance peculiar to the animal system; yet, as it constitutes several parts of it, it may, with propriety, be introduced in this part of the subject. Fat is the chief constituent of animal oil; it abounds peculiarly in many articles of diet, as in ducks, geese, pork, tongues, breast and loin of mutton, turtle, &c.; and contains a greater proportion of nourishment, in a given bulk, than any other part of meat; but it is, at the same time, the most oppressive and difficult of digestion, of every kind of animal food. The strong and healthy will, however, digest it without inconvenience, and "a little will go a great way." The fat of mutton is more easily digested than that of beef, and that of venison more so than either. Animal oil enters also into the composition of milk, but as a consideration of this fluid particularly demands our attention, we shall hereafter more particularly advert to it.
BOILED MEATS. It has already been shewn, that one of the constituents of animal matter, is gelatine, a substance easily soluble in water. Hence it follows, that in boiling meat, a portion of the gelatine will be taken from the meat, and remain suspended in the water, occasioning considerable diminution in the weight of the meat. The whole of the loss is not, however, entirely gelatine ; a little fat is always melted by the heat, and carried to the top of the water. The actual diminution in weight is
about one-fifth. Thus, a joint weighing five pounds in its raw state, will weigh but four, after it has been boiled. It was stated above, that albumen is soluble in water, but that it becomes converted into a white opaque insoluble mass, of considerable density, when heated to a temperature o. 165°, hence this portion of animal food becomes solid in the process o boiling, the temperature being considerably beyond the heat necessary to produce coagulation. Let us now apply these facts for directing the judgment in regulating this branch of the culinary art. If meat be plunged into boiling water, does not the albumen become coagulated immediately? Certainly. Now, what is the consequence of this? Why, that the water will be unable to penetrate the substance of the meat, or of separating its fibres, which are glued together by the adhesive quality of coagulated albumen. The bulk of the meat, therefore, becomes lessened and shrivelled, and its texture, compact and hard; in this state, however well it may be masticated, it is never so completely divided and attenuated, as to be so easily acted on by the digestive organ, as it would be under different management. Let us, therefore, take the converse to this, and suppose the meat put into cold water, and very gradually heated. The warmth slowly expands it, softens its gelatinous matter, by which its fibres become separated, and its texture loosened, before it can be condensed by the coagulation of the albumen. It would be a useful rule to observe, to suffer the meat, in cooking, to remain three quarters of an hour before it reached the coagulating point, or temperature of 165 degrees. It must be allowed, that by this gradual heating, rather more of the gelatine will be extracted by the water, but the softness of its texture, and its increased digestibility, fully compensate for a little more loss of substance. The quantity lost by boiling, somewhat depends on the proportion of water; a large quantity of water requiring more to saturate it than a smaller. In all cases, then, no more water should be used, than is just sufficient to cover the meat, and it should be kept slowly boiling during the whole process.
their structure, somewhat chemical alteration in the Unsalted beef may be boiled advantage to the stomach.
Amongst the most preferable parts, according to the present mode of dividing the ox, are the ribs, loin, and rump. These parts are free from tendinous and membraneous substances, which are tough and difficult of digestion. Certain joints are destined to be boiled; and no part is submitted to this operation until it has been salted; and those parts are made to undergo this process that are already, from indigestible, a quality much increased by the juices, and the hardness that salt produces. without disgust to the palate, and with much Mutton is unquestionably more easy of digestion than the flesh of any other domestic animal; but how it is that it excels beef is not well understood. The lean part of the loin is the tenderest flesh in the animal. The flesh of the shoulder, if separated from the membraneous parts that envelope some of the muscles is soft and tender. The flesh on the ribs is ARTS, No. 12.