Obrazy na stronie

gulations imposed on subject Jews ; that is friends of humanity, to express our feelings to say, is they have proper passports they and sympathy, and see if we could not do may be suffered to enter any of the pro- something to relieve them. Some gentlevinces of Russia for the like space of time men, who bad spoken to-night, had said and for similar parposes, but in all other that it was no hardship to be subject to the cases they must be sent over the frontiers. provisions of the Ukase--that the Jews might Attested by the Grand Master of Police either remain in the provinces, under the of St. Petersburgb.

regulations made by the Government, or

take their departure. But was it po hard. Mr. Herrman, a foreigner, and Mr. Cohen ship to those that remained to be without opposed the meeting on the ground that the religious instruction? What would the po. restrictions cowplained of were not bard- pulation be at the end of ten or fifteen years ships ; and that the Russian government had bat a set of infidels, and a curse to the land a right to make such political regulations they dwelt in? It had been said, that this as it thought proper.

meeting was called for nothing but an ostenIn reply to the former, a gentleman said | tatious display. But wbat was to be said the Ukase was the harshest and most unjust of the extraordinary sense, the extraordinary that could bave been issued against the eloquence, and the extraordinary erudition unfortunate Jews. Was it no grievance of him who called it an ostentatious disthat those who had resided thirty or forty play, to express feelings that must and wonld years in the provinces, should be driven lead to something higher. The proceedings from their houses at four-and-twenty bours' bere would be calculated to rouse the spirit notice? If sympathy could relieve the suf- of the Jews in Russia. Apathy, which was ferers, they would have the sympathy of a carse greater than even persecution itself, every one; but sympathy alone was of no was destroying the very marrow-bone of avail. If the Chairman could propose any our spirit, as well as our moral characthing that would tend to ameliorate the con- ter. But were the persecutions of the dition of the unfortunate people, he was Ukase the only persecutions which the Jews sure the meeting would give it their most were suffering ? No! Unfortunately, within cordial support.

the last three years, there had been no less The Chairman then rose to state his views than seven or eight persecutions in different regarding the object of the present Meet- parts of Europe. Some time agn the Duke ing, which, he observed, had been called of Darmstadt bad passed an edict excluding to take into consideration the persecution Jews from the fairs, and the King of Baraendured by the Jews in Russia, in conse- ria had ordered no less than seven or eight quence of the Ukase. It was not for him Synagogues to be shut up. . to anticipate what might be proposed at this The latter part of this statement was demeeting. One person might propose an ex- nied by Mr. Herrman. pression of sympathy-another, to send ten

Several gentlemen present said they could thousand pounds to his suffering Jewish affirm it as a fact. brethren—and another, something else. The The Chairman continued.—At Darmstadt, Russian Government had been aggrandiz- a law was contemplated to alter the obsering its territories to an immense extent. vance of the Sabbath to Sunday. At FrankThe Jews, who from long residence had fort, the number of marriages in a year were been looked upon as citizens of Russia, had restricted to twelve natives, and three foextended their numbers and settled there ; reigners yearly, although the whole number and yet they were now to be told that they of Jews was upwards of 1,000 families. must go away-some of tbem having only There were other persecutions at Lubeck, twenty-four bours allowed them for their Bremen, and other places.

These were departure. The calling of the present meet- only specimens of the persecutions to which ing originated not with him (the Chairman); the Jews were constantly exposed, and yet it had been proposed to a body of 100 or such was the wart of national spirit among 150 individuals, who had agreed to meet to them, that no inquiry was made into the take into consideration this extraordinary cause, or efforts made to remove them, by that Ukase. Some gentlemen had said, that the part of the nation which was not immediissuing of this document was a mere matter ately affected by them. The condition of of policy on the part of the Emperor of these persecuted men was such that it could Russia, who might do what he liked in bis only be compared to that of Job, who comown country, and no one here had a right plained that his friends stood aloof from to interfere. True it was, that the Govern- him. Those who had money, for the greater ment of Russia had a right to do what it part appeared to be destitute of proper feelliked, and it might even order the heads ofing, and were so engaged in the improvethe unfortunate Jews to be cut off, without ment of their fortunes or in fashionable the Jews bere being able to prevent it; but amusements, or else were so much in dread it was incumbent on us, as brethren and of exciting any hostile feelings in persons

possessed of power, that he feared any ap- | time, been heaped on oor devoted race, by peal to them would be vain. It was to the persons frail and imperfect like ourselves, poor of Israel, thierefore, that he would ad-we at the same tine desire to feel deeply dress himself. Since ibe Almighty, who was affected by the consideration that the Al. the King and the God of Israel, vever re- mighty is just, and that these sufferings are fused to listen to the prayer of the destitate, the necessary results of our iniqaities and he would call upon them to address their those of our forefathers, denounced by our prayers to him, and to this end he would lawgiver and prophets. implore them to consider what had been their Mr. Israel said, that in seconding the resocondition for tbe last 1800 years; how clearly lations of his respected friend, he could not that condition had been marked out by their consent to do so silently. He felt himself inlawgiver and propbet, as that which would debted to Mr. Levy for the interest he had result from their departure from the laws of taken in this business. He thought the octheir God. He would have them meet again casion a very proper one on which to conand again, and think of their woes; sympa- vene a meeting of the Jews, and was surthise with each other in their afflicted and prised that any Jew should think that such desolate condition, and turn their hearts to an ukase was not sufficiently oppressive to that Being who had expressly declared that excite sympathy for those upon whom it whenever they did so he would return to them, operated. He was glad to find that the first provide a remedy for their calamities, and gentleman who had spoken to this effect was restore them again to the possessions and not an English Jew ; indeed, he was greatly enjoyments belonging to them as members disappointed to find that he was called a of his family. Mr. Levy then expressed his Jew, for he could not conceive that any perfeelings in terms of the highest reproach at son of his nation could be found so destitute the conduct of those who he thought bad of all right feeling as to reflect upon such a evinced apathy and indifference to the un- document without having his national feelings happy condition of the Jews. Shall we, he roused. What (said Mr. Israel) would he continued, find fault with those who inflict cail oppression? To what extent would he the persecutions, when the Jews themselves bave oppression go? What demoralizations, say “ let them do it,” and even abet them in what irreligion would be be satisfied with ? what they do. O, if these persecutions The ukase not only took away from the Jew could raise the house of Israel, ihen I would his means of religious instruction, but his say with David, “ It is good that I am means of supporting life. These persons afilicted, for then my heart will come back were brought up to trade ; they bad been again.” He feared very much, however, established in particular spots, many of them that the Jews were not yet sufficiently im- born there; all their connexions were there; pressed with a sense of their real condition, it was the grave of their fathers ; and what and that of their afficted brethren in other more oppressive could be considered than parts of the world, to enter fully into this that of saying to a man under such cirquestion. He would at present therefore cumstances, “ You shall no longer conmerely propose some resolutions, and re- tinue here; within twenty-four hours you quest the meeting to appoint a committee to shall remove with all your family to a take these matters into consideration. After strange place, without trade, or any prospect they had been read, he hoped they would be of obtaining a livelihood.” No Jew who found so accordant with the feelings of every possessed a spark of national feeling, or true Jew, that one would refuse to sup- whose mind was at all impressed with the port them.

religion of his God, could read such a paper, The following resolutions were then read : or think of such a state of things as that

1. That this meeting, having been made which it described, without feeling the acquainted with the contents of an akase deepest affliction : by coming forward in a recently issued by the Emperor of Russia, proper manner, the English Jews would not relative to the Jews, as part of the Hebrew only show to the people of England, but to body, we cannot fail to sympathise with the inhabitants of Europe, that when they our afflicted brethren, and more especially touched one of their nation bis brethren felt to lament the deplorable effects of this per

that he was flesh of their flesh and bone of

their bone. secution, as it affects destitate widows and helpless orpbans in an extensive empire and

The resolutions were severally put, and rigorous climate,

ananimously carried, with the exception of

two hands held up against them, 2. That the proscription of their teachers of religion is calculated to demoralize them, committee 10 he named, and it was finally

Some discussion then arose respecting the and ultimately to make them infidels.

agreed that the chairman should draw up an 3. That wbilst, on the part of ourselves address to the Jews of England, and that a and our brethren, we feel the injustice of meeting should be held on the 19th inst., at those persecutions which bave, from time to the same place, at six o'clock in the even



ing, when the address should be presented cree in its effects upon those upon whom it and a committee nominated. Several other mediately or immediately operates, we cangentlemen addressed the meeting, and a ged- not but consider that it will be still more tleman stated that a meeting of Christians disastrous in its influence on generations yet would be convened in a few days, to take unborn. the subject into consideration.

“ If the dispersion of our nation and the The Chairman returned thanks ; observing calamities we have endured are the result of that his wish was to rouse once more the our departure from the laws of our Almighty spirit of nationality iv bis brethren. If this King, what must be the condition of those coald onee be dope, their oppressions would who will be reduced to a state of ignorance

and degeneracy unexampled in the history of This second meeting of the Jews was held our nation, when deprived of religions inas proposed, on Wednesday, the 19th. struction ?

E. Levy, Esq. having been again unani- If we and our forefathers, blessed with mously voted into the chair, after some in the means of acquiring knowledge, have been effectaal opposition from the two gentlemen too much estranged from our God, what will who figured in the minority at the former be the condition of those who are to come meeting, requested Mr. Israel to read the after us, if such persecutions should become Russian ukase, and the resolutions of the general ? and if one potentate can thus cruelly last meeting:

persecute oar race, what is to prevent the This having been done, the Chairman imitation of his example, but our appeal to stated that, pursuant to their directions, he those feelings of compassion, and that sense had prepared an address to the synagogues of justice, which belong to civilised man? of Great Britain, which he now proposed for “What but bumble and contrite sapplication their adoption.

to that great Being who bath succoured our Mr. Israel read the address, and moved people in all ages, and wbo hath often turned that it should be received and adopted. the curses and oppressions of man into the

The following address was read in para means of making to himself a glorious name, graphs, every one of which was unanimously as our preserver and deliverer ? agreed to.

“ Calamitous and distressing as this par" To the Children of captive Israel, inha- ticular persecution is, its force is greatly

biting the Dominions of his Britannic Ma- increased when considered in conjunction jesty, whom God preserve. Amen.

with other persecutions which have operated

within these three years past. to the injury “ Peace and safety be unto you, from our of our afflicted brethren in different parts of

God, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and civilized Europe ; such as those in Lobec, of Jacob. Amen.

Bavaria, Duchy of Altenburg, and that in “ Having seen a certain Ukase issued by contemplation at Darmstadt ; the different the Emperor of Russia, respecting that oppressive edicts of the Pope; and, lastly, portion of captive Israel inhabiting a certain the cruel and demoralising laws which are part of his Imperial Majesty's dominions, even now operating in Frankfort. which appears to bave been enforced on or “ All these persecutions manifest a preabout August last, we cannot but feel deeply vailing spirit, which should alarm the Isafflicted at the direful calamities which sach raelites of all countries and climes, and inan ukase must occasion to our unfortunate cline us to rouse our bitherto but too dorbrethren ; more particularly so upon those mant feelings, and to search our ways ; that helpless widows and still more belpless or- so, by tracing effects to causes, we may atpbans, who have resided in that extensive tempt to find a remedy for the accumulated empire and rigorous climate.

evils which have befallen and still surround “ Keenly do we feel that part of the said us ; that we may acknowledge the justice of decree which, while it tolerates, under some our Creator, even the King of Israel, and marked restrictions, the settlement of a cer- own that these, as well as all other chastisetain class of our brethren, excludes from the ments which have been heaped upon our debenefits of such toleration all their religious voted heads, are, as it respects the Alfunctionaries.

mighty, merited by our sins and those of our “ Most deeply do we lament this regula- forefathers, as denounced by our lawgiver tion, as depriving such families of all reli- and prophets. gious iustruction and consolation under their “ This meeting do therefore think it a sufferings, which will unavoidably produce solemn duty, which they owe to themselves, woful consequences upon their moral and to their children, to the whole house of spiritual character ; thus spreading the con- Israel, and their God, to call upon their tagion of infidelity among a people hitherto brethren in Great Britain to assemble, ia characterised by devoted adherence to the order to consalt npon the best means of religion of their forefathers.

aroosing the attention of the whole boasc of .." But, alarming as we consider this de- Israel to the cause of all its evils, to ascer

tain their extent, and to point out the most to marry in a year. In England, the home likely means of alleviating the sorrows of and the nursing-mother of all that is noble, our brethrer; averting further persecutions, good, and free, they are subject to but few and uniting ns once more as a family dear to disabilities; yet we could wish to see them one another, and beloved of the God of removed, nor are we aware of any danger, heaven and earth.”

real or problematical, that should bar the Mr. Israel, Mr. Tobias, Mr. Lyons, Mr. way to their removal. None, at least, of Samuel, and several other gentlemen, ad- the arguments which are urged against the dressed the meeting, and urged the Jews to Catholics can be urged against the Israelites. arouse their dormant energies, and to pre- They acknowledge no foreign influence ; they sent themselves to the different governments offer no divided allegiance. Turning, liowof the world as men meriting and claiming ever, from their political to their moral conequal rights with their fellow-subjects. Se- dition, we are happy to find that there are veral instances of the persecutions to which individuals amongst then who have discothe Jews were even now exposed were men- vered the link in the divine dispensations tioned by different speakers, and the follow- which connect the two ; who trace their sufing resolution was proposed by Mr. Israel, ferings to their sins; who are coming forseconded by Mr. Lyons, and carried unani- ward, and in public assembly acknowledge mously :

that, in relation to the FIRST Cause, their “ Resolved, That our nation having, for persecutions are just. Thus did David their more than two thousand years, been subject father. When Shimei cursed the monarch to dreadful persecations from all the powers of Israel, and cast stones at him and his and states of the earth, it is right and proper servants, the latter were iucensed against that, at every favourable opportunity, we him, and proposed to go immediately and protest against such persecutions, and ear- take off his bead; but the king heard in his nestly call on governments to render os equal reproach a voice which they heard not; justice.”

“ So let him curse," said the monarch, “beMr. Levy was then requested to forward cause the Lord bath said unto him, Curse the address to the different congregations of David.” Could we see a sense of their England, which he engaged to do, and ex- guilt (which was expressed at the late meetpressed bis conviction that the Christian ing) deeply felt and widely spreading among states of Europe only required the Jews to the descendants of the house of Israel, then regenerate themselves, to arouse their latent should we hail it as a favourable omen that energies, and to show symptoms of life and the promises long on record, and which nationality. He bailed the present move await but this moral transformation, were ments as an earnest of much better things, vigh to their ful6lment. and expressed his conviction that when the Jews were once more brought to a right

And it shall come to pass when all these spirit, and nationally associated, they would things are come upon thee, the blessing and be made by their Almighty King a blessing the curse which I have set before thee, and to mankind.

thou shalt call them to mind among all the Mr. Charles Samuel, in a very interesting nations, whither the Lord thy God hath speech, expressed the obligations he felt, in driven thee. And shalt return unto the Lord common with his brethren, to the chairman, thy God, and shalt obey his voice according to whose disinterested and patriotic exer

to all that I command thee this day, thou tious the present movements among the Jews and thy children, with all thine heart and were owing, and proposed the thanks of the with all thy soul : That then the Lord thy meeting to him.

God will turn thy captivity, and have comThis was seconded by Mr. L. Solomon, and thee from all the nations whither the Lord

passion apon thee, and will return and gather being carried by acclamation, the meeting thy God hath scattered thee. If any of thine was adjourned.

be driven out onto the outmost parts of heaThe political condition of the Jews, to ven, from thence will the Lord thy God gather which our attention is directed by the above thee, and from thence will he fetch thee. And article, is a subject of painful interest, whe- the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land ther we revert to the elevation whence they which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt are fallen, or contemplate the state of degra- possess it ; and he will do thee good, and dation and oppression in which they are sunk multiply thee above thy fathers. And the amongst the nations of the earth. Measures Lord thy God will circumcise thine heart, and of eren a more barsh character than those of the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord thy the Russian Emperor are said to have been God with all thine heart and with all thy soul, adopted towards them in other quarters. that thou mayst live. And the Lord thy God. The most absard of these is a regulation of will put all these curses upon thine enemies, the Governor of Frankfort, by which not and on them that hate thee, which persecuted more than fifty out of a thousand are allowed thee.




| degraded envoy, Baron d'Ottenfels, to Greece.-- Nothing decisive has yet the office and state of Privy Counsellor, arisen out of the battle of Navarino, “in consequence of his able and zealous mentioned in our last. Political opinion diplomatic services, in keeping the peace continues to vacillate between peace and of the Levant.” This is the enigma, the war, influenced by the adverse rumours solution of which we must refer to time, which reach us from various quarters. the safest and most successful expositor A collateral incident has, however, of political mysteries. sprung out of it, as singular perhaps as South America.--Brazilian papers to any which the history of diplomacy can the 24th of October have arrived, but supply.

contain no intelligence respecting the In the Gazette de France is an official war with Buenos Ayres, and indeed no document, addressed by the Austrian political news. In the sitting of the Minister, Prince Metternich, to the Chamber of Deputies, on the 10th of Internuncio, from the Court of Con- October, Senor Freigo, a member of the stantinople, chiding him in the severest Ecclesiastical Committee, offered a seterms with ignorance or wilful violation parate vote on a motion of Senor Ferof his instructions; letting him know that reira Franca, and requested that he thị EMPEROR and KING“ blamed him might be excused from reading it, and and disavowed him ;” imputing to him that it might be printed. This request motives that could not be comprehended, not being granted, he proceeded to read for refusing to co-operate with the other a very long paper, the object of which great powers, “ in making the Porte de- was to call on the Government to apply sist from its obstinacy, and obliging it to to the Pope to relieve the clergy from accept the salutary measures lately pro- the penalties which at present attach to posed to it by Russia, France, and Eng- their marrying, and at the same time to land.” For this his signorance and dis- state to bis Holiness, that, even if his obedience of orders--orders of which consent should be withheld, the Ashe had been in possession since the sembly could not avoid revoking the month of December last year-he is law of celibacy. commanded to go himself and apologise We should not wonder if his Holiness to the gentlemen of the other nations, were sometimes a little perplexed by and to promise them his co-operation in these things, if it were possible for perfuture;“ the wishes of his Imperial Ma- plexity and infallibility ever to be assojesty being entirely conformable to those ciated in the same mind. of his augnist allies, for the preservation of general peace, and the re-establishment of order and security in the

One of the most interesting features East."

in our domestic affairs, of an ecclesiasThere are some remarkable circum- tical character, is the stir among the stances relative to the date of this de- metropolitan Jews, occasioned by the spatch, but the principal and most persecutions of their brethren in Russia, puzzling part of the strange story is, the particulars of which will be found that, bearing the same date as that among the articles of intelligence. which is affixed to this disgrace of

Lord Goderich is understood to have Baron d'Ottenfels in the German papers

tendered his resignation to his Majesty. (viz. the 30th November), there appears

The motives which induced this step, in the Vienna Gazette an Imperial in- with its collateral bearings and ultimate strument, an order proceeding from the results, remain to be developed. ParEMPEROB himself, advancing this same liament repassembles on the 22d inst.


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