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material which of the two possible coincidence between the accounts modes of arrangement were adopt-of these Evangelists, appears on ed, and that there might be no rea- the very face of it, to be wholly son why the present one was cho- undesigned ; and consequently, sen, the possibility is readily con- clearly proves that they wrote inceded : though apart from every dependently of each other, and other consideration, it seems more establishes the truth of their re. probable, that the association of spective relations. Had St. Mark persons so different in their ordi- possessed a copy of St. Matthew's nary avocations as Thomas and Gospel, and merely abridged his Matthew, and so dissimilar in their larger bistory, as some have imacharacters as Simon Zelotes and gined, it can scarcely be conceived Judas Iscariot, was not a fortuit- that he would have concluded from ous circumstance, but the effect of St. Matthew's arrangement that choice, grounded upon some de- our Saviour sent out his twelve terminate reason of preference. In apostles two and two;' and, if fact, it appears, that neither con- we can suppose that he could have sanguinity nor friendship, nor yet inferred this, yet it is highly imthe blind direction of chance, was probable that he would have been the proximate cause of this ar- content with merely stating the rangement; for Simon, who was fact, without giving the order in the third son of Alpheus, and bro- which they were sent out. But, ther of James and Lebbeus or so far from this being the case, Judas, (Matt. xiii. 55.) is disjoined where he does enumerate the Aposfrom them, and united with Judas tles, he not only does not arrange Iscariot, in consequence of this them in pairs, but differs materimode of arranging in pairs having ally in the order of the names ; inbeen adopted. A circumstance, terposing James the son of Zebehowever, related by St. Mark, we dee, and John his brother, between conceive, furnishes us with the Simon Peter, and Andrew his brotrue reason why St. Matthew has ther, adding, that our Lord called thus enumerated them. He re- the former two “ Boanerges, wbich lates, that our Lord having " caH- is, the sons of thunder,” and plac-ed unto him the twelve, began ing Matthew before Thomas. (Mark to send them forth by two and iii. 16–18.) On the other hand, two.” (Mark vi. 7.) From this if St. Matthew had had St. Mark's statement we at once clearly per- gospel before him, (which, we beceive why St. Matthew should have lieve, has never been imagined,) thus arranged them in pairs. It it will scarcely be supposed that also satisfactorily accounts forevery he drew up his arrangement of the circumstance connected with this Apostles from the simple assertion arrangement; our Lord having, as a of St. Mark, that Jesus sent out pious man remarks, “ united by his disciples “two and two ;” or, grace those who were before united that, if he did so, he would omit, by nature ; and intending, per- as he does, the statement of the haps, to counteract the timidity and fact. As, therefore, neither of unbelief of Thomas by the firmness these suppositions can be admitted, and faith of Matthew, and the it must be inferred, that each of worldly-mindedness of Judas Is- these sacred writers wrote indecariot, by the zealous fervour of pendently of the other, and related Simon.
in their own manner the circum-, Now this minute and striking stances of a act with which they
were well acquainted ; and the morals, act like him, and with reality of which cannot conse- far less plausible semblances of quently be questioned, being thus argument for their proceedings. confirmed by two writers who agree “Having often heard Pharaoh cenrespecting it in the most minute sured for enslaving the Hebrews, and undesigned particulars. having often heard the expressions, London.
W.G. “ Egyptian slavery,” “ Egyptian bondage,
,” “ Egyptian oppression,
as well as Egyptian darkness, EXTRACT FROM AN ORIGINAL LETTER
-it came into my mind a few days OF THE LATE Rev, J. HINTON OP since, to examine what kind of Oxford.
bondage the Hebrews were held O.xford, 25th March, 1813. in, and what excuses Pharaoh
could have made to himself for “ DEAR BROTHER,
such a course towards that people. I NEVER shall use the diploma of The result of my inquiry was rawhich you speak.* . I request you ther surprising to myself; and led forbid, in my name, its insertion on
me to make some remarks on the the cover of the Baptist Magazine. case, under the above title. I have no right to it, and if I had
“Let me not, however, be misI should decline it as Mr. H. has understood. I do not mean to done. I wish the M. A. to my justify the conduct of Pharaoh toname always to be omitted. I wards Israel. My apology is not took it merely as a ticket of ad- absolute, but comparative. I only mission to the Bodleian Library, object to the practice of representbecause they would not admit me ing the slavery of Israel as the without such an appendage to my hardest ever endured; and of Pha
On the Magazine I wish raoh as the most unjustifiable of it not to stand. Your affectionate all slave-holders. It is not corbrother,
rect. And the people of every J. HINTON.
country where slavery is tolerated, and especially slave-holders, would
do well to borrow their proverbs SLAVERY.
respecting slavery and oppression, The following attack upon Slavery, from a different quarter than anin the form of a defence, the pro- cient Egypt. If I am not misduction of an American pen, is so taken, these two facts can be fully ingenious and novel, that we can- made out, from the Hebrew acnot be satisfied to withhold it from count of their bondage ; first, our readers. The writer, of course, that it was not as hard as several as he twice informs us, did not kinds of modern slavery; and semean seriously to apologize for condly, that Pharaoh not only had Pharaoh ; his shrewd irony being more plausible, but better, reasons intended not to exculpate that for his course, than
modern tyrannical monarch, but to shew slave-holders have. In proof of the proportionably greater crimi- the first, I adduce the following nality of those who, possessing an facts :-infinitely higher code of faith and “ 1. The Hebrews were allowed
to live separate to themselves, and retain their own manners,
customs, It was known that a Doctor's degree and religion. (Exod. ix. 26.) They bad been sent to Mr. Hinton, from one of the American universities.-ED.
formed a community by them
selves. Their slavery was rather and embroidery ; working in wood political than personal. They were and iron ; in gold, silver, and
held as public, not as private pro- brass; even to the cutting and -perty. The labour exacted from setting of diamonds, with many them was for the benefit of the other things connected with the state, rather than of individuals. erecting of the tabernacle-prove (Exod. i. 9-14.)
a very considerable knowledge of * 2. They were not bought and the ornamental, as well as useful sold, transferred from hand to arts. (Exod. xxxv—xxxix.; Numhand, and removed from place to bers, vii.) The direction to write place, as caprice or profit might parts of their law upon their doordictate. They formed family con- posts and on their gates (Deut. nexions as they pleased, which xi. 18—20), seems to imply that were not broken in upon. The the great mass of the people, if not education and management of their all, could read and write. The own children
were left to them- notice of writing the names of selves; and all the endearments oflicers (Num. xi. 26), of writing of the domestic circle were un- the law on pillars (Deut. xxvii. 3), touched; the temporary attempt of writing a copy of the law upon to destroy their male children ex- stones (Joshua viii. 32), of the cepted, which we will notice pre- king's writing out a copy of the sently.
law for his own use (Deut. xvii. 18), “ 3. They remained where they agree with the opinion that reading were first settled, in the best part and writing were common among of the land of Egypt. (Gen. xlvii. the people. 4-11; Exod. ix. 26.)
“8. The attempt to destroy their “ 4. They not only were allowed male children was the darkest feato retain the property which they ture in the case. We shall have brought into Egypt, but greatly in occasion to refer to this again, in creased it during their stay. (Gen. noticing Pharaoh's excuses and xv. 14; Exod. xii. 38.)
reasons. In this place I must no“5. They lived well, by their own tice, that the whole facts of the confession; :--so much so, that they case favour the opinion that the afterwards lamented the loss of number destroyed must have been their good living; and had almost very small. The first attempt to returned to slavery for the sake effect it totally failed.
The atof it. (Exod. xvi. 3; Num. xi. tempt to drown them, appears to 4-6.)
have lasted but a short time. It “6. They were made to labour; was not, we may infer, in operabut their great increase is against tion at the birth of Aaron; as nothe notion that their labour was so thing is said about a difficulty in very oppressive as some suppose. saving him. Moses was but tliree (Exodus, i. 9–14.) Experience years younger. (Exod. vii. 7.) It proves that oppressive labour, es- was in force at his birth. (Exod. pecially on the part of females, ii. 2, 3.) At three months old he operates against a great increase. was cast out, but was immediately But the increase of the Hebrews, rescued and adopted by the daughwhile in Egypt, I think unparalleled. ter of Pharaoh. No other case is
“7. It does not appear that they particularly mentioned. From Acts were shut out from any of the vii
. 20, it seems probable some common modes of improvement others were cast out. In all proand esucation. The various works bability, the same sympathy which performed-as spinning, weaving, lled Pharaoh's daughter to save and
adopt Moses, led her to prevail on made prime minister, the cordial her father to abandon the cruel | welcome given to his family in practice. We can indeed hardly their distress,-giving them as a conceive of her indulging the full residence the best district in Egypt tide of female and maternal kind- (Gen. xlvii. 11), supporting them ness for the infant Moses, and not from the public stores for about six make an effort to save others from years (what they carried to Canaan the watery grave from which she cost them nothing, as Joseph rehad rescued him. That the prac- turned their money, Gen. xlii. 25, tice was abandoned—that but few xliv. 1), and their prospect of
a were destroyed - think nearly free trade with Egypt, with Joseph certain, from the fact that there prime minister there, might with were 600,000 men contemporaries some reason be thought a pretty with Moses when they left Egypt, liberal reward. Not mary good and that the number of Israelites deeds get better pay. immediately after leaving Egypt “ 2. At the end of the famine, in(Exod. xii. 27), compared with stead of returning to Canaan, as their number on entering Egypt might naturally have been expect(Gen. xlvi. 27), only about 215 ed, the Hebrews continued to ocyears before, shews that they dou- cupy the land of Goshen. Joseph bled, in less than every fifteen never forgot that he was a Hebrew, years—an unusual increase. The or lost any just and proper opporabove statement, I think, proves tunity of advancing the interests that Egyptian slavery was much of his own kindred. While Egypt milder than the slavery which has owed much to himn in many rebeen often practised since, and is spects, various things were so manow practised by many who profess naged (perhaps accidentally) that Christianity.
the Hebrews had decidedly the ad“The following facts, drawnfrom vantage, as to wealth, ease, the Hebrew records, will shew, I the means of improvement, over, think, that Pharaoh had what he the Egyptians. The close of the, probably thought good reasons for famine found the Egyptians withholding that people in bondage ; out money, flocks or herds, or reasons which at least will bear even personal freedom (Gen. xlvii. comparison with what pass for good 12—26), and under an engages
ment to give Pharaoh one fifth part “1. The Hebrews were received of all their produce. On the other into Egypt at a time of unexampled hand, the Israelites were full handscarcity, when like to perish; and ed, had lost nothing, were in poswere, with their focks and herds, session of the best part of Egypte supported free of cost (Gen. xlv. and had under their management 10, 11); while the Egyptians, who the cattle of Pharaoh (Gen. xlvii. raised the grain laid up in store 6); and as all the cattle of the (Gen. xli. 34, 35), had to sell their Egyptians had come into Pharaoh's flocks, herds, and even themselves, hands, the Hebrews no doubt refor food for their families. (Gen. ceived a good portion of Pharaoh's xlvii. 15—24.) While the obliga- fifth, in payment for managing tion of Pharaoh to Joseph for his them for him. They had full emforesight and ability is fully ad-ployment, of the very kind they mitted, it is thought that some preferred (Gen. xlvi. 33, 34): no bounds ought to be set to the re-wonder therefore they were willing turns made to him, and especially to have remained where they were. to his whole kindred. His being (To be concluded in our next.)
The canity and incertitude of Human Life. | Pass o'er the fairest scenes ; the brightest
sky; With solemn measured pace time steals
The gayest fow'rets soon turn pale and die, along,
The pearly gems their silvery lustre lose, And thrusts his sithe amid the busy throng Through Nature's volume we may clearly
Each earthly form someʼsign of frailty shews. Of restless mortals, pitiless of age, Of life in every form, at every stage. The smiles of friendship, or the tears of This truth inscribed —all here is vanity.
love, His arm. unnerve not, nor his purpose move. No more I would my busy thoughts em
ploy That sithe's keen edge bas harmless pass. On painted forms of evanescent joy. ed me by,
Hope points to skies that fadeless light ilI yet am spared, perhaps, to heave the sigh lumes, And drop the tear at woeful scenes, or smile To fields where amaranthine beauty blooms ; At thoughts of bliss, that tend to chase Joys to commence when Nature's works sball awbile
close, Foreboding fears, and cast a gleam along Sacred their source, and raised above their The vale of life, as lunar beams among
foes. The thicken'd foliage intervene the shade, Lighten and beauteous paint the deep bid
Oh, thou Sapreme! who art th' unfailing glade.
friend The ray of hope the Christian's journey of him who seeks thy aid ; I humbly bend cheers,
Before thy throne, and through thy Son imLife's rugged spots his futare home endears.
Thy guidance, till these circling years are I yet am spared to endure the ills of life,
When called to mourn o'er faded joys, imTo mourn its vanity, turmoil and strife ;
part To feel a void within this aching breast,
Some heavenly balm to heal my wounded That tells me here my spirit cannot rest.
heart; Could I the world encompass at my will, Teach me with ineekness to resign my will, A void remains the phantom canoot fill.
My all to thee, whilst I life's course fulfil. Were I to grasp, as solid good, some form Of earth, as well might he, who 'mid the Chased the dark terrors of the raging storm,
And oh! if he whose sovereign gentle form storm Struggles with mighty waves himself to Deigns to bestow one melting look a while,
My pallid cheek shall brighten with a smile, save,
A sacred joy shall animate my breast, Seize the wild - foam that glitters o'er bis And every care tamaltuous sink to rest. grave.
And when my fleeting years are nnmbered
o'er, Remembrances of joys that were, impart And time's keen sithe shall pass me by no A melancholy pleasure to my heart. They came the boon of an almighty hand,
Receive my spirit to those blissfal plains They were resumed at its supreme com- Where sweet serenity for ever reigns.
mand. Scenes that are past forewarn me scenes to
Each trial past, the ransom'd spirit Sings Will prove as vain, may prove as painfal Songs of immortal triumph, heaven's arch
rings Each winding slippery path of human life
With plaudits to the Lamb that once was
slain, Is thickly set with vexing cares and strife, Like baleful weeds, whilst noxious vapours Who did himself life's heaviest load sastain, rise,
And through whose sovereign grace his peoPollate the air and sbroad these lower skies.
ple prove The emerald verdure of the field soon fades, Trophies of power divine, and matchless
love. The crystal streams dry up, and dreary shades