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call it also Chaldee. It is in this The Abuna is nominated by the Janguage that the holy Scriptures are Emperor, who is supreme in all ecwritten and read in their churches, clesiastical as well as civil affairs. as also their liturgies and other We may judge of the greatness church books.

of the ecclesiastical establishment The sovereign of Abassinia is a from this, that, at one ordination, the Christian prince; and from the ex- Abuna is said sometimes to ordain tent of his dominions, and the mul- ten thousand priests and five or six titude of his subjects, he claims the thousand deacons. The whole ceretitle of Emperor. It is by virtue of monyof the ordination consists in this: his profession of the Christian faith the abuna, sitting down, repeats the that he holds the empire, and bears beginning of the Gospel over the the imperial titles. His motto is, heads of such as are made priests, “ Jesus, Emperor of Ethiopia, of the and gives them his benediction with Tribe of Judah, dictorious ;' and this an iron cross, which he holds in is the seal of the empire, displayed his hand, weighing seven or eight by a lion holding a cross, which are pounds;—but as for the deacons, he his arms. His titles of embassy to fo. gives them his benediction without reign princes announce his descent, reciting the Gospel. religion, and government, in the The Ethiopic church is entitled usual forms of Oriental magnifi- to the veneration due to every Chris cence, of which we have a spe- tian church of early foundation. It cimen in letters of embassy sent to is a tradition among the Abassi. Pope Clement VII., and Don Ema- nians, that their empire became nuel, King of Portugal, as follows: Christian in the days of their cele• David the Beloved of God, Pillar brated Queen Candace, who was conof the Faith, of the blood and line verted by the Eunuch baptized by of Judah, Son of David, Son of Pbilip the deacon, as it is recorded in Solomon, Son of the Pillar of Sion, the Acts of the Apostles. But howSon of the Seed of Jacob, Son of the ever this may be, the constitution of Hand of Mary, Son of Nahu after their church, and the purity of its the flesh, Emperor of the Great doctrine, bear evident signs of an Ethiopia, and of all the kingdoms early original; and though it may and countries thereon depending, not have been of apostolic founda&c. &c.” It may be observed, that tion, yet it probably was planted not formerly, not only Abassinia, but all later ihan the expiration of the aposEthiopia, was subject to the Empe- totic age. Rufinus writes, that their ror; but these domains, having fallen conversion was brought about by into paganism, were lost to the em- the instrumentality of one Frumenpire; nevertheless, the title of sove. tius, in the fourth century; but this reignty is claimed by all that suc- seems a far less probable statement; ceed to the throne of Abassinia. and could I enter into the subject,

Next to the Emperor is the ample testimony might be produced Abuna, i. e. our Father, who is the in favour of an earlier date. patriarch, and sole bishop of all The Ethiopic Christians acknowAbassinia : he ordains all priests ledge the holy Scriptures to be the and deacons, appoints them to be- only rule of faith and practice. nefices, nominates the superiors of They worship one God in "Trinity, monasteries, and has an absolute They believe in the incarnation of power over the monks, who are the Son of God; and that Christ is there very numerous; he is the only perfect God and perfect man. They bishop of the Ethiopic church, but own the merits of Jesus Christ io is himself subject to the patriarch of be sufficient for eternal salvation. Alexandria in Egypt, by whom They celebrate the sacraments of he is consecrated and invested with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and the powers and title of his office. administer the latter in both kinds to clergy and laity, conformably to the and put on him a white under garcustom of all ihe eastern churches. meni, to signify purity of soul, and Finally, they use the Nicene Creed over it a red rest, in token of his sala in their liturgy, which comprises the ration purchased by the blood of fundamental articles of the Chris- Christ; and being thus initiated into tian faith.

the church of the faithful, he parAs to forms and ceremonies in takes of the holy communion. At worship, wherein all churches differ his dismissal he is presented with more or less, as well in the east as milk and honey; and the priest, laywest; in these the Ethiopian Chris. ing his hand upon his head, gives cians have prescribed for themselves, bim his benediction; “Son of bapas other churches have done, though tism, go in peace." perhaps with dess deviation from the The holy sacrament is administere principles of Christianity than is to ed in boib kinds, and is received be found in some of the western standing both by priests and people. churches.

The officiating priest administers the Circumcision is with them a na- bread, and the deacon the wine in a tional custown, and not a religious spoon.

The bread is leavened, exrite: they circumcise their children, cept on certain days of humiliation both male and female, eight days and fasting, when they use unlea after the birth; but this is not done vened bread; and the wine is prepare out of a compliance either with the ed from the stones of raisins. Jewish law, or with the practice of They observe Saturday, in rememthe ancient Judaising Christians: brance of the Creation, and solemn. they assign other reasons for it. ly keep the Christian Sabbath, or

They baptize their male children Lord's-day. Their public worship, at forty days old. and females on the which they attend once on that day, eightieth day after the birth, except continues for several hours, when in cases where there is danger of they observe the usual services prodeath. The children, it is said, are per for its solemnization, prayer, not inmmersed in the water at bap- reading the Scriptures, singing, and tism, but only dipped, or sprinkled. exhortation, or delivering a discourse

Adult baptism is perforined in the or homily. In some of their churches following manner:- The priest be. they have music, to which they sing; gins with reciting Psalm Ll., and then but their instruments and psalmody perfumes the person with incense, are not agreeable to an European and asks his name; certain other ear. What is singular among them prayers are then recited, and several is the practice of sacred dances, to parts of the body are anointed with the sound of cymbals and kettleholy oil; the priest then Jays his drums, which, they say, is in imitahand upon the head of the person, tion of David; they call it rejoicing while he renounces the devil and his before the Lord. It may be preworks, niakes his vow to Christ, and sumed, that this practice is observed rehearses the creed ; after which he more particularly on festivals. Theit is again anointed with oil. The fasts are many, and they keep them remainder of the consecrated oil is with great strictness. then poured into the baptismal wa- It is not lawful to communicate ter, when the priest descends into in private, or any where else but in the pool; and the new convert, be- the church, with an exception only ing conducted tbither by the deacons, in favour of the Emperor, when be is plunged thrice under water by receives the communion in his royal the priest, who uses the form of chapel. This office completes their words, “I baptize thee,” &c., taken divine service at all times, being adfrom Matt. ch. xxviii. 19. Atier ministered every Sunday in every baptism he is assisted by the dea- church, after the custom of the sons, who lead him out of the pool, primitive Christians.

call it also Chaldee. It is in this The Abuna is nominated by the Janguage that the holy Scriptures are Emperor, who is supreme in all ecwritten and read in their churches, clesiastical as well as civil affairs. as also their liturgies and other We may judge of the greatoess church books.

of the ecclesiastical establishment The sovereign of Abassinia is a from this, that, at one ordination, the Christian prince; and from the es. Abuna is said sometimes to ordain tent of his dominions, and the mul- ten thousand priests and five or six titude of his subjects, he claims the thousand deacons. The whole ceretitle of Emperor. It is by virtue of monyof the ordination consists in this: his profession of the Christian faith the Abuna, sitting down, repeats the that he holds the empire, and bears beginning of the Gospel over the the imperial titles. His motto is, heads of such as are made priests, Jesus, Emperor of Ethiopia, of the and gives them bis benediction with Tribe of Judah, victorious;" and this an iron cross, which he holds in is the seal of the empire, displayed his hand, weighing seven or eight by a lion holding a cross, which are pounds;—but as for the deacons, he his arms. His titles of embassy 10 fo. gives them his benediction without reign princes announce his descent, reciting the Gospel. religion, and government, in the The Ethiopic church is entitled usual forms of Oriental magnifi- to the veneration due to every Chris cence, of which we have a spe- tian church of early foundation. It cimen in letters of embassy sent to is a tradition among the AbassiPope Clement VII., and Don Ema- nians, that their empire becamt nuel, King of Portugal, as follows: Christian in the days of their cele** David the Beloved of God, Pillar brated Queen Candace, who was conof the Faith, of the blood and line verted by the Eunuch baptized by of Judah, Son of David, Son of Philip the deacon, as it is recorded in Solomon, Son of the Pillar of Sion, the Acts of the Apostles. But howSon of the Seed of Jacob, Son of the ever this may be, the constitution of Hand of Mary, Son of Nahu after their church, and the purity of its the flesh, Emperor of the Great doctrine, bear evident signs of an Ethiopia, and of all the kingdoms early original; and though it may and countries thereon depending, not have been of apostolic founda&c. &c.” It may be observed, that tion, yet it probably was planted not formerly, not only Abassinia, but all later ihan the expiration of the aposEthiopia, was subject to the Empe- totic age. Rufinus writes, that Ibeit ror; but these domains, having fallen conversion was brought about by into paganism, were lost to the em- the instrumentality of one Frumespire; nevertheless, the title of sove. tius, in the fourth century; but this reignty is claimed by all that suc- seems a far less probable statement; ceed to the throne of Abassinia. and could I enter into the subject,

Next to the Emperor is the ample testimony might be produced Abuna, i. e. our Father, who is the in favour of an earlier date. patriarch, and sole bishop of all The Ethiopic Christians acknowAbassinia : be ordains all priests ledge the holy Scriptures to be the and deacons, appoints them to be- only rule of faith and practice. nefices, nominates the superiors of They worship one God in "Trinity monasteries, and has an absolute They believe in the incarnation of power over the monks, who are the Son of God; and that Christ is chere very numerous; he is the only perfect God and perfect man. They bishop of the Ethiopic church, but own the merits of Jesus Christ to is bimself subject to the patriarch of be sufficient for eternal salvation: Alexandria in Egypt, "by whom They celebrate the sacraments of he is consecrated and invested with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and the powers and title of his office. administer the latter in both kindeta clergy and laity, conformably to the and put on him a white under garcustom of all ihe eastern churches. ment, to signify purity of soul, and Finally, they use the Nicene Creed over it a red vest, in token of bis sala in their hiturgy, which comprises the vation purchased by the blood of fundamental articles of the Chris-Christ; and being thas initiated into tian faith.

the church of the faithful, he par. As to forms and ceremonies in takes of the holy communion. At worship, wberein all churches differ his dismissal he is presented with more or less, as well in the east as milk and honey; and the priest, laywest; in these the Ethiopian Chris- ing his hand upon his head, gives tians have prescribed for themselves, bim his benediction; “Son of bapas other churches have done, though tism, go in peace." perhaps with dess deviation from the The holy sacrament is administere principles of Christianity than is to ed in both kinds, and is received be found in some of the western standing both by priests and people. churches.

The officiating priest administers the Circumcision is with them a na- bread, and the deacon the wine in a tonal custom, and not a religious spoon. The bread is leavened, exrite: they circumcise their children, cept on certain days of humiliation both male and female, eight days and fasting, when they use unleaafter the birth ; but this is not done vened bread; and the wine is preparout of a compliance either with the ed from the stones of raisins. Jewish law, or with the practice of They observe Saturday, in rememthe ancient Judaising Christians: brance of the Creation, and solemn. they assign other reasons for it. ly keep the Christian Sabbath, or

They baptize their male children Lord's-day. Their public worship, at forty days old, and females on the which they attend once on that day, eightieth day after the birth, except continues for several hours, when in cases where there is danger of they observe the usual services prodeath. The children, it is said, are per' for its solemnization, prayer, 200 inmersed in the water at bap- reading the Scriptures, singing, and tism, but only dipped, or sprinkled. exhortation, or delivering a discourse

Adult baptism is perforined in the or homily. In some of their churches following manner:-The priest be. they have music, to which they sing; gins with reciting Psalm Ll., and then but their instruments and psalmody perfumes the person with incense, are not agreeable to an European and asks his name; certain other What is singular among them prayers are then recited, and several is the practice of sacred dances, to parts of the body are anointed with the sound of cymbals and kettlekoly oil; the priest then lays his drums, which, they say, is in imitahand upon the head of the person, tion of David; they call it rejoicing while he renounces the devil and his before the Lord. It may be preworks, nakes his vow to Christ, and sumed, that this practice is observed rehearses the creed ; after which he more particularly on festivals. Their is again anointed with oil. The fasts are many, and they keep them remainder of the consecrated oil is with great strictness. then poured into the baptismal wa- It is not lawful to communicate ter, when the priest descends into in private, or any where else but in the pool; and the new convert, be. the church, with an exception only jagconducted thither by the deacons, in favour of the Emperor, when he is plunged thrice under water by receives the communion in his royal the priest, who uses the form of chapel. This office completes their words, “ I baptize thee,” &c., taken divine service at all times, being adfrom Matt. ch. xxviii. 19. After ministered every Sunday in every baptism he is assisted by the dea- church, after the custom of the sons, who lead him out of the pool, primitive Christians.

ear.

Their churches are built in the It is observed they have pictures usual form of those in the East, and in their churches, but do not allow in imitation of the Temple of Jeru. of any slatues; and bough they salem ; having a sanctuary and an have crosses, they will not suffer crea outer court. In the sanctuary stands cifixes to be used : it is counted a the holy table, set on four pillars ; heinous offence among them to carry upon which is placed the tabot, or even a picture of Christ crucified, chest with the utensils for the conse- Monks and monasteries abound crated elements; and over this is a in Abyssinia. The monks labour canopy.

hard in the fields and gardens; fast The outer court, or body of the daily till three in the afternoon; and church, resembles that of the ca- assemble for devotion at midnight, thedral churches ainongst us, and and other stated hours: they are consists of a spacious pavement, on subject to priors and superiors, who which stand the pillars that support are all appointed by the Abuna. the superstructure, or roof, and which Their monasteries are more like vil. is without pews or seats. Age and lages than the Roman convenis; infirmity compel many to lean and as the country is fertile, and where ihey can for rest; and as land is plenty, their labours procure their service continues for several them an easy support. The most hours, and no sitting is allowed, celebrated of their monasteries is most churches accommodate the that of Allelujah, which formerly weak with a sort of crutches fixed had four thousand monks, The for the purpose, wbich is also the monkish life is purely voluntary, practice among the modern Greeks. and they are allowed to decline it

As to the tabot, or holy chest, it wbenever they please. Some of is thought to be in imitation of those them are schoolmasters and tutors; used by the Christians in the ages and others, of superior ability, are of martyrdom, when, being forced preferred to civil offices, and be. to meet in caves and burying-places come principals and governors of in the night, for fear of their per provinces. "The Ethiopic clergy, secutors, they carried the sacred ele, like the Greek, are allowed to marry ments and utensils in chests made once; but on a second marriage they like a coffin, the better to escape are degraded. Marriage is forbid the notice of their cruel enemies, den the monks; nor can their chiland secure a peaceful celebra, dren be admitted to the priesthood: tion. In after times, these chests so that if they are inclined to marry, were brought into the churches, and they must quit the order of monaby degrees were made to resemble chism. a table: but the Ethiopian Chris- With respect to learning among tians alone seem to retain it in the the Ethiopians, little can be said. ancient manner, having both table They are, it seems, ignorant of other and chest, though the latter is made languages; and this, with the sain a tabular form. In other churches, ture and situation of their country, especially in the West, the table is shats them out from a free interibe altar, without a chest.

course with learned and commercial .. These Christians have so great a nations. They possess few books, veneration for their churches, as except such as concern the religion the temples of God, that, in riding and laws of their country; and these by them, they alight from their being of ancient compilation, and mules and walk a space, and then written in their ancient language, remount. When they enter, they the Ethiopic, the reading and underput off their shoes at the door; and standing of them is esteemed a connever spit upon the pavement, or siderable acquirement. It is said, commit other indecencies in or about however, that some Jesuits disca the house of worship.

vered, in one of their churches, a

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