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so also, on the other, to avoid all men are not aware what contempt childish metaphors, apish gestures, they draw on religion by their jests, and big words, and other such coarse and homely allusions, and indecencies as did not become the the silly and trivial proverbs they gravity of the function, and were make use of *. Nos should our exapt to occasion the smiles and laugh- pressions be too soft and effeminate, ter of the profane, rather than the nor our pronunciation affected and piety of the serious. And, I dare childish. Religion is a rational and say, the most protane scoffers of the manly thing, and we should strive nation were never tempted to turn to recommend it with the greatest his expressions or gestures into ri- advantage. But, above all, let us dicule. Nay, many of avowed pro- study such a zeal and fervour, as, fligate lives have been extremely flowing from the deep sense of the affected with his sernions, which thing we speak, and being regulated pricked them at their hearts; he laid with prudence and decency, may be them so open to themselves, and made fittest
' to reach the hearis of the them so sensible of their brutishe hearers. The volgar that sit under ness and danger, as they themselves the pulpit (as the excellent Herbert have acknowledged.”—To this quo- speaks) are commonly as hard and tation I subjoin a passage on the dead as the seats they sit on, and same subject from Scougal's sermon need a mountain of fire to kindle before the Synod of Aberdeen. them. The best way is to preach “ We are not to entertain our peo- the things first to ourselves, and then ple with subtile speculations, mela- frequently to recollect in whose physical niceties, perplexed notions, presence we are, and whose business and foolish questions which gender we are doing." strife; but let us speak the things Professor Scougal had a high which become sound doctrine. Let sense of the importance of true elous frequently inculcate the great and quence, which he regarded as the uncontroverted traths of our religion, most valuable accomplishment that and trouble our people no further a clergyman could possess; and for with controversy than necessity which, he used to say, he would doth require. Let us study to ac- readily exchange all the other human quaint them with the tenor of the learning of which he was master. Gospel covenant, and what they By eloquence he meant not merely must do to be saved; and to inform the graces of style and delivery, acthem of the particular duties they cording to the rules laid down by the owe both to God and man. But it masters of rhetoric (objects not unis not enough to speak these things, worthy the attention of students in to tell men what is incumbent on divinity), but the art of persuasion; them; we must besides endeavour including, in that term, the power at to excite and stir them up by the once to enlighten and convince the most powerful and effectual persua. understanding, and to warm and sions. The judgment being inform captivate the heart. No preacber ed, we must do all to influence the of his day had attained to greater affections; and this is the proper eminence in this art than Scougal use of our preaching; which, though himself; and his pupils had the sin it be over-valued by those who gular advantage of seeing their place all religion in hearing, yet master exemplify in the pulpit the certainly it is of excellent use, and rules of eloquence which he deliought to be managed with a great vered ex caihedra. He considered deal of care.
Let the matter be that there were two prime requisites weighty and grave, the method plain to constitute a pulpit orator: the one and clerr, the expression neither • A home thrust at the practice of top svaring on the one hand, nor too familiar on the other. Some good day.
many of the Presbyterian clergy of that
was, an accurate knowledge of hu- are liuly valuable. He considered man nature; and the other, a cha. it to be ihe bounden duty of a iler. racier of genuine goodness: the gyman to cultivate a personal acformer being necessary to lead his quaintance with his prople; to in: hearers to ihe acquisition of self- struct, admonish, and export them knowledge; the latier to enable him jo privale as well as in public; in to find his way to their hearts, and short, lo be instant in season and out to inspire them with a love of of scoson; otherwise, how could he holiness: and thus, per viam plane sustain the citle given in Scriptoré regiam, he guided the students to to those who minister in holy things, the temple of eloquence.
namely. watchmen over the house of The light in which Professor Israel * The sum of his counsels Scougal viewed the art of persuasion on this head was that a clergy man as connected with the pulpii, will apo should consider hiselt as the father pear by the following quoialion troin of his flock; as their instructor, ad. Dr. Gairden. “ He was sensible of viser, and guide in their most imthe little knowledge we had in the portant concerns; and that, in imiars voluntaris; how little ne under. iation of St. Paul, he should make stvou of the nature of nien's passions conscience of going from house to and inclinations, and whai things house, in order 10 communicate were inost capable of bending their knowledge to the ignoraut; to solve wills, and prevailing upon their the doubts of the weak and scrupuminds, according to their different lous; to build up the household of tempers: and accordingly, he judged faith; to administer consolation to there were iwo essential delects in the afflicted ; and to sinoo!h the bed our best kind of eloquence. The of death. • And thougo” (to use one was, that, in the meditating his own words), “the lamentable our discourses, we rather merely vastness of some of our charges considered the issues of our reason, makes it impossible to do all we and the nature of the thing we were could wish, yet must we not fail thinking of; and did not so much
to do what we can. To which reflect upon
of the per- he subjoins : “ It is an excellent sons we were to speak to, and what practice of some I have the hapkind of reasonings, words, and ex. piness to be acquainted with, pressions would make the best' im- who seldom miss a day wherein pression upon their minds; and they do not apply themseives lo therefore it was nothing sirange, sone or other of iheir people, and that words let fly at random touched trial about the attails of their them so little. The other, that our souls." hearts were not thoroughly endued An important and delicate branch with those dispositions we would of ine private duties of a parish work on others by our words; and priest is admonition and reproof. therefore it was no wonder all we in order to the successful discharge said made so little impression on
of this duty, a clergyman ought 10 them *."
possess fervent Zeal, tempered by Scougal's counsels, respecting the prudence and discretion; courage private duties of the pastoral office, and firmness, softened down by a
spirit of nierkness and love ; selfStudents in divinity would do well to knowledge, aided by some acquainta peruse what Bishop Burnet says concerning ance with ihe world ; logether with preaching, in the 9tn chapter ot his Pastoral Care, wherein are many excellent retlections Bishop Burnet, in the first chapter of on the eloquence of the pulpit in the true his Pastoral Care, beautifully illustrates the spirit of Scougal. There are many useful various cites given to ministers in Holy hints on the saine topic in Blair's Lectures Writ; namely, shepherds, slewards, ambason Rhetoric and Besles Lettres, and in Dr, sadurs, angels, rulers, walchmen, builders, Hill's Theological Institutes.
labourers, and soldiers,
that delicate address which knows No private duty of the pastoral how to consult ebe molia tempora office is áitended with greater dillifundi, and to speak
a word in due culties, or proves a source of greater season. This short sketch at once distress to a delicate and conscien. delineates the characier of Professor tious mind, than the visitation of Scougal, and contains ihe substance the sick. So Scougal felt it; and in of the maxims which he delivered enunerating the difficulties of ihe on the subject of clerical reproof. ministerial funcion, he esclaims, on He shewed how incumbent it was this head, “ U what a hard maiter it upon a minister, in administering is to deal with people that are ready reprooi, io maintain the rule over to leave the world, and step in upon his own spirit; io rebuke, as an eternity ; when their souls do, as it Apostle enjoins, with all long-suf- were, hang on their lips, and they fering; and to guard against any have one foot (as we use lo say) infusion of the bitter and unballowed already in the grave!” Some we leaven of pride, malice, and revenge, find in this awful situation, like the either in enforcing the discipline of foolish virgins, without oil in their the church, or censuring the faults lamps, and others with their lamps of his hearers in private. The folo untrimmed; some resting satisfied lowing extract may serve as a spe- with vague and general confessions cimen of his counsels on this head. of sin, without any satisfactory evi. " The greatest and most difficult dence of a broken and contrite heart, work of a minister, is in applying and others confidently relying upon himself particularly io ihe several the merits and righteousness of persons under his charge; to ac- Christ, without any signs of genuine quaint himself with their behaviour repentance or lively faith ; some and the temper of their souls; to plunged into the deepest distress, redress what is amiss, and prevent and others viewing death with an their future miscarriages. Without apathy' which is quite shocking; this private work, his other endea- while there are but few, comparativevours will do. Tiule good. Interest ly speaking, whom we find strong in and self-love will blind the eyes faith, lively in hope, and fervent in and stop the ears of men, and make love. Scougal lamented the tardithem shift off from themselves those ness of the generality in sending for admonitions from the pulpit that the 'minister, whose attendance was are displeasing; and therefore we seldomn called for till medical skill are commanded not only to teach had proved fruitless, "and then” (to and erhort, but also to rebuke with borrow his own words) "they begihe all authority; and this must be done minister lo dress their souls for nea. with a great deal of courage and ven, when their winding-sheet is eal, of prudence and discretion, of preparing, and their friends are almeekness and love. More knowing most ready to dress the body for the and ingenious persons may be dealt funeral.” He counsels ministers, in with sometimes by secret insinua- such cases, to open the nature of tions, and oblique reflections on the evafgelical repentance and faith, vices they are guilty of'; and we and cautions them against allowing may sometimes seek a way to re- any expressions to drop from them, prove their failings, by regretting which might lead the sick person, and condemning our own. But ihat on the one hand, to despair of nsercy, artífice is not necessary for the 'vul- or sooth the by-slanders, on the gar: having protested our love and other hand, in their impenitence and good intentions, it will be best to procrastination. fall roundly to the maiter*.”
Professor Scougal did not confine Sermou before the Synod of Aberdeen, himself to tlie ordinary routine of on the Importance and Difficulty of the academical duty. In full term 'he Ministerial Function,
annually delivered to the students in
divinity, a serious and alkeetionate voluminous wud extensive readings chiatge, in English *, on the weight and to emitice all opportunnies of and importance of the Christian profiting by literary conversation. niinistry ; on the teinpet, conversa- Such had been his own uniforin praca tion, and deportment, becoming can- tiee, as we leatit from the fotlowing didates for holy orders, and the passage in Dr. Gairden's sermon. course of private study which they “ He had not spent his whole time ought to pursue. Instead of that in reading, being sensible that is, proud and supercilious distance often served to dull, confuse, and which too frequently characterises prejudicate men's understandings, the higher ranks of academics, bis and make them of imperious and conduct towards tris pupils, both in dictating tempers; and therefore he public and private, was marked by made a prudent mixture, of a modeattability, gentleness, and kind con- rate reading a choice of useful books, descension. He encouraged the and consulting the living as well as students to regard bim as their friend the dead, having a singular art of and father; anxiously concerned for benefiting both himself and others their true happiness, and always by conversation and discourse : and ready freely to give them his best be digested and improved all by readvice; with which view his house tired meditations and fervent devos was open to them at all times; tion, so that his learning seemed and under his roof they might be rather the issues of his own mind said to find themselves at home. and the inspiration of the Almighty, " It was his great care,” says Dr. which teacherh knowledge. He Gairden, to make his privale loved more to study thugs than conversation with them as useful words. He did not so much read as his public; and by this, indeed, bouks, as think them; and, by » he hoped to do most good." He transient view, would quickly com took great pleasare in directing prehend the design and manner of the course of their reading; and them.” lustead of poring over the his private conversation with them ponderous tomes of expositors and was happily calculated at once to commentators, he recommended to open and enlarge their intellectual theological students to be assiduous faculties, and to captivate their and diligent in the perusal of the hearts with the beauty of holiness. sacred oracles, to make the Bible its Ite used to caution the young men own interpreter,' and to accompany against spending too much time in the reading of it with meditation and the were exercise of reading, which, prayer. when carried on incessantly without Next to the sacred oracles, the judgment and discrimination, tended books in which he most delighted, only to blunt the edge of genius, and which he most warmly recomand to weaken the energies of the mended, were the fathers of the tour mind. He recommended to them first centuries, particularly Jerome, rather to digest well a few good Ambrose, Basil, Chrysostom, and books, than to indulge a taste for Gregory Nanzianzen. He had oo
relish, as we have already observed, * Academical lectures, in those days, were for controversial writinys. He aii. given in Latin, and, indeed, at a much latered to inspire the students with a period. And the writer of these pages is taste for books of practical and exfree to confess, that he is one of those who perimental piecy. 'In his private inregret that the practice has been discontinued in our universities. There was a time when tercourses with his pupils, “ he was no one presumed inter silvas Academi
carefa (to borrow the words of Dr.
quae rere verum, who was incapable of under- Gairden) “ to take them off as mucha standing a Latin prelection. We may next as possible, from the disputing hun expect to hear of vernacular dispotations in mour, and an itch of wrangling pro the public schools.
and con, about any thing; and many
times by silence answered their im- designs and cares, he is called by pertinent quibbles." He studied bis great Master, in an hour that their disposition and temper, that we thought not of, from his sleward. he might be enabled to bring his ship here, to an higher employment counsels and admonitions home to in the other world." their business and bosoins; and he About the twenty-seventh year of told them their faults with such his age, symptoms of consumption prudence, delicacy, and modesty, appeared, which wasted bia by ihat if he failed in producing the slow degrees, and at last put an end effect he wished, he still retained to his valuable lile, on the 13th of their respect and their love. He Juoe, 1078; before he had com. cherished with the tenderest atfer. pleied the age of tweniy-eighta, tion, those students who appeared to Dr. Gairden thus speaks of his dehim to be truly pious, and earnest. portment on his death-bed: The ly desirous of serving God with their end of his life was no less Christ's, spirit in the Gospel of his Son. He than the beginning and the whole exhorted them to stir up the gift of course of it. The time of his sicke God which was in them, by frequent ness was as cheerfully spent, in sufretirement, self-communion, fasting, fering the will of God, as the former and prayer. He earnestly pressed was in doing it. He manifested the them to weigh well the motives by greatest meekness and cheerfulness which they were ioduced to aspire of spirit, throughout the whole to the holy ministry. He cautioned course of it. He used not the least them against the workings of vanity, harsh expression, either to any of ambition, or the love of popular ap- those that waited on him, or conplause; and charged them to look cerning the present providence. with a single eye to the glory of He expressed a perfect indifference, God, the service of Jesus their as to life and death, and an entice Master, and the edification of the resignation to the will of God, 10 members of his mystical body. dispose of him as he thought meet. “ Considering,” as Dr. Gairden ex. He found himself never more sensipresses himself,
“ self-will to be ble of ihe vanity of this world, nor ibe root of all our sin, and an en. ever felt more ardent acts of love to. tire resignation to the will of God God, than at that time. He was to be the very spring of all our wrapt in admiration of God's good. duty, be directed them to frequent ness to bim, and the little returns he and constant acts of self-denial and said he had made roil; and ackoow. resignation." He held up the Cross ledged his own great unworthiness, to ihe view of candidates for holy and his humble confidence in the orders; and the following saying of mercy and goodness of God, through his deserves to be recorded : “I ac- the merits of bis blessed Saviour. And, count him not worthy of the nanie thus meekly did he pass his sickness of a minister of Christ, who cannot and resign bis spirit, without any troupatiently suffer_ injury, contempt, ble from the world, or great pain of and envy.”—“Thus faithfully and body, or any anguish of mind. Mark, prudently” (to recur to the funeral the perfect man, and behold the upsermon already so ofien quoied) "did right for the end of that man is peace!” our dear friend manage his charge, To which are subjoined the followin serving the interest of his blessed ing animated reflections:-"Truly, Master; and we might have hoped if we look upon our dear friend, and confidently, ere long, that, by the consider what he hath been, what joint endeavours of his reverend he now is, and shall be to all etercolleague and himself, through the nity ; it will make us sensible how plessing of the Almighty, we should much we ought to resign ourselves rave seen another face on our to, and glority, the will of our hea. churcb; but, amidst all his pious venly Father, in bis wise disposal