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but neither father nor council presumed at gius; and whose writings not only that time, or long afterwards, to bring any illuminated the age in which he charge against Augustine, as heretical in his lived,.but served as a beacon to the sentiments
. Whatever individuals thought, solitary travellers towards Zion, duror wrote, he was never censured by publicking the succeeding ages of darkness; authority; nay, his testimony itself afterwards became great autbority, even to the Reforma- until at length they were hailed, tion; and then, it became still greater. Now like another star of Bethlehem, at this does not appear, as if he had broached the dawn of the glorious Reformanew doctrines, never before heard of: but tion, rather, as if he had recalled to men's minds, In the account of Calvinism, truths, whieh hari, in process of time, been which follows in the “Refutation," partly effaced froin their memory; but, when many errors and inaccuracies occur, ihus recalled, were at once recognised as old which Mr. Scott has pointed out: acquaintance : or ratber, that, comparing his such, for instance, as the extraordidoctrine with the body Scriptures, they diss nary assertion, that Luther, of all covered, that he had stated the true doctrine, men in the world, (to say nothing of from which they had deviated.” Vol. ii. pp Melancthon, who, however, on this 721, 722.
point entirely agreed with his great Whatever may be thought of the friend and coadjutor,) “unequivosentiments in the preceding quo- cally maintained the doctrines of tation, it is, to say the least, more universal grace, and the liberty of reasonable than ihe illiberal and the human will*, to accept or reject unworthy abuse, which foliows in the offered means of 'salvation.” the “ Refutation," of the celebrated Similar to this assertion of the BiBishop of Hippo. Augustine might shop of Lincoln, is that in which, Bot, perhaps, be entitled to the ex- with equal historical truth, he ins cessive praises which have some
forms us, that the Calvinistic doctimes been bestowed upon him, even
trines were unknown, or unnoticed, by the most competent judges; but in England, till after the return of it can scarcely be admitted, that be the refugees, during the Marian perwho, to use the words of one of the secution, from Geneva. To refute best scholars of the age *, “planned this notion, Mr. Scoli bas extracted the memorable treatise of the City of various passages from the writings God;" one of the niost valuable of Tindal, or Archbishop Craniner, works " which the piety and litera- of Ridley, and his admirable friend ture of the early Christian writers and fellow-martyr, Bradford, and have transmitted to us," was quite even of Bishop Hooper; containing “so deficient in learning," as the sentiments, which, according to the Bishop of Lincoln would have us riew taken of Calvinism by the Bishop believe t. Nor will any candid and of Lincoln, quite as decisively prove ingenuous person brand him, as
those eminent and holy men to his lordship has done, as the most have been Calvinists, as any which contradictory and inconsistent of Mr. Scott, or his brethren, have authors, ancient or modern ; be- avowed and published. cause he had the humility and the
On the subsequent history of Cal. honesty, in his later years, publicly vinism, but few remarks are neces. to retract the errors of bis early life.
sary. Much of what is urged in Surely it is not thus, that a Christian the “ Refutation," is founded on bishop ought to have spoken of gratuitous assertions, which prove this most eminent servant of God; nothing, and which might, with who was so evidently raised up to equal justice, be met by others of vindicate the doctrines of grace an opposite nature. The negalite against the pestilent heresy of Pela
* See, of course, Luther's Treatise de * Dr. Ireland.
servo Arbitrio, to wbich we have already + Augustine is termed in the Homilies, referreu, in confutation of the Bishop's " the best learned of all ancient doctors."
proof on which the Bishop lays so which were undeniably drawn up much stress, arising from the silence under the sanction of Calvin, or his of the Liturgy and the Homilies, friends and colleagues, the peculiar on the peculiar doctrines of Calvin, tenets of that reformer are stated in is resisted by Mr. Scott. He admils, much more moderate and unexcepindeed, that " redemption is never tionable terms, than occur in his declared,” in these formularies, "to own personal writings, and, in some be irrespectively partial ;' that cases, in language not differing ma“human co-operation is never ex- terially from, and often closely recluded where the influence of the sembling, that of the Articles of the Spirit is mentioned;" that “ Divine Church of England ;-and that even grace is never considered as irre- the cautious Melancthon, in comsistible or indefectible;” that “good posing, under peculiarly delicate works are never represented as un- circumstances, the Confession of necessary to salvation ;" that "sud- Augsburgh, which is frequently in. den conversions, and sensible ope- sisted on as altogether discordant rations of the Spirit, are no where from the formularies of the Calvin. acknowledged ;" what then? What istic churches, avowed doctrines, has this recapitulation of tenets which were in many important resome of which have no more con- spects the same as those of Calvin, nection even with the Calvinism of and which are now in fact stigmaCalvin, than with any other system tised by the Bishop of Lincoln, and which might be named, and of bis admirers, as peculiar to the Rewhich others exist no where but in former of Geneva. the imaginations of such writers as These valuable and interesting the Bishop of Lincoln-to do with extracts are made from the “ Cora the doctrines of original sin, of re- pus et Syntagma Confessionum;" a newal by the special grace of God, work to which we have before reand of justification by faith alone, ferred, and which, as Mr. Scott justworking by love and good works; ly observes, is well worth the study an infusion of which, undoubtedly, of all who desire fully to upderstand pervades every part of the Book of the present controversy. We corCommon Prayer and the Homilies;- dially agree with him in wishing or even with the statement of the that some competent scholar would doctrines of predestination and final give a good translation of the whole perseverance in the seventeenth work; for though long, and not parArticle, whatever particular inter- ticularly adapted to the taste of mopretation may be put upon the dern readers, it would afford those scriptural language in which these of our countrymen who are anxious two latter points are conceived ? It to become well-informed on this would be easy to enlarge on this subject, a satisfactory opportunity of important and much misrepresented judging, what preachers and writers subject; but we are admonished, by have deviated from the grand docthe lengih to which our observations trines of the Reformation, in all the have already extended, to draw to. European churches; and who have wards a conclusion.
constantly adhered to them. At the close of his work, Mr. Scott We have now conducted our has added an Appendix of trans. readers through Mr. Scou’s Remarks lations from several of the Contes- on the “ Refutation” of his Right sions of the Reformed and Lutheran Reverend diocesan : and we can Churches, lo which he especially truly assure thein, that no part of requests the careful attention of his our extensive tour through the disa Feaders. The chief object of these turbed regions of Calvinism has extracts is to shew, that even in given us such unfeigned satisfaction those Confessions of Faith, such as as its close. In fact, whatever some the Helvetic, the Gallic, and others, persons may imagine, we cordially
dislike controversy; and sincerely feeble voice could have any hope of deplore the revival of hostilities in being heard, we would earnestly, the church, which has been pro- and perseveringly raise it in the bevoked by the unseasonable and half of harmony and peace. It is ill-judged, and, we may add, ill- devoutly to be wished, that both conducted attack of the Bishop of parties would agree to look less at Lincoln, on the doctrines he has the points on which they differ; and chosen to term Calvinistic. It re- to eye more attentively and patientquires but a small share of informa. ly those on which they are united. tion on the long-contested points, Though we are perfectly satisfied, which compose what, for the pure that the doctrine of predestination pose of avoiding circumlocution, is but very rarely introduced into may be called the peculiar tenets of parochial preaching, even by those Calvin, to perceive, that no discus. clergymen who may hold it in the sion of them, with whatever learn- sepse which approaches the nearest ing or ability it may be conducted, to the Calvinistic, we cannot but can prove conclusive. This is an express our wishes that it were still object which has already baffled the more generally excluded from popuattempts of some of the wisest and lar instruction. "Repentance to best men that have ever lived; and wards God, and faith towards our we really cannot compliment the Lord Jesus Christ,” together with present age so far as to suppose, the nature, fruits, and motives of that it is reserved for any of our
Christian holiness, are points on contemporaries to effect it. It may wbich all profess to agree; and which, suit the purposes of interested ad- after all that can be urged in favour mirers, or incompetent judges, to of deeper and more mysterious docpronounce, that “the stores of eru- trines, are the subjects most necesdition” have been at length success- sary to be pressed on Christian confully exhausted in its attainment, by gregations. These are the points a living prelate; from whose real with which the far greater part of merits we are so far from wishing Scripture is occupied : and “these to detract, that we most readily als are good and profitable unto men.” low to his lordship a considerable to these, would to God that the share of praise for many parts of clergy with one heart and mind debis work. But though we have no voted their labour and care, “ warnpeculiar system to uphold, we have ing every man, and teaching every felt it to be our duty to rescue some man in all wisdom, that they may fundamental truths of our common present every man perfect in Christ Christianity from erroneous state- Jesus !” A continuation of the conment and unmerited obloquy; though troversy which has so long agitated in doing so, we doubt not, that we the church, can scarcely be proshall, from some quarters, incur the ductive of any thing better than incharge of sectarian, or rather Cal. creased irritation and division. Its vinistic partiality. We can, how. enemies may, indeed, rejoice amidst ever, confidently appeal to the whole our mutual discords; but the church course of our labours, and even to itself cannot but be a sufferer by the this very article, for a satisfactory unballowed strife. “ Disputandi reply to such an accusation. Feel. pruritus,” said the memorable John ing, as we have ever done, the vari. Hales. “ scabies ecclesiae"-a sentious evils of controversy and division ment deservedly inscribed on the in the church, we have uniformly comb-stone of its author, and wordiscouraged, to the utmost of our thy of being held in lively and perpower, the continuance of theologi. petual remembrance. We earnestly cal debates. And, if amidst the wish, that its “ warning voice" din of that spiritual warfare, which may be listened to by all ranks and is still resounding amongst us, our orders of men in the church-that instead of “ refutations” of doc- Scott's laborious work to such of trines, which, as every impartial our readers as feel interested in these and well-informed person must ac
discussions. Notwithstanding its knowledge, imperiously call for formidable appearance, it will amply correction and remark, episcopal repay those who are willing to unanimadversion and rebuke may be dertake and patiently to pursue its directed to what is manifestly erro. perusal. If it does not afford, what neous in doctrine, and corrupt in cannot be expected from any huconduct, amongst the ministers and man performance, a satisfactory sumembers of the church; and episco- lution of the difficulties which must pal countenance and support be be- ever attend some of the subjects of stowed indiscriminately on all, who, which it treats, it will be found to with whatever differences of senti- contain a large and valuable mass of ment on points of allowed difficulty observations on other most importand debate, conscientiously and dili- ant theological topics; and will, at gently “ do the work of evange- least, leave on the mind of every unlists, and make that "full proof of prejudiced reader, a strong impression their ministry” which shall alone, of the extensive scriptural know“ when the chief Shepherd shall ledge, the controversial ability, and, appear,” be rewarded with “ the what is far more estimable than any crown of glory that fadeth not other qualities or attainments, the away.”
Christian moderation and charity, We cannot, however, conclude and the mature and vigorous piety, this long-extended article, without of its author. recommending the study of Mr.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
Lyon, B. A. of Trinity: The English decla In the press: Elements of Agricultural mation prizes at Trinity, to Messrs. KenChemistry, by Sir H. Davy, illustrated with dersley, Elliott, and Ingle; and the Latin plates ; — Theological Disquisitions on the declamation prizes, to Messrs. C. Musgrave characteristic Excellences of the Jewish and Sumner. Dispensation, by Dr. Cogan;---England sale By the Report of the Committee of Agriand triumphani; or Researches into the culture, it appears that the total amount of Apocalyptic little Book, by the Rev. F. Waste Lands, in the United Kingdom, is as Thurston ;--and, The Poetical Register for follows:-England, above six millions of acres; 1809.
Wales, two; and Scotland about fourteen. Preparing for publication: A work on It is said, that salted bacon, and musalted Persia, by Mr. J. Malcolm ;- A History of beef or mutton, and other kinds of animal England since the Revolution, intended as a food, when too long kept, or improperly Continuation to Hume, by Sir Janies Mackin- cured, 90 as to be tainted with putridily, tosh ;
-and, The Remains of the late Pro- may be perfectly recovered, or rendered lessor Purson, arranged and digested by quite sweet, by being buried in fresh earth, Professor Monk and Mr. Blomfield.
a foot deep, for a few days.
The canker io the stems and branches of At Cambridge, the following prizes have this apple trees may, it is said, be cured, merely year been adjudged, viz. Sir W. Brown's gold by listing the trees in October or November, medals--Latin ode, M. Lawson, St. John's; planting them again above the land's level, Greek ode, John Tyass, of Trinity: The upon lille bills of common road-şand, taken Members' prizes for senior bachelors, to Mr. from the scraped heaps by the bighway side. T. Musgrave and Mr. J. Aslıbridge, of Trini. No other application is wanted for the ty; for middle bachelors, to Mr. J.W.Evans, cankered holes in the stem-rub the roadof Trinity, and Mr. E. Blomfield, of sand into the wounds, after cutting out all Emanuel: The Norrisian prize, to Mr. C. J. the black. Branches must be cut away to Curist. Ossery. No. 128.
sound wood; and, if you reduce the tree to a horses, by Mr. Blenkinsop, agent of J. C. mere post, a new head will quickly shoot forth. Brandling, Esq., at Middleton, near Leeds.
Among the inventions for which prizes It has been set to work in conveying coals have lately been given by the Society of fronHunsley Moor to the coal staith, about Arts, are the following, viz. :-To Mr. M. a mile and a half, and draws eighi waggons Cook, Winchester Row, Paddington, for a of coals, of three tons each, that distance in machine by which blind people may both 25 minutes. It will save Mr. Brandling the learn and teach music; to Mr. Machell, use of 50 borses. Wolsingham, near Durham, for an annular The Abbé Romanelli has visited, lately, saw, which can cut deeper than its centre; all the catacombs which surround Naples. to Dr. Cumming, Denbigh, for a cheap va. He likewise entered the subterranevus caverns pour, or shower bath, for hospitals or fami- of the church of St. Janvier; and, assisted by lies; to Mr. Guss, of Entield, for an instru- a guide, explored them to the extent of two went to work addition of numbers with ac- miles and a half, in the midst of human curacy and dispatch; to Mr. Perry, of Farn- ashes, broken coffins, skeletons, aud ruins. ham, for an instrument to form ihe band in He belield, on all sides, Greek inscriptions, writing; to Mr. Hudge, Bride Lane, for a sculptured upon stone or marble; and paintmode of preserving butter from becoming ings of Christians who had suffered martyr. rancid in bot weather or hot climates; to dom. He also noticed the remains of some Mr. Davies, Catherine Street, Strand, for a allars, the tombs of the first Neapolitan cheap and safe temporary scaffolding; to bishops, and one catacomb, the inscriptions Mr. Bowler, Holborn Hill, for a mechanical on which recorded the ravages of pestilence method of destroying rats and other vermin; in Naples, 1020. to Mr. Sampson, Great Wild Street, for a new Mr. Price, a gentleman attached to our chain; to Mr. J. Martin, Fleet Street, for a Persian embassy, is said to have made draw. method of relieving a horse fallen down in ings on the spot, of every town, village, the shafts of a loaded cart; to Mr. Ritchie, castle, ruin, mountain of note, &c., during Princes Street, Clerkenwell, for a compensa- the whole route from the Persian Gulf to tion pendulum, to prevent the going of a Tehran, the Persian capital; and to have clock from varying by heat and cold; and made panoramic views of Shiraz, Persepolis, to Mr. J. King, Mulberry Court, near the Ispaban, Kashan, Kom, and Tehran; giving Bank, for a machine to enable shoemakers the costumes of the people, &c. : so that ou to work without pressure on the breast and his return to England, the public may expect stomach.
to be gratified with the fruits of his labour A steam engine has lutely been invented through this extensive and interesting tract for conveying coals, or other articles, without of country, hitherto so little known in Europe.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Martyrs, or the Triumph of the Christian A Sermon, preached March 17, 1812, Religion. By M. Chateaubriand. Transbefore the Reading and Berkshire Auxiliary lated from the French by W. J. Walter. British and Foreign Bible Society. By the 2 vols, 8vo. 21s. Rev. W. Marsh, M & Vicar of Basildon, Sermons. By Bishop Ilorsley. Vol. III. Berks. 25. 6d.
8vo. 10s. Essays on the Prophecies of the Messiah, Bamplon Lectures, delivered before the from Genesis 10 the Psalms of David. By University of Oxford in 1812. By the Rev. the Rev. J. Robinson. One thick volume J. Mant.
12s. 8vo, 12s, boards.
Remarks on the present State of Religion Social Virtue the Basis of National Pros. and Morality. 60. perity: an Address delivered at Salem Recovery from Sickness; containing seri. Chapel, Lynn. By Thomas Finch. 1s. ous Reflections, Resolutions, and Devotions,
Scriptural Christianity Recommended : a suitable to that Occasion. By M. Towgood Sermon preached at the New Chapel, Lyno. 4th edition. 6d. By Thomas Finch. 28.
Sermon before the Hon. Society of LinAn Inquiry into the Moral Tendency of coln's Inn, May 31, 1812. By the Rev. J. Methodism and Evangelical Preaching. By Van Mildert. 23. William Burns. The second Part. 8vo. 4s. The beneficial Influence of Christianity on
Brief Rules for the Holy Communion, and the Character and Condition of the Female Behaviour at and after it. 4d.
Sex: a Sermon preached April 8, 1819. Serious Enquiry into the Nature and Ef- By Robert Aspland. 1s. 6d. fects of modern Socinianism By W.Freeston. Family Sermons for every Sunday in the Is. 6d,
Year, and for Christmas-day and Good-Fri