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already extended our notice of this them, or even for the recapitulation -controversy to an unusual length, we of the points on which he considers shall content ourselves with a brief the Church of England as differing summary of Mr. Scott's remarks on from that Reforiner. We have, howthis chapter. We must, however, ever, already briefly alluded to them -premise, what every candid and in- above. telligent reader will naturally expect,
The Lambeth Articles are next in.that there is much, even in these troduced by the Bishop of Lincoln, quotations from Calvin, which coin for the purpose of heightening the cides with the Articles of our church, prejudice against Calvinism, by this except as their literal and gram- harsh statement of its peculiar tenets. matical meaning is explained away With articles, however, confessedly by such interpreters as the Bishop drawn up without due authority, of Lincoln; and, what is still more and to which no subscription has to the point, much, also, which is ever been required, Mr. Scott obequally held by many pious and serves, that unless all the faults judicious Anti-Calvinists.
committed by men called Calvinists, But amidst this partial agreement are to be imputed to those who in between the creed of Calvin and that the present day are so named by of Mr. Scott, and many others of his their opponents, however free they brethren in the Church of England may be from imitating them, he who differ from him on the doctrines cannot perceive that we have any peculiar to Calvinism, the author more concern than with the decrees before us distinctly and repeatedly of the Conncil of Trent. The Evan. adınits, that the great Reformer in gelical Clergy, he asserts, do not question is unscriptural, and highly wish for any change in the Thirtyobjectionable in his statement of nine Articles, or for any addition to various points-more particularly in them, but rejoice in the failure of that of the doctrine of reprobation; any attempts at innovation, from that in his speculations concerning whatsoever quarter, saying of the the foreknowledge of God, and in Articles as they now stand, “ Estote speaking of his absolute will, he perpetui.” uses language on these deep and But if this be the case with the awful subjects not to be found in Lambeth Articles, how much more Scriplure; that he is too metaphy. so is it with respect to those of the sical, sometimes obscure, frequent- Synod of Dort, which appear to be ly employing harsh and exception. brought in as a sort of climax in the able terms, and indulging in intri- representation of Calvinism - the cate and perplexed reasonings. On ne plus ultra of dogmatical rigour the expression which has excited and absurdity. We should not, on so much popular clamour against this account, have deemed this part Calvin — horribile decretum”. of the Bishop's work at all worthy of Mr. Scott observes, as every
candid being noticed, but for one remark. and well-informed Anti-calvinist will able circumstance, which is of great also do, that it is simply synonimous importance in this whole discussion, with the English word “awful,” or as it tends to shew the degree of re."' tremendous ;" and may, with equalliance which is to be placed on the justice, be applied to the sentence accuracy of his lordship’s informaof condemnation which will be pro- tion. The Articles of the Synod of nounced on the wicked at the last Dort, are given in the “ Refutation day.
of Calvinism,” from Heylin's QuinMany of Mr. Scott's remarks on quarticular History,who quotes them the quotations from Calvin, are de- as abbreviated by Daniel Tilenus, serving of much attention ; but we Of Heylin, after the frequent concannot, at this advanced period of victions of his prejudice, and inaccuqur Review, find room for any of racy, which have already appeared
CHRIST. OBSERY. No. 128.
in our pages, we need not say any tinatione," the following words: “Est thing: and Daniel Tilenus, be it autem electio immutabile Dei proknown to our uninformed readers, if positum, quo ante jaeta mundi fanany such there be, bad once been a damenta ex universo genere bumano, Calvinist, but afterwards renounced ex primævâ integritate in peccatum his opinions; and, though a man of et exitium suâ culpâ prolapso, selearning, possessed all the zeal a- cundum liberrimum voluntatis suæ gainst the tenets of his former as- beneplacitum, ex merâ gratiâ cersociates which usually characterises tam quorundam hominum MULTITUDIsuch a change of sentiment. From NEM! (“a very small number of men!) the manner in which
aliis nec meliorum, nec digniorum, tended abridgment of the Articles sed in communi miseriâ cum aliis of the Synod of Dort is mentioned jacentium, ad salutein elegit in by the Bishop of Lincoln, a com
Christo."--This is, we think, a pretty mon reader would at least suppose, fair specimen of the dependence that it contained something like an
which is to be placed on the repreadequate statement of the doctrines sentations of the Calvinistic doctrine which they embrace, and in the very by Tilenus and his copyists. But 10 words of those articles. It may not, proceed: at the close of this first therefore, be useless to premise, that article, as thus abbreviated, and whereas the articles themselves OC- adopted in the Refutation, it is ascupy many pages, this abridgment serted, that the reprobate are apby Tilenus is comprised even in a pointed, by the Divine decree, "to smaller number of lines. But to eternal damnation, without any reproceed to the correctness of his gard to tkeir infidelity or impeniadopted abbreviation:
tency." Here, again, Mr. Scott, 1. According to Tilenus, as quot- justly complains of the harshness ed by the Bishop of Lincoln from and unscriptural tenor of this docHeylin, the first article declares, trine, as he had before done as to that “God, by an absolute decree, the sentiment of Calvin upon that hath elected, to salvation, a very point which was really of this kind; small number of men:” on whicń and quotes several passages from strange assertion, Mr. Scott, with the letters of Bishop Hall, one of a perfect reliance on the accuracy the English delegates to the Synod of the Right Reverend Refuter of of Dort, to some of its most disCalvinism, indignantly exclaims, tinguished members, in which that "Who informed these presumptuó great prelate condemns thal view of ous dogmatists, that the elect were this awful subject; but, in which, only a very small number of though this appears to bave escaped
Who, indeed! A pre- Mr. Scott's notice, he also refers to vious question, however, happily for the words of the Synod, as declaring, these poor Duteh theologians, must what, indeed, it does most express. be asked of their accusers, which is ly, that “the decree of eternal nothing more nor less than this, punishment is not irrespective, but Where, in the Articles of the Synod on account, of the unbelief, and other of Dort, is this notable declaration to sins, of the reprobate.” Of this let be found ?
On turning to the our readers judge by the following “ Canones Synodi Dordrechtanæ," extract from the 15th clause of the as contained in the “ Sylloge Con- first canon. Speaking of the nonfessionum," published in the year elect, it declares it to have been the 1804, from the Clarendon press*, Divine decree : "in communi misewe find, in the 7th clause of ihe first riâ, in quam se suâ culpâ præcipilahead of doctrine, “de Divinâ Prædes. runt, relinquere, nec salvificâ fide et
conversionis gratiâ donare, sed in See a Review of this work in our 4tá viis suis, et sub justo judicio relictos,
Landem non tantum propter infidelito.
tem, sed etiam cætera omnia peccata, absurd and blasphemous. But will ad declarationem justitiæ suæ dani- our readers believe us, when we nare, et æteroum punire."
solemnly assure them, that there is Let it here be observed, that we not one word of all this in the third are not defending or approving, even or fourth' oanons of the synod of Dort, this moderated statement of the tre- (for the two are united), nor any mendous doctrine in question; but ihing at all resembling it, but, for the simply, for the sake of truth and jus- most part, an expanded statement of tice, rescuing the declarations of a the doctrine contained in the ninth profoundly learned, thongh for the and tenth articles of our church? most part, intemperate body of di. The fact is almost incredible; but vines, from unmerited reproach and we only beg leave to refer to the obloquy; as well as to abate the canons themselves, in confirmation confidence which is so generally re
of the truth of our statement. But posed in the statements of the Right we have not yet done. The next Reverend author of the “Refutation.” article is thus expressed in the ReNotwithstanding, therefore, our ap- futation. prehensions of being thought dull “Of the manner of conversion. That and tedious, we must still proceed. God, to save his elect from the corThe second article of this famous rupt mass, doth beget faith in them synod is thus stated by the Bishop by a power equal to that whereby of Lincoln from the sources before he created the world, and raised up referred to.
the dead," with the exception of “ of the merit and effect of Christ's the first words as to the corrupt mass! death. That Jesus Christ hath not something like what follows is to be suffered death for any other, but for found in the fourth canon ; but not those elect only: having neither had in the crude and clumsy form to any interest nor commandment of which it is reduced by Daniel Tilehis Father, to make satisfaction for pus; and is evidently derived from the sins of the whole world.” So a scriptural source, (Epbes. i. '19, 20. far Tilenus. But what says the ii. 1-5. iii. 20.) Put the remainsynod itself? The third clause of der of the sentence, viz. “insomuch, the second canon is as follows, “ Hæc that such, unto whom he gives that mora Filii Dei est unica et perfec- grace, cannot reject it, and the rest, tissima pro peccatis victima et satis- being reprobate, cannot accept it," factio, infiniti valoris et pretii, abunde labours under the unfortunate obsufficiens ad totius mundi peccata ex- jection we were compelled to urge pianda." It is true, that the effica- against the whole third article, viz. cy of the death of Christ is after that not one word of it is contained in wards restrained to believers, who the original caron. are declared to be the elect only ;
Once more : « Of the certainty of but even this does not reduce the final perseverance.
That such as doctrine to the particular and limited have once received that grace by redemption expressed in the “Re- faith, can never fall from it finally futation.” But let us go on. or totally, notwithstanding the most
The third article is thus staled in enormous sins they can commit.” the Bishop's work: “Of man's will in “ The perseverance of the saints” the state of rature. That by Adam's is undoubtedly asserted in the fifth fall, his posterity lost their free-will, canon of the synod of Dort; not, howbeing put to an unavoidable neces- ever, in the manner in which it is sity to do, or not to do, whatsoever thus stated in the Bishop of Lio. they do, or do not, whether it be coln's work, but with a considerable good or evil; being thereunto pre. degree of humility and caution, and destinated by the eternal and effec. in a strain of great piety. Though tal secret decree of God." This is, very far from subscribing to the it must be confessed, sufficiently tenets of this celebrated assembly, we earnestly recommend to our from the Scriptures, and the Articles Jearned readers, a careful perusal of of the Church of England. That he its decisions. It will at least serve and his brethren do not say, “ that to convince them, with what hesita- Calvinism is not to be judged of by tion the representation of the Cal- the doctrines of Calvin;" but that vinistic doctrines, by some of their their doctrines are to be judged of opponents, is to be received by all by the word of God, and, as minise' calm and unprejudiced inquirers. ters of the establishment, by the au
The Bishop of Lincoln, however, thorised formularies of the church, trusting, as he well might, had it and not by the writings of Calvin. been a correct likeness, to the ab- Mr. Scott very properly exposes the surd and revolting picture of the fallacy of the notion on which the Bidoctrine he was opposing, trium- shop of Lincoln builds so much of his phantly exclaims, as if anticipating declamatory argument, that if a man its rejection, with contempt and ab- embrace one doctrine, which haphorrence, by all who contemplated pens to form a part of Calvin's sys. its deformed and rugged features, tem, he must be forced against his • Such is Calvinism! and it is in its judgment, conscience, and avowed nature so inconsistent with the attri- principles, to embrace the whole; afbutes of God, so contrary to the ex- firming, that consistency is not so much press declarations of Scripture, and his object, and that of his brethren, so' repugnant to the feelings of the as truth, wheresoever found, and by human mind, that it seems only ne- whomsoever upbeld; and closes his cessary to slate the system simply remarks on this chapter by a farand fully in all its parts and conse
ther quotation from Bishop Horsley, quences to insure its rejection by which, as we observed of a former every unprejudiced person." one, can scarcely be too often re
To this declaration, Mr. Scott, peated; and the close of which is replies, that “ such is not Calvi- so literally applicable to the contro. nism ;" and we certainly agree, that versy now unhappily raging in the such Calvinism is not to be disco- church, that it might almost seem to vered, either in the writings of Cal- have been dictated by a prophetic vin, in the decisions of the synod of spirit. Dort, or in the representations of «« Ifever you should be provoked to take any modern advocate of that system, a part in these disputes, of all things I entreat with which, as Heylin modestly ex. you to avoid, what is now become very compresses himself, we have met "with- mon, acrimonious abuse of Calvinisni and of in the small compass of our read
Calvin. Remember, I beseech you, that some ing." To the charge which the
tenderness is due to the errors and extravaBishop at the close of his seventh
gancies of a man, eminent as he was in his chapter, brings against modern Cal- day, for his piety, his wisdom, and his learnvinists of being ashamed or afraid of beginning, was so much indebted. At least
ing; and to whom the Reformation, in its openly avowing the doctrines they
take especial care, before you aiın your shafts really support, Mr. Scott firmly, but
at Calvinism, that you know what is Cal. calmly replies, that he knows no- vinism, and what is not; that, in that mass thing of reserves, and has ever avow- of doctrine, which it is of late become the ed in the plainest terms all that he fashion 10 abuse under the name of Calvinism, believes. He disclaims the title of you can distinguish, with certainty, bei ween “Master," as applied in the “Re- that part of it, which is nothing better than futation," to Calvin; deolaring, that Calvinismı, and that which belongs to our he was as much what is called a
common Christianity, and the general faith Calvinist , as he is at present, before of the reformed churches : lest
, when you he ever read one line of Calvin or
mean only to fall foul of Calvinism, you Augustine, or Beza, or almost of any cred, and of a higher origin. I must say,
should unwarily attack something more saCalvinism, except that, which he that I have found a great want of this disconsiders himself as having drawn crimination in some late controversial writ
ings, on the side of the church, as they were Moses and the Prophets; the quesmeant to be, against the Methodists: the au- tion, as far as the New Testament is thors of which have acquired much applause concerned, having been before met and reputation, but with so littie real know- and debated. The unbappy manner ledge of their subject, that, give me the principles upon which these writers argue: confounded with Calvinism those
in which the Bishop of Lincoln has and I will undertake to convict, I will not say Arminians only, and archbishop Laud; grand, essential, and fundamental but, upon these principles, I will undertake doctrines of the Christian religion, to convict the fathers of the council of Trent original sin, justification by grace of Calvinism. So closely is a great part of through faith, and sanctification by that which is now ignorantly called Cal- the Holy Spirit, has here given bis vinism, interwoven with the very rudiments, opponents an advantage, which of Christianity. Better were it for the church, they might not otherwise bave bad. is such apologists would withhold their ser Adopting his lordship's view of vices.
Calvinism, they are able to prove, Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis.
that many of its tenets are interBut the true lesson to be drawn from the failure of such disputants, is, that it is not
woven with every part of Revelation. for every one, who may possess somewhat And if his lordship's definition of more than the ordinary share of learning, to
Calvinism should be received, we meddle with these difficult subjects.'*" Vol. greatly fear that the effect will be, ii. pp. 699-701
that every man who adheres to the
Bible, and to the Articles, Liturgy, We congratulate ourselves, and and Homilies of the Church of Engour readers, on having at length ar- land, will be converted, nolens, vorived within view of the termina lens, into a Calvinist. In fine, if we tion of our long journey. The eighth were to name the work which, above chapter of the “Refutation,'
all others, had contributed to raise which Mr. Scott continues his Re. Calvinism into credit, and that at the marks, contains “a brief historical account of what are now called Cal- the system were silently sinking
moment when the peculiarities of vinistic doctrines." Here we have
out of view, we should name “the first a repetition of the absurd at. Refutation" of Calvinism by the Bitempt to identify the blasphemies of shop of Lincolo. We shall insert a Simon Magus and his Helena, and few general remarks of Mr. Scott the impure ravings of the Valenti
on the bistorical account. nians and Manichæans, with the sen
“ I shall not bestow pains in disproving the timents of Calvin. And this, it
fact, that the fathers, till the time of Augusseems, is 'to be dignified with the tine, were not engaged in controversies on name of History! We are then car
these subjects; or that many of them were, ried on to the first four centuries of
so to speak, Anti-calvinistic, in several parthe Christian era, during which, as ticulars. But a few hints may be dropt ou we have ourselves observed, though this subject. with a different view, the peace of “1. Augustine expressly says, that the fathe church seems to have been
Procul dubio noverant little disturbed on the Calvinistic of predestination. points. Before, however, he notices prædestinationem.'
“ 2. Wben Pelagius bronght forward his this part of the Bishop's historical
sentiments, against original sin, and for free statement, Mr. Scott takes the liber- will, in the sense of modern Anti-calvinists; ty of beginning the history of Cal- and Augustine answered him, the church vinism ; including in that term, all in general condemned the tenets of Pelagius the doctrines attacked under that as heretical, and that sentence was never re. name in the "
Refutation ;" long versed. before the days either of Calvin or “ 3. When Augustine brought forward bis Augustine, even from the times of doctrines, the substance of modern Calvinism;
many seem to have been convinced, that “* Bp. Horsley's last charge to the clergy they had kept back part of the truth, and of the diocese of St. Asaph,"
had spoken iucautiously on some subjects :